A total of 2,337 rodents trapped from various parts of Peninsular Malaysia were dissected and studied for the distribution and prevalence of parasitic infections. Four new rodent hosts for Sarcocystis in Malaysia are reported (Bandicota indica, Rattus sabanus Rattus argentiventer and Rattus norvegicus). Sarcocystis was found in 17.2 percent of the rodents examined. Rattus annandalei, Rattus tiomanicus and Rattus norvegicus are new hosts of Syphacia muris in Peninsular Malsysia. Rattus sabanus was found to be infected with Zonorchis borneonenis. Brachylaima ratti Baugh, 1962 was recovered from the small intestine of Rattus rattus diardii for the first time in Malaysia. The prevalence and distribution of other parasites are also discussed.
Sampling of a large number of elasmobranchs from coastal waters off Borneo revealed the presence of five new species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 (Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae), namely D. angustiformis n. sp., D. hemispinosa n. sp., D. spinosa n. sp., D. imparispinis n. sp. and D. parva n. sp. Dollfusiella angustiformis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of four species of the dasyatid stingray genus Himantura Müller & Henle from both the Indonesian and Malaysian parts of Borneo. All the other species were obtained from Malaysian Borneo. Dollfusiella hemispinosa n. sp. is described from the spiral intestines of three species of Himantura, whereas D. spinosa n. sp. was obtained from several specimens of Pastinachus solocirostris Last, Manjaji & Yearsley (Dasyatidae) as well as from Taeniura lymma 1 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), Neotrygon kuhlii 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Dasyatidae), and Glaucostegus cf. typus (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) (Rhinobatidae). Dollfusiella imparispinis n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of a single specimen of Chiloscyllium punctatum Müller & Henle (Hemiscyllidae) from the South China Sea off Sarawak, whereas D. parva n. sp. was obtained from several species of Himantura. Specimens of the five novel taxa possess scoleces covered with enlarged microtriches, a morphological characteristic exhibited by several other congeners. However, the new species differ from all congeners by possessing unique patterns of oncotaxy as well as combinations of additional morphological features. The number of valid species within Dollfusiella is increased to 26. For this reason, a key for the species of Dollfusiella is provided. Furthermore, novel information on hosts and geographic distribution is provided for two previously described species of Dollfusiella, D. michiae (Southwell, 1929) and D. spinulifera (Beveridge & Jones, 2000). The latter species differs slightly from the original description and shows a much higher variability with regard to the lengths of the scolex and muscular bulbs and the number of testes. These variable characters subdivided specimens of D. spinulifera into relatively distinct groups. However, the specimens did not differ in their oncotaxy and are considered to represent a single variable species.
A new genus of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of sharks, the sliteye shark Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle and the straight-tooth weasel shark Paragaleus tengi (Chen) collected in the Makassar Strait (off Indonesian Borneo) and Sulu Sea (off Malaysian Borneo). Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. possesses two bothria and a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature with three distinctive files of hooks on the external tentacle surface but lacks prebulbar organs and gland cells within the tentacular bulbs. The hook arrangement of alternating files on the external surface of the tentacle resembles that seen in the superfamily Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942 in the genus Fossobothrium Beveridge & Campbell, 2005. However, the new species lacks the defining characteristic of this group, i.e. the paired bothrial pits. A Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of 37 LSU sequences of trypanorhynchs from three superfamilies provided evidence supporting the taxonomic placement of Ancipirhynchus afossalis n. g., n. sp. within the Otobothrioidea.
The cestode fauna of the darkspotted numbfish, Narcine maculata (Shaw) (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae), from Malaysian Bomrneo was examined for the first time. This work resulted in the discovery of a new genus and two new species of Anteroporidae (Lecanicephalidea). Sesquipedalapex comicus gen. n., sp. n. was erected on the basis of the peculiarities of its scolex, in particular its possession of an extremely long apical modification of the scolex proper, which readily distinguishes it from the other genus in the family. The genus is also distinct in its possession of acetabula that are in the form of suckers, rather than bothridiate in form. This species was found to deeply embed its elongate apical structure for much of its length within the intestinal mucosa, provoking a papilliform expansion of the outer wall of the spiral intestine at the site of attachment. The second new species, Anteropora klosmamorphis sp. n., is readily distinguished from its congeners on the basis of testis number and bothridial shape. Both new species are hyperapolytic. The diagnosis of Anteroporidae is amended to accommodate both new taxa. This increases the total number of genera in the family to two, and the total number of species to five.
Tetrarhynchobothrium tenuicolle Diesing, 1850 is redescribed from the type-specimens collected from Raja clavata Linnaeus in the Adriatic Sea. T. striatum (Wagener, 1854) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host, Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, from the type-locality, off Naples, Italy. The two species are very similar in tentacular armature, but are provisionally maintained as independent species, since the armature of T. tenuicolle cannot be fully described and because all available specimens of T. striatum are immature, limiting comparisons of potential differences in segment anatomy. T. setiense Dollfus, 1969 is treated as a synonym of T. striatum. Zygorhynchus borneensis n. sp. is described from Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker) and H. pastinacoides (Bleeker) off Sabah, Malaysia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the very small hooks present in the basal region and by the presence of a uterine pore. The metabasal tentacular armature of Didymorhynchus southwelli Beveridge & Campbell, 1988, described for the first time, is homeoacanthous and homeomorphous in form. However, it has a basal swelling with hook rows originating on the bothrial surface and terminating on the antibothrial surface of the tentacle.
A survey for small mammal parasites carried out in a secondary forest of Ulu Gombak, Selangor, Peninsula Malaysia yielded the following animals: Rattus bowersi (7), Rattus tiomanicus jalorensis (2), Maxomys rajah (12), Maxoyms whiteheadi (3), Leopoldamys sabanus(13), Sundamys muelleri(10), Lariscus insignis (1), Sundasciurus tenuis (1) and Tupaia glis (2). The following nematodes: Capillaria hepatica, Hepatojarakus malayae, Trichostrongylus sp. and Streptopharagus sp., the following cestodes: Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaformis; and trematode, Zonorchis sp. from Tupaia glis were recovered. No parasites were observed during blood examination. No endoparasite was seen in Maxomys whiteheadi, Lariscus insignis and Sundasciurus tenuis. The following parasites, Capillaria hepatica, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaformis are considered of medical importance.
One hundred and fifty one house rats, Rattus rattus diardii from five different localities, Jinjang, Dato Keramat, Kuala Lumpur, Sungai Besi and Selayang Baru, were examined for parasites. Nineteen species of parasites were recovered. Hymenolepis diminuta and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are the predominant species. The dominancy of the parasite species in the rats differed in each locality: Hymenolepis diminuta in Dato Keramat and Kuala Lumpur; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Sungai Besi; Gongylomena neoplasticum in Jinjang and Selayang Baru. The influences of human habitats on the parasite fauna of house rats are discussed.
Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis.
A study was conducted to determine the helminthes in dog's feces and soil samples from urban and rural areas. Six species of nematodes (Toxocara sp, an undetermined nematode larvae, Strongyloides sp larvae, Ascaris sp ova, hookworm ova, Trichuris sp ova) and one species of Cestode (Taenia sp) were found in 175 stool samples. Seventy-eight point nine percent of stool samples were positive for helminthes. Mixed infection with at least one parasite was found in 32.6% of the samples. The prevalence of helminth infection ranged from 1.1% to 45.1%. The prevalence of hookworm sp was the highest with 45.1%. The highest prevalence in urban dogs was hookworm sp in 76.7% and in rural areas was Ascaris sp in 48.7%. Soil samples were also examined to determine contamination of the environment, especially due to Toxocara canis, as a potential source of infection. Urban soil samples showed a higher contamination rate with 26.7% compared to rural areas with 4.9%. Toxocara ova were the most prevalent helminthes contaminating the soil with 12.1%. This study showed that humans from both urban and rural areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil.
Vector-borne infections are persistent public health threats worldwide. In recent years, a number of mosquito-borne viruses have emerged or re-emerged to cause major disease outbreaks. Other vector-borne pathogens, however, remain understudied and much neglected especially in the developing regions of the world including Southeast Asia. In this study, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, cat louse Felicola subrostratus, and cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides orientis collected from free-ranging cats and dogs in Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria, and Dipylidium tapeworm. Our results showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiea, Bartonella henselae (lineage Marseille and lineage Houston-1), and Rickettsia sp. in C. felis. We also detected Rickettsia asembonensis in C. orientis and R. sanguineus s.l. Additionally, this study provides the first documentation on a potentially new species of Dipylidium infecting F. subrostratus and C. felis. Our results highlight the role of ectoparasites from free-ranging animals including cats and dogs, in harboring multiple transmissible pathogens.
Lesions associated with two species of tapeworms within the digestive tract of wild-caught specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the sicklefin weasel shark, Hemigaleus microstoma, from Malaysian Borneo are described. Portions of the glandular stomach and pyloric gut with parasites were removed and fixed in 10% formalin buffered in sea water. Whole mounts, histological sections of tissues with and without worms in situ, and scanning electron microscopy images of detached worms were examined. Both species of cestodes belonged to the trypanorhynch family Tentaculariidae. Heteronybelinia estigmena was found in large numbers parasitizing the pyloric gut of C. leucas; an unidentified tentaculariid was found in relatively small numbers in both the glandular stomach and pyloric gut of H. microstoma. Both species burrowed their scoleces deeply in the mucosa and attached via hooked tentacles and unciniform microtriches of the scolex. The lesions induced by the parasites were marked in both sharks and ranged from acute necrotizing to chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis. Regenerative hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelium were also present. The severity and character of pathology was causally linked to the intensity of infection, the attachment mode of the parasites, and to the anatomophysiological relationships within the gut of the host shark.
The lecanicephalidean cestodes parasitizing the spiral intestine of the endangered giant freshwater whipray, Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker), are investigated for the first time. Eight host specimens were collected between 2002 and 2008 at 2 collecting sites off the eastern coast of Borneo: 6 from the Kinabatangan River (Malaysia) and 2 from a fish market in Tarakan (Indonesia). Two of these individuals were found to be infected with a total of 3 new species of TetragonocephalumShipley and Hornell, 1905. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. were recovered from a host specimen from the Kinabatangan River, and Tetragonocephalum levicorpum n. sp. was found parasitizing a host specimen purchased at a fish market in Tarakan. Specimens of each of the new species were prepared for light microscopy; specimens of 2 of the new species were prepared for scanning electron microscopy, and histological sections were prepared for 1 of the new species. The 3 new species are distinct from the 9 valid species of Tetragonocephalum and the 1 species inquirendum based on, for example, total length, number of proglottids and testes, and size of the scolex and acetabula. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and T. levicorpum n. sp. are unusual among their congeners in that they are euapolytic (i.e., gravid proglottids were not observed) rather than apolytic. They differ from one another in scolex and acetabula size. Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. is unusual among its congeners in its possession of vitelline follicles arranged in 2, rather than 3, regions in the proglottid. These new species increase the total number of valid species of Tetragonocephalum to 12 and the total number of known cestodes from U. polylepis to 13 species across 6 genera in 4 orders. This is the first account of lecanicephalideans reported from freshwater. The taxonomic status of each of the 32 nominal taxa historically associated with Tetragonocephalum is re-assessed. Type host identities of all valid species are revised and discussed in light of recent taxonomic efforts in the Dasyatidae Jordan and Gilbert.