OBJECTIVES: Here, the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, was tested against the biofilms and intracellular S. aureus invitro. Following that, the mechanism for the intracellular antimicrobial activities and GO toxicities was elucidated.
METHODS: GO antibiofilm properties were evaluated based on the disruption of biofilm structure, and the intracellular antimicrobial activities were determined by the survival of S. aureus in infected bovine mammary cells following GO exposure. The mechanism for GO intracellular antimicrobial activities was investigated using endocytosis inhibitors. GO toxicity towards the host cells was assessed using a resazurin assay.
RESULTS: At 100 ug/mL, GO reduced between 30 and 70% of S. aureus biofilm mass, suggesting GO's ability to disrupt the biofilm structure. At 200 ug/mL, GO killed almost 80% of intracellular S. aureus, and the antimicrobial activities were inhibited when cells were pre-treated with cytochalasin D, suggesting GO intracellular antimicrobial activities were dependent on the actin-polymerization of the cell membrane. At