RESULTS: The PTV, hippocampus and hippocampal avoidance volumes ranges between 1.00 - 39.00 cc., 2.50 - 5.30 cc and 26.47 - 36.30 cc respectively. The mean hippocampus dose for the HSWBRT and HSWBRT and SIB plans was 8.06 Gy and 12.47 respectively. The max dose of optic nerve, optic chiasm and brainstem were kept below acceptable range of 37.5 Gy.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this dosimetric study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of treating limited brain metastases with HSWBRT and SIB. It is possible to achieve the best of both worlds by combining HSWBRT and SIB to achieve maximal local intracranial control while maintaining as low a dose as possible to the hippocampus thereby preserving memory and quality of life.
METHODS: Miri General Hospital is a remote center in Sarawak, Malaysia, serving a population with difficult access to neurosurgical services. Two neurosurgeons were stationed here on a rotational basis every fortnight during the pandemic to handle neurosurgical cases. Patients were triaged depending on their urgent needs for surgery or transfer to a neurosurgical center and managed accordingly. All patients were screened for potential risk of contracting COVID-19 prior to the surgery. Based on this, the level of personal protective equipment required for the health care workers involved was determined.
RESULTS: During the initial 6 weeks of the Movement Control Order in Malaysia, there were 50 urgent neurosurgical consultations. Twenty patients (40%) required emergency surgery or intervention. There were 9 vascular (45%), 5 trauma (25%), 4 tumor (20%), and 2 hydrocephalus cases (10%). Eighteen patients were operated at Miri General Hospital, among whom 17 (94.4%) survived. Ninety percent of anticipated transfers were avoided. None of the medical staff acquired COVID-19.
CONCLUSIONS: This framework allowed timely intervention for neurosurgical emergencies (within a safe limit), minimized transfer, and enabled uninterrupted neurosurgical services at a remote center with difficult access to neurosurgical care during a pandemic.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 22 cases of glioma diagnosed intraoperatively from January 2013 until August 2019 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The selected tissues were processed for cytology smear and frozen section. The remaining tissues were proceeded for paraffin section. The diagnosis was categorized as either low-grade or high-grade glioma based on cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, microvascular proliferation and necrosis. The sensitivity and specificity of frozen section and cytology smears were determined based on paraffin section being as the gold standard. The accuracy of both techniques was compared using statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology smear were 100% and 76.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity of frozen section were 100% and 84.6%. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between cytology smear and frozen section in glioma (p>0.05).
CONCLUSION: Cytology smears provides an alternative method for frozen section due to good cellularity and morphology on smear. Cytology smear is rapid, inexpensive, small amount of tissue requirement and less technical demand. This finding may benefit to the hospital or treatment centres where frozen section facility is unavailable.