In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
A continuous increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is causing serious threats to the environment and life on the earth, and CO2 is one of the major candidates. Reducing the excess CO2 by converting into industrial products could be beneficial for the environment and also boost up industrial growth. In particular, the conversion of CO2 into methanol is very beneficial as it is cheaper to produce from biomass, less inflammable, and advantageous to many industries. Application of various plants, algae, and microbial enzymes to recycle the CO2 and using these enzymes separately along with CO2-phillic materials and chemicals can be a sustainable solution to reduce the global carbon footprint. Materials such as MOFs, porphyrins, and nanomaterials are also used widely for CO2 absorption and conversion into methanol. Thus, a combination of enzymes and materials which convert the CO2 into methanol could energize the CO2 utilization. The CO2 to methanol conversion utilizes carbon better than the conventional syngas and the reaction yields fewer by-products. The methanol produced can further be utilized as a clean-burning fuel, in pharmaceuticals, automobiles and as a general solvent in various industries etc. This makes methanol an ideal fuel in comparison to the conventional petroleum-based ones and it is advantageous for a safer and cleaner environment. In this review article, various aspects of the circular economy with the present scenario of environmental crisis will also be considered for large-scale sustainable biorefinery of methanol production from atmospheric CO2.
The composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing day by day in the Earth's atmosphere. Worldwide energy demand is now increasing, and this has led to an increase in the percentage of global carbon emission. Moreover, this phenomenon can occur from the careless use of heating systems, generators and especially transportation, therefore, the release of these gases will continue to be widespread if there is no solution. Interaction within the microwave plasma-based gasification system of synthetic natural gas (syngas) production is presented in this paper. Consequently, this reduces the high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide emission in our atmosphere. Syngas is very useful products that can be used as a source of energy such as fuel production and fuel source. The overview and basic theory about gasification process and microwave plasma technology are provided. Modelling of the microwave plasma system particularly on its application of system electromagnetic field inside waveguide of plasma reactor to produce microwave plasma and how it was calculated are presented in this paper. To recapitulate, the global challenges on the rising of greenhouse gases volume can be regulated with microwave plasma technology and its important aspects have been underlined.
Tree autotrophic respiratory processes, especially stem respiration or stem CO2 efflux (Estem), are important components of the forest carbon budget. Despite efforts to investigate the controlling processes of Estem in recent years, a considerable lack in our knowledge remains on the abiotic and biotic drivers affecting Estem dynamics. It has been strongly advocated that long-term measurements would shed light onto those processes. The expensive scientific instruments needed to measure gas exchange have prevented Estem measurements from being applied on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Here, we present an automated closed dynamic chamber system based on inexpensive and industrially broadly applied CO2 sensors, reducing the costs for the sensing system to a minimum. The CO2 sensor was cross-calibrated with a commonly used gas exchange system in the laboratory and in the field, and we found very good accordance of these sensors. We tested the system under harsh tropical climatic conditions, characterized by heavy tropical rainfall events, extreme humidity and temperatures, in a moist lowland forest in Malaysia. We recorded Estem of three Dyera costulata (Miq.) trees with our prototype over various days. The variation of Estem was large among the three tree individuals and varied by 7.5-fold. However, clear diurnal changes in Estem were present in all three tree individuals. One tree showed high diurnal variation in Estem, and the relationship between Estem and temperature was characterized by a strong hysteresis. The large variations found within one single tree species highlight the importance of continuous measurement to quantify ecosystem carbon fluxes.
Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into gaseous hydrocarbon fuels is an auspicious way to produce renewable fuels in addition to greenhouse gas emission mitigation. In this work, non-metals (B, O, P, and S) doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared via solid-state polycondensation of urea for photocatalytic CO2 reduction into highly needed methane (CH4) with water under UV light irradiation. The various physicochemical characterization results reveal the successful incorporation of B, O, P, and S elements in the g-C3N4 matrix. The maximum CH4 yield of 55.10 nmol/(mLH2O.gcat) over S-doped g-C3N4 has been obtained for CO2 reduction after 7 h of irradiation. This amount of CH4 production was 1.9, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.4-folds higher than B, O, P and bare g-C3N4 samples. The doping of S did not enlarge the surface area and photon absorption ability of the g-C3N4 sample, but this significant improvement was evidently due to effective charge separation and migration. The observed results imply that the doping of non-metal elements provides improved charge separation and is an effective way to boost photocatalyst performance. This work offers an auspicious approach to design non-metal doped g-C3N4 photocatalysts for renewable fuel production and would be promising for other energy application.
This study investigates the facile fabrication of interfacial defects assisted amorphous TiO2 nanotubes arrays (am-TNTA) for promoting gas-phase CO2 photoreduction to methane. The am-TNTA catalyst was fabricated via a one-step synthesis, without heat treatment, by anodization of Titanium in Ethylene glycol-based electrolyte in a shorter anodizing time. The samples presented a TiO2 nanostructured array with a nanotubular diameter of 100 ± 10 nm, a wall thickness of 26 ± 5 nm, and length of 3.7 ± 0.3 μm, resulting in a specific surface of 0.75 m2 g. The am-TNTA presented prolonged chemical stability, a high exposed surface area, and a large number of surface traps that can reduce the recombination of the charge carriers. The am-TNTA showed promising photoactivity when tested in the CO2 reduction reaction with water under UV irradiation with a methane production rate of 14.0 μmol gcat-1 h-1 for a pure TiO2 material without any modification procedure. This enhanced photocatalytic activity can be explained in terms of surface defects of the amorphous structure, mainly OH groups that can act as electron traps for increasing the electron lifetime. The CO2 interacts directly with those traps, forming carbonate species, which favors the catalytic conversion to methane. The am-TNTA also exhibited a high stability during six reaction cycles. The photocatalytic activity, the significantly reduced time for synthesis, and high stability for continuous CH4 production make this nanomaterial a potential candidate for a sustainable CO2 reduction process and can be employed for other energy applications.
With increasing environmental regulation (ER), the requirements for green technology innovation (GTI) in enterprises are also rising. However, there are relatively few systematic summaries of the themes of ER-affecting GTI. Adopting the method of bibliometrics and visual analysis, this research discusses the status of research and development trends of ER-affecting GTI and summarizes the research in this field. The paper takes 738 papers from 2001 to 2021 in the core database of Web of Science as the research sample. Based on CiteSpace, this paper makes a visual analysis of the number of published papers, institutions, authors, keywords, countries (regions) and journals. The study found that to some extent, favorable collaboration between authors and institutions in this field needs to be strengthened. Research hotspots in this field include innovation, technology, performance, policy and environmental regulation. Renewable energy consumption, the pollution haven hypothesis, sustainable development, carbon dioxide emission, energy technology and environmental Kuznets curve are the current research frontiers in this field. In terms of the number of published papers, research in this field has been conducted in a national (regional) layout with China as the core force, and Italy, America, Britain, Germany and other European countries as important forces. This field covers three main research areas: enterprise performance, policy instruments and research methods, going through the start-up phase (2001-2011), the growth phase (2012-2018) and the development phase (2019-2021). Future research can further incorporate the digital economy and synergy of multiple environmental regulation policies into this field, which will continuously enrich the theoretical research system in this field. The content, methods and conclusions of research in this field are becoming increasingly diverse.
The current study investigates the dynamic relationship between structural changes, real GDP per capita, energy consumption, trade openness, population density, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions within the EKC framework over a period 1971-2013. The study used the autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) approach to investigate the long-run relationship between the selected variables. The study also employed the dynamic ordinary least squared (DOLS) technique to obtain the robust long-run estimates. Moreover, the causal relationship between the variables is explored using the VECM Granger causality test. Empirical results reveal a negative relationship between structural change and CO2 emissions in the long run. The results indicate a positive relationship between energy consumption, trade openness, and CO2 emissions. The study applied the turning point formula of Itkonen (2012) rather than the conventional formula of the turning point. The empirical estimates of the study do not support the presence of the EKC relationship between income and CO2 emissions. The Granger causality test indicates the presence of long-run bidirectional causality between energy consumption, structural change, and CO2 emissions in the long run. Economic growth, openness to trade, and population density unidirectionally cause CO2 emissions. These results suggest that the government should focus more on information-based services rather than energy-intensive manufacturing activities. The feedback relationship between energy consumption and CO2 emissions suggests that there is an ominous need to refurbish the energy-related policy reforms to ensure the installations of some energy-efficient modern technologies.
The atmosphere security and regulation of climate change are being continuously highlighted as a pressing issue. The crisis of climate change owing to the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission has led many governments at federal and provincial levels to promulgate policies to address this concern. Among them is regulating the carbon dioxide emission from major industrial sources such as power plants, petrochemical industries, cement plants, and other industries that depend on the combustion of fossil fuels for energy to operate. In view of this, various CO2 capture and sequestration technologies have been investigated and presented. From this review, adsorption of CO2 on porous solid materials has been gaining increasing attention due to its cost-effectiveness, ease of application, and comparably low energy demand. Despite the myriad of advanced materials such as zeolites, carbons-based, metal-organic frameworks, mesoporous silicas, and polymers being researched, research on activated carbons (ACs) continue to be in the mainstream. Therefore, this review is endeavored to elucidate the adsorption properties of CO2 on activated carbons derived from different sources. Selective adsorption based on pore size/shape and surface chemistry is investigated. Accordingly, the effect of surface modifications of the ACs with NH3, amines, and metal oxides on adsorption performance toward CO2 is evaluated. The adsorption performance of the activated carbons under humid conditions is also reviewed. Finally, activated carbon-based composite has been surveyed and recommended as a feasible strategy to improve AC adsorption properties toward CO2. The activated carbon surface in the graphical abstract is nitrogen rich modified using ammonia through thermal treatment. The values of CO2 emissions by sources are taken from (Yoro and Daramola 2020).
Bamboo is the fastest-growing plant and is abundant in Malaysia. It is employed as a starting material for activated carbon production and evaluated for its potential in CO2 capture. A single-stage phosphoric acid (H3PO4) activation is adopted by varying the concentrations of H3PO4 between 50 and 70 wt.% at a constant temperature and holding time of 500°C and 120 min, respectively. The bamboo-based activated carbons are characterized in terms of product yield, surface area, and porosity, as well as surface chemistry properties. Referring to the experimental findings, the prepared activated carbons have BET surface area of >1000 m2 g-1, which implies the effectiveness of the single-stage H3PO4 activation. Furthermore, the prepared activated carbon via 50 wt.% H3PO4 activation shows the highest BET surface area and carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of 1.45 mmol g-1 at 25°C/1 bar and 9.0 mmol g-1 at 25°C/30 bar. With respect to both the characterization analysis and CO2 adsorption performance, it is concluded that bamboo waste conversion to activated carbon through H3PO4 activation method is indeed promising.
Most of the existing studies on stochastic convergence of emission have not adequately considered smooth structural changes. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of stochastic convergence at different income levels by recently proposed Fourier-based wavelet augmented Dickey-Fuller test with smooth shifts. Empirical results can be summed up as follows: (i) carbon emission per capita follows the stationarity process in 35 high-income countries, while carbon emission per capita follows the stationarity process in 27 upper-middle-income countries; (ii) besides, carbon emission per capita follows stationarity process in 30 lower-middle-income countries, while carbon emission per capita follows stationarity process in 13 low-income countries; (iii) in light of these findings, it can be said that stochastic convergence among different income groups is valid. The implications of the empirical findings for environmental planning and management are discussed in the body of the paper.
Environmental global issues affecting global warming, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), have attracted the attention of researchers around the world. This paper reviews and discusses the ground improvement and its contribution to reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. The approach is divided into three parts: the Streamlined Energy and Emissions Assessment Model (SEEAM), the replacement of soil stabilisation materials that lead to the emission of a large amount of CO2 with alternatives and mineral carbonation. A brief discussion about the first two is reviewed in this paper and a detailed discussion about mineral carbonation and its role in enhancing soil strength while absorbing a large amount of CO2. It is emphasised that natural mineral carbonation requires a very long time for a material to reach its full capacity to form CO2; as a result, different acceleration processes can be done from increasing pressure, temperature, the concentration of CO2 and the addition of various additives. In conclusion, it was found that magnesium is more attractive than calcium, and calcium is complicated in terms of strength behaviour. Magnesium has a larger capacity for CO2 sequestration and it has a greater potential to increase soil strength than calcium.
Degradation of amines is a significant issue allied to amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in post-combustion CO2 capture. It becomes essential to have a detailed understanding of degradation products for advanced post-combustion CO2 capture technology. Identification and quantification of degradation products of amines help in practicability and environmental assessment of amine-based technology. Gas, liquid, and ion chromatographic techniques are the benchmark tools for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the amines and their derivatives. Among others, gas chromatography has been more in use for this specific application, especially for the identification of degradation products of amines. This review focuses on the critical elucidation of gas chromatographic analysis and development of methods to determine the amine degradation products, highlighting preparation methods for samples and selecting columns and detectors. The choice of detector, column, sample preparation, and method development are reviewed in this manuscript, keeping in view the industry and research applications. Furthermore, obtained results on the quantitative and qualitative analyses using gas chromatography are summarized with future perspectives.
The volumetric adsorption kinetics of carbon dioxide (CO2) onto the synthesized palm kernel shell activated carbon via single-stage CO2 activation and commercial Norit® activated carbon were carried out at an initial pressure of approximately 1 bar at three different temperatures of 25, 50, and 100 °C. The experimental kinetics data were modelled by using the Lagergren's pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order model. Comparing these two, the non-linear pseudo-second-order kinetics model presented a better fit towards CO2 adsorption for both adsorbents, owing to its closer coefficient of determination (R2) to unity, irrespective of the adsorption temperature. In addition, kinetics analysis showed that the corresponding kinetics coefficient (rate of adsorption) of both activated carbons increased with respect to adsorption temperature, and thereby, it indicated higher mobility of CO2 adsorbates at an elevated temperature. Nevertheless, CO2 adsorption capacity of both activated carbons reduced at elevated temperatures, which signified exothermic and physical adsorption (physisorption) behaviour. Besides, process exothermicity of both carbonaceous adsorbents can be corroborated through activation energy (Ea) value, which was deduced from the Arrhenius plot. Ea values that were in range of 32-38 kJ/mol validated exothermic adsorption at low pressure and temperature range of 25-100 °C. To gain an insight into the CO2 adsorption process, experimental data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion model and Boyd's diffusion model, and findings revealed an involvement of both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion during CO2 adsorption process onto the synthesized activated carbon and commercial activated carbon.
Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by the hydrothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous KIT-6 type silica and incorporating in polyimide (P84). KIT-6 and MMMs were characterized to evaluate morphology, thermal stability, surface area, pore volume, and other characteristics. SEM images of synthesized MMMs and permeation data of CO2 suggested homogenous dispersion of mesoporous fillers and their adherence to the polymer matrix. The addition of KIT-6 to polymer matrix improved the permeability of CO2 due to the increase in diffusivity through porous particles. The permeability was 3.2 times higher at 30% loading of filler. However, selectivity showed a slight decrease with the increase in filler loadings. The comparison of gas permeation results of KIT-6 with the well-known MCM-41 revealed that KIT-6 based MMMs showed 14% higher permeability than that of MMMs composed of mesoporous MCM-41. The practical commercial viability of synthesized membranes was examined under different operating temperatures and mixed gas feeds. Mesoporous KIT-6 silica is an attractive additive for gas permeability enhancement without compromising the selectivity of MMMs. Graphical abstract.
BRICS are among the rising nations which drive economic growth by excessive utilization of resources and resulting in environment degradation. Although there is bulk of research on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), very limited studies explored the scope in context of tourism in BRICS countries. So this research is conducted to explore the association of tourism, renewable energy, and economic growth with carbon emissions by using annual data of BRICS countries from the year 1995 to 2018. By using the recent approach of method of moments quantile regression (MMQR), the finding shows that tourism has stronger significant negative effects from 10th to 40th quantile while the effects are insignificant at remaining quantiles. Furthermore, an inverted U-shape EKC curve is also apparent at all quantiles excluding 10th and 20th quantiles. For renewable energy, the results are found negatively significant across all quantiles (10th-90th) which claim that CO2 emission can be reduced by opting renewable sources. Hence, the empirical results of the current study provide insights for policymakers to consume renewable energy sources for the sustainable economic growth and solution of environmental problems.
Accelerating greenhouse gas emission particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has become a major concern. Adsorption process has been proposed as a promising technology for CO2 adsorption from flue gas, and the carbonaceous adsorbent is a potential candidate for CO2 adsorption at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Biochar derived from palm kernel shell waste was applied as a potential precursor for activated carbon production. This research study employed the response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design to optimize the parameters involved in producing exceptional activated carbon with high yield (Y1) and CO2 adsorptive characteristics (Y2). Specifically, parameters studied include the activation temperature (750-950 °C), holding time (60-120 min), and CO2 flow rate (150-450 mL/min). The activated carbon at the optimum conditions was characterized using various analytical instruments, including elemental analyzer, nitrogen (N2) physisorption analyzer, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Overall, utilization of biochar as the activated carbon precursor is practical compared with the traditional non-renewable materials, due to its cost efficiencies and it being more environment-friendly ensuring process sustainability. Besides, this research study that incorporates physical activation with CO2 as the activating agent is attractive, because it directly promotes CO2 utilization and capture, in addition to the absence of any chemicals that may result in the secondary pollution problems.
The study aims to address the dynamic common correlated effects of trade openness, FDI, and institutional performance on environmental quality in OIC countries. Mostly, pollutants like CO2 and SO2 emissions are considered as the environmental indicators. However, for this study, we have selected ecological footprint as the indicator of environmental quality. The new econometric approach Dynamic Common Correlated Effects (DCCE) by Chudik and Pesaran (2015) has been used to measure the cross-sectional dependence among cross-sectional units. Results confirm that previous techniques for long panel data, like MG and PMG, give ambiguous outcomes in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. According to DCCE estimation, trade openness, FDI, and urbanization have a positive and significant relationship with ecological footprint while a significant and negative association is found between institutional performance and ecological footprint. The OIC countries must encourage green technology, clean production, and improved institutions for sustainable development and better environmental quality.
An era of rapid changes in the technological and economic aspects of developing and developed countries can have detrimental extortions on the environment around the world. From the perspective of globalization, the rapid development and growth can reroute to enhance the interaction between people, organizations, and countries across the globe including China through the usage of information and communication technology which in turn contributes to the economic growth of one side, whereas on the other side, it affects the environmental quality. Referring to this aspect, this study is focused to inspect the link between information and communication technology, and globalization with the facets of degradation in the environment that as CO2 emission and ecological footprint by keeping the view of economic growth prospects as well via using the EKC hypothesis. In our study, time-series data was employed from 1987 to 2020 for China using the Dynamic ARDL approach. Grounded on the findings of the study, economic growth from the sight of GDP fallouts in rising the emission of CO2 and EFP in the short and long run whereas GDP sqr cause decrease in the CO2 emission and EFP. Thus, this authorizes the presence of inverted U-shaped existence among GDP sqr, CO2 emission, and EFP. Therefore, this provides provision for the EKC hypothesis in China. Furthermore, ICT and globalization cause a decline in the emission of CO2 and EFP in the short and long run respectively. In combatting challenges linked to the environment, globalization, as well as ICT, is seen as a crucial factor based on the pieces of evidence in our study while the policy implications are also proposed in the paper.
ICTs (information and communication technologies) have emerged as a potent new force. Digitalization, modernization, and automation of the manufacturing process are expected to facilitate ICT adoption, resulting in increased genuine environmental concerns. This research aims to examine the impact of ICTs on environmental quality and the relationship between ICTs, environmental quality, and economic growth. Dynamic panel threshold regression was employed, and the sample countries comprised 69 developing countries from 2010 to 2019. The threshold technique will identify the precise threshold value of ICTs and highlights the impacts of ICTs on the environmental quality nexus when above and below the threshold value in developing countries. Empirical evidence suggests that ICTs positively impact environmental quality (CO2) when above the ICTs threshold value. However, ICTs provide a positive but insignificant impact on environmental quality when below the ICTs threshold value of 4.699. Additionally, ICTs affect the economic growth and environmental quality nexus, with increasing economic growth resulting in a decrease in CO2 emissions in developing countries when ICTs are below the threshold value. Thus, the ICTs threshold value should be used to ensure that ICTs adoption promotes sustainable economic growth and resolves environmental degradation issues in developing nations.