Platelet rich concentrate (PRC) is a natural adjuvant that aids in human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) proliferation in vitro; however, its role requires further exploration. This study was conducted to determine the optimal concentration of PRC required for achieving the maximal proliferation, and the need for activating the platelets to achieve this effect, and if PRC could independently induce early differentiation of hMSC. The gene expression of markers for osteocytes (ALP, RUNX2), chondrocytes (SOX9, COL2A1), and adipocytes (PPAR-γ) was determined at each time point in hMSC treated with 15% activated and nonactivated PRC since maximal proliferative effect was achieved at this concentration. The isolated PRC had approximately fourfold higher platelet count than whole blood. There was no significant difference in hMSC proliferation between the activated and nonactivated PRC. Only RUNX2 and SOX9 genes were upregulated throughout the 8 days. However, protein expression study showed formation of oil globules from day 4, significant increase in ALP at days 6 and 8 (P ≤ 0.05), and increased glycosaminoglycan levels at all time points (P < 0.05), suggesting the early differentiation of hMSC into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This study demonstrates that the use of PRC increased hMSC proliferation and induced early differentiation of hMSC into multiple mesenchymal lineages, without preactivation or addition of differentiation medium.
Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia) is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activates gpiibiiia and P2Y12, causing platelet aggregation and thrombus stabilization during blood loss. Chitosan biomaterials were found to promote surface induced hemostasis and were capable of activating blood coagulation cascades by enhancing platelet aggregation. Our current findings show that the activation of the gpiibiiia complex and the major ADP receptor P2Y12 is required for platelet aggregation to reach hemostasis following the adherence of various concentrations of chitosan biomaterials [7% N,O-carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) with 0.45 mL collagen, 8% NO-CMC, oligochitosan (O-C), and oligochitosan 53 (O-C 53)]. We studied gpiibiiia and P2Y12 through flow cytometric analysis and western blotting techniques. The highest expression of gpiibiiia was observed with Lyostypt (74.3 ± 7.82%), followed by O-C (65.5 ± 7.17%). Lyostypt and O-C resulted in gpiibiiia expression increases of 29.2% and 13.9%, respectively, compared with blood alone. Western blot analysis revealed that only O-C 53 upregulated the expression of P2Y12 (1.12 ± 0.03-fold) compared with blood alone. Our findings suggest that the regulation of gpiibiiia and P2Y12 levels could be clinically useful to activate platelets to reach hemostasis. Further, we show that the novel oligochitosan is able to induce the increased expression of gpiibiiia and P2Y12, thus accelerating platelet aggregation in vitro.
Nephrotic syndrome is often associated with a hypercoagulable state and thrombotic complications. Thrombosis may be due to a number of abnormalities in blood, including AT III deficiency, increased concentrations of fibrinogen, factors V and VIII, and platelet hyperaggregability. The therapeutic approach to thrombosis in nephrotic syndrome is the use of anticoagulants as a preventive measure or an attempt at thrombolysis with streptokinase, urokinase, or stanozolol.
Flavonoids exert innumerable beneficial effects on cardiovascular health including the reduction of platelet activation, and thereby, thrombosis. Hence, flavonoids are deemed to be a molecular template for the design of novel therapeutic agents for various diseases including thrombotic conditions. However, the structure-activity relationships of flavonoids with platelets is not fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to advance the current knowledge on structure-activity relationships of flavonoids through a systematic analysis of structurally-related flavones. Here, we investigated a panel of 16 synthetic flavones containing hydroxy or methoxy groups at C-7,8 positions on the A-ring, with a phenyl group or its bioisosteres as the B-ring, along with their thio analogues possessing a sulfur molecule at the 4th carbon position of the C-ring. The antiplatelet efficacies of these compounds were analysed using human isolated platelets upon activation with cross-linked collagen-related peptide by optical aggregometry. The results demonstrate that the hydroxyl groups in flavonoids are important for optimum platelet inhibitory activities. In addition, the 4-C=O and B ring phenyl groups are less critical for the antiplatelet activity of these flavonoids. This structure-activity relationship of flavonoids with the modulation of platelet function may guide the design, optimisation and development of flavonoid scaffolds as antiplatelet agents.
Hydroxyapatite is an ideal biomaterial for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and hemocompatibility which have been widely studied by many researchers. The incorporation of nanoporosity into hydroxyapatite could transform the biomaterial into an effective adsorbent for uremic toxins removal especially in artificial kidney system. However, the effect of nanoporosity incorporation on the hemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite has yet to be answered. In this study, nanoporous hydroxyapatite was synthesized using hydrothermal technique and its hemocompatibility was determined. Non-ionic surfactants were used as soft templates to create porosity in the hydroxyapatite. The presence of pure hydroxyapatite phase in the synthesized samples is validated by X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The TEM images show that the hydroxyapatite formed rod-like particles with the length of 21-90 nm and diameter of 11-70 nm. The hydroxyapatite samples exhibit BET surface area of 33-45 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.35-0.44 cm3 g-1. The hemocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite was determined via hemolysis test, platelet adhesion, platelet activation and blood clotting time measurement. The nanoporous hydroxyapatite shows less than 5% hemolysis, suggesting that the sample is highly hemocompatible. There is no activation and morphological change observed on the platelets adhered onto the hydroxyapatite. The blood clotting time demonstrates that the blood incubated with the hydroxyapatite did not coagulate. This study summarizes that the synthesized nanoporous hydroxyapatite is a highly hemocompatible biomaterial and could potentially be utilized in biomedical applications.
The pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria (CM) is not well understood, in part because data from patients in whom a clinical diagnosis was established prior to death are rare. In a murine CM model, platelets accumulate in brain microvasculature, and antiplatelet therapy can improve outcome. We determined whether platelets are also found in cerebral vessels in human CM, and we performed immunohistopathology for platelet-specific glycoprotein, GPIIb-IIIa, on tissue from multiple brain sites in Malawian children whose fatal illness was severe malarial anemia, CM, or nonmalarial encephalopathy. Platelets were observed in 3 locations within microvessels: between malaria pigment and leukocytes, associated with malaria pigment, or alone. The mean surface area of platelet staining and the proportion of vessels showing platelet accumulation were significantly higher in patients with CM than in those without it. Platelet accumulation occurs in the microvasculature of patients with CM and may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Ten compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Kaempferia rotunda Linn. (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated for their platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonistic activities on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, four compounds showed significant inhibitory effects. Alpinetin and 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica exhibited IC50 values of 41.6 and 59.3 microM, respectively. The IC50 values of 3-deacetylcrotepoxide and 2-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from K. rotunda were 45.6 and 57.4 microM, respectively. 1-Methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-benzene, synthesized by methylation of xanthorrhizol which was obtained from C. xanthorrhiza, showed an IC50 value of 40.9 microM. The results indicated that these compounds were relatively strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.