Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Sha'ban M, Ahmad Radzi MA
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1249:97-114.
    PMID: 32602093 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_7
    Joint cartilage has been a significant focus on the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) since its inception in the 1980s. Represented by only one cell type, cartilage has been a simple tissue that is thought to be straightforward to deal with. After three decades, engineering cartilage has proven to be anything but easy. With the demographic shift in the distribution of world population towards ageing, it is expected that there is a growing need for more effective options for joint restoration and repair. Despite the increasing understanding of the factors governing cartilage development, there is still a lot to do to bridge the gap from bench to bedside. Dedicated methods to regenerate reliable articular cartilage that would be equivalent to the original tissue are still lacking. The use of cells, scaffolds and signalling factors has always been central to the TERM. However, without denying the importance of cells and signalling factors, the question posed in this chapter is whether the answer would come from the methods to use or not to use scaffold for cartilage TERM. This paper presents some efforts in TERM area and proposes a solution that will transpire from the ongoing attempts to understand certain aspects of cartilage development, degeneration and regeneration. While an ideal formulation for cartilage regeneration has yet to be resolved, it is felt that scaffold is still needed for cartilage TERM for years to come.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
  2. Moo EK, Han SK, Federico S, Sibole SC, Jinha A, Abu Osman NA, et al.
    J Biomech, 2014 Mar 21;47(5):1004-13.
    PMID: 24480705 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.003
    Cartilage lesions change the microenvironment of cells and may accelerate cartilage degradation through catabolic responses from chondrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on chondrocytes by comparing the mechanics of cells surrounded by an intact ECM with cells close to a cartilage lesion using experimental and numerical methods. Experimentally, 15% nominal compression was applied to bovine cartilage tissues using a light-transmissible compression system. Target cells in the intact ECM and near lesions were imaged by dual-photon microscopy. Changes in cell morphology (N(cell)=32 for both ECM conditions) were quantified. A two-scale (tissue level and cell level) Finite Element (FE) model was also developed. A 15% nominal compression was applied to a non-linear, biphasic tissue model with the corresponding cell level models studied at different radial locations from the centre of the sample in the transient phase and at steady state. We studied the Green-Lagrange strains in the tissue and cells. Experimental and theoretical results indicated that cells near lesions deform less axially than chondrocytes in the intact ECM at steady state. However, cells near lesions experienced large tensile strains in the principal height direction, which are likely associated with non-uniform tissue radial bulging. Previous experiments showed that tensile strains of high magnitude cause an up-regulation of digestive enzyme gene expressions. Therefore, we propose that cartilage degradation near tissue lesions may be due to the large tensile strains in the principal height direction applied to cells, thus leading to an up-regulation of catabolic factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology
  3. Abd Latif MJ, Jin Z, Wilcox RK
    J Biomech, 2012 May 11;45(8):1346-52.
    PMID: 22483055 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.03.015
    The spinal facet joints are known to be an important component in the kinematics and the load transmission of the spine. The articular cartilage in the facet joint is prone to degenerative changes which lead to back pain and treatments for the condition have had limited long term success. There is currently a lack of information on the basic biomechanical properties of the facet joint cartilage which is needed to develop tissue substitution or regenerative interventions. In the present study, the thickness and biphasic properties of ovine facet cartilage were determined using a combination of indentation tests and computational modelling. The equilibrium biphasic Young's modulus and permeability were derived to be 0.76±0.35 MPa and 1.61±1.10×10⁻¹⁵ m⁴/(Ns) respectively, which were within the range of cartilage properties characterised from the human synovial joints. The average thickness of the ovine facet cartilage was 0.52±0.10 mm, which was measured using a needle indentation test. These properties could potentially be used for the development of substitution or tissue engineering interventions and for computational modelling of the facet joint. Furthermore, the developed method to characterise the facet cartilage could be used for other animals or human donors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
  4. Samsudin OC, Aminuddin BS, Munirah S, Chua KH, Fuzina NH, Isa MR, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:15-6.
    PMID: 15468796
    Treatment of articular cartilage lesions remains a clinical challenge. The uses of prosthetic joint replace allograft and/or autograft transplant carry a risk of complications due to infection, loosening of its component, immunological rejection and morbidity at the donor site. There has been an increasing interest in the management of cartilage damages, owing to the introduction of new therapeutic options. Tissue engineering as a method for tissue restoration begins to provide a potential alternative therapy for autologous grafts transplantations. We aimed to evaluate how well a tissue engineered neocartilage implant, consist of human articular chondrocytes cultured with the presence of autologous serum and mixed in a fresh fibrin derived from patient, would perform in subcutaneous implantation in athymic mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology
  5. Iranpour F, Merican AM, Teo SH, Cobb JP, Amis AA
    Knee, 2017 Jun;24(3):555-563.
    PMID: 28330756 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2017.01.011
    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral instability is a major cause of anterior knee pain. The aim of this study was to examine how the medial and lateral stability of the patellofemoral joint in the normal knee changes with knee flexion and measure its relationship to differences in femoral trochlear geometry.

    METHODS: Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used. Five components of the quadriceps and the iliotibial band were loaded physiologically with 175N and 30N, respectively. The force required to displace the patella 10mm laterally and medially at 0°, 20°, 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion was measured. Patellofemoral contact points at these knee flexion angles were marked. The trochlea cartilage geometry at these flexion angles was visualized by Computed Tomography imaging of the femora in air with no overlying tissue. The sulcus, medial and lateral facet angles were measured. The facet angles were measured relative to the posterior condylar datum.

    RESULTS: The lateral facet slope decreased progressively with flexion from 23°±3° (mean±S.D.) at 0° to 17±5° at 90°. While the medial facet angle increased progressively from 8°±8° to 36°±9° between 0° and 90°. Patellar lateral stability varied from 96±22N at 0°, to 77±23N at 20°, then to 101±27N at 90° knee flexion. Medial stability varied from 74±20N at 0° to 170±21N at 90°. There were significant correlations between the sulcus angle and the medial facet angle with medial stability (r=0.78, p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide objective evidence relating the changes of femoral profile geometry with knee flexion to patellofemoral stability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology
  6. Ching KY, Andriotis O, Sengers B, Stolz M
    J Biomater Appl, 2021 09;36(3):503-516.
    PMID: 33730922 DOI: 10.1177/08853282211002015
    Towards optimizing the growth of extracellular matrix to produce repair cartilage for healing articular cartilage (AC) defects in joints, scaffold-based tissue engineering approaches have recently become a focus of clinical research. Scaffold-based approaches by electrospinning aim to support the differentiation of chondrocytes by providing an ultrastructure similar to the fibrillar meshwork in native cartilage. In a first step, we demonstrate how the blending of chitosan with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) allows concentrated chitosan solution to become electrospinnable. The chitosan-based scaffolds share the chemical structure and characteristics of glycosaminoglycans, which are important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Electrospinning produced nanofibrils of ∼100 nm thickness that are closely mimicking the size of collagen fibrils in human AC. The polymer scaffolds were stabilized in physiological conditions and their stiffness was tuned by introducing the biocompatible natural crosslinker genipin. We produced scaffolds that were crosslinked with 1.0% genipin to obtain values of stiffness that were in between the stiffness of the superficial zone human AC of 600 ± 150 kPa and deep zone AC of 1854 ± 483 kPa, whereas the stiffness of 1.5% genipin crosslinked scaffold was similar to the stiffness of deep zone AC. The scaffolds were degradable, which was indicated by changes in the fibril structure and a decrease in the scaffold stiffness after seven months. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis after three weeks of culture with human articular chondrocytes (HACs) showed a cell viability of over 90% on the scaffolds and new extracellular matrix deposited on the scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
  7. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Chen HC, Salmah SH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    J Bone Joint Surg Br, 2007 Aug;89(8):1099-109.
    PMID: 17785753
    Ovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsy and culture expanded in vitro. Approximately 30 million cells per ml of cultured chondrocytes were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form a three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in the lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted with either an autologous 'chondrocyte-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blanks (AF) as controls. Animals were killed after 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the treated defects was inspected and photographed. The repaired tissues were studied histologically and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. All defects were assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. Those treated with ACFC, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly-normal appearance. On the basis of the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale, ACFC implantation significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF. Using scanning electron microscopy, ACFC and ACI showed characteristic organisation of chondrocytes and matrices, which were relatively similar to the surrounding adjacent cartilage. Implantation of ACFC resulted in superior hyaline-like cartilage regeneration when compared with ACI. If this result is applicable to humans, a better outcome would be obtained than by using conventional ACI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology
  8. Yusoff N, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Med Eng Phys, 2011 Jul;33(6):782-8.
    PMID: 21356602 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.01.013
    A mechanical-conditioning bioreactor has been developed to provide bi-axial loading to three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs within a highly controlled environment. The computer-controlled bioreactor is capable of applying axial compressive and shear deformations, individually or simultaneously at various regimes of strain and frequency. The reliability and reproducibility of the system were verified through validation of the spatial and temporal accuracy of platen movement, which was maintained over the operating length of the system. In the presence of actual specimens, the system was verified to be able to deliver precise bi-axial load to the specimens, in which the deformation of every specimen was observed to be relatively homogeneous. The primary use of the bioreactor is in the culture of chondrocytes seeded within an agarose hydrogel while subjected to physiological compressive and shear deformation. The system has been designed specifically to permit the repeatable quantification and characterisation of the biosynthetic activity of cells in response to a wide range of short and long term multi-dimensional loading regimes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology
  9. Saw KY, Hussin P, Loke SC, Azam M, Chen HC, Tay YG, et al.
    Arthroscopy, 2009 Dec;25(12):1391-400.
    PMID: 19962065 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2009.07.011
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous marrow aspirate (MA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) after subchondral drilling resulted in better cartilage repair as assessed histologically by Gill scoring.
    METHODS: In a goat model we created a 4-mm full-thickness articular cartilage defect in the stifle joint (equivalent to 1.6 cm in the human knee) and conducted subchondral drilling. The animals were divided into 3 groups: group A (control), no injections; group B (HA), weekly injection of 1 mL of sodium hyaluronate for 3 weeks; and group C (HA + MA), similar to group B but with 2 mL of autologous MA in addition to HA. MA was obtained by bone marrow aspiration, centrifuged, and divided into aliquots for cryopreservation. Fifteen animals were equally divided between the groups and sacrificed 24 weeks after surgery, when the joint was harvested, examined macroscopically and histologically.
    RESULTS: Of the 15 animals, 2 from group A had died of non-surgery-related complications and 1 from group C was excluded because of a joint infection. In group A the repair constituted mainly scar tissue, whereas in group B there was less scar tissue, with small amounts of proteoglycan and type II collagen at the osteochondral junction. In contrast, repair cartilage from group C animals showed almost complete coverage of the defect with evidence of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Histology assessed by Gill scoring was significantly better in group C with 1-way analysis of variance yielding an F statistic of 10.611 with a P value of .004, which was highly significant.
    CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous MA in combination with HA after subchondral drilling resulted in better cartilage repair as assessed histologically by Gill scoring in a goat model.
    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: After arthroscopic subchondral drilling, this novel technique may result in better articular cartilage regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
  10. Saw KY, Anz A, Jee CS, Ng RC, Mohtarrudin N, Ragavanaidu K
    Arthroscopy, 2015 Oct;31(10):1909-20.
    PMID: 26008951 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.038
    PURPOSE: To histologically evaluate the quality of articular cartilage regeneration from the medial compartment after arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) and hyaluronic acid with concomitant medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in patients with varus deformity of the knee joint.
    METHODS: Eight patients with varus deformity of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic subchondral drilling of International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 bone-on-bone lesions of the medial compartment with concomitant HTO. These patients were part of a larger pilot study in which 18 patients underwent the same procedure. PBSCs were harvested and cryopreserved preoperatively. At 1 week after surgery, 8 mL of PBSCs was mixed with 2 mL of hyaluronic acid and injected intra-articularly into the knee joint; this was repeated once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Three additional intra-articular injections were administered weekly at intervals of 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Informed consent was obtained at the time of hardware removal for opportunistic second-look arthroscopy and chondral biopsy. Biopsy specimens were stained with H&E, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining for type I and II collagen. Specimens were graded using the 14 components of the ICRS Visual Assessment Scale II, and a total score was obtained.
    RESULTS: Second-look arthroscopy showed satisfactory healing of the regenerated cartilage. Histologic analysis showed significant amounts of proteoglycan and type II collagen. The total ICRS Visual Assessment Scale II histologic scores comparing the regenerated articular cartilage (mean, 1,274) with normal articular cartilage (mean, 1,340) indicated that the repair cartilage score approached 95% of the normal articular cartilage score. There were no infections, delayed unions, or nonunions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Chondrogenesis with stem cells in combination with medial open-wedge HTO for varus deformity correction of the knee joint regenerates cartilage that closely resembles the native articular cartilage.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
  11. Saw KY, Anz A, Merican S, Tay YG, Ragavanaidu K, Jee CS, et al.
    Arthroscopy, 2011 Apr;27(4):493-506.
    PMID: 21334844 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2010.11.054
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of articular cartilage regeneration after arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intraarticular injections of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in combination with hyaluronic acid (HA).
    METHODS: Five patients underwent second-look arthroscopy with chondral core biopsy. These 5 patients are part of a larger pilot study in which 180 patients with International Cartilage Repair Society grade III and IV lesions of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intra-articular injections. Continuous passive motion was used on the operated knee 2 hours per day for 4 weeks. Partial weight bearing was observed for the first 6 to 8 weeks. Autologous PBPCs were harvested 1 week after surgery. One week after surgery, 8 mL of the harvested PBPCs in combination with 2 mL of HA was injected intra-articularly into the operated knee. The remaining PBPCs were divided into vials and cryopreserved. A total of 5 weekly intra-articular injections were given.
    RESULTS: Second-look arthroscopy confirmed articular cartilage regeneration, and histologic sections showed features of hyaline cartilage. Apart from the minimal discomfort of PBPC harvesting and localized pain associated with the intra-articular injections, there were no other notable adverse reactions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration is possible with arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intraarticular injections of autologous PBPCs in combination with HA.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/physiology*
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