Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Saleem F, Hassali MA
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 Jan-Feb;12(1):173-4.
    PMID: 26342241 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.08.005
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  2. Sarriff A
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 1994 Feb;19(1):57-60.
    PMID: 8188792
    This survey explored patient-orientated services, beyond processing of prescriptions and dispensing of medications, provided by the Malaysian community pharmacist. The results revealed a trend towards the provision of such activities. Although this was not widely implemented by the pharmacists, activities such as patient counselling and providing drug information were part of their daily practice. Lack of time, large workload, and inadequate drug information sources were the constraints cited by the pharmacists for the provision of such activities. If willingness and abilities to perform such activities were the significant barriers, then educational programmes should be initiated to provide the missing competencies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/trends*
  3. Timsina S, K C B, Adhikari D, Alrasheedy AA, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Kaundinnyayana A
    PMID: 28811395 DOI: 10.3352/jeehp.2017.14.18
    Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university) at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration*
  4. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2014 Jan;12(1):363.
    PMID: 24644519
    BACKGROUND: The role of community pharmacists is very important due to their access to primary care patients and expertise. For this reason, the interaction level between pharmacists and patients should be optimized to ensure enhanced delivery of pharmacy services.
    OBJECTIVE: To gauge perceptions and expectations of the public on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
    METHODS: Twenty five individuals were invited to participate in 4 separate focus group discussions. Individuals came from different racial groups and socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Using thematic analysis, two reviewers coded all transcripts to identify emerging themes. Appropriate measures were taken to ensure study rigor and validity.
    RESULTS: All facilitators and barriers that were identified were grouped into 5 distinct themes. The pharmacist as a healthcare professional in the public mind was the most prominent theme that was discussed in all 4 focus groups. Other themes identified were, in decreasing order of prevalence, psychological perceptions towards pharmacists, important determinants of a pharmacist, the pharmacy as a unique healthcare provider, and control over pharmacies by health authorities.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study provided insight into the way that the public looks at the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Determinants that influence their perception are the media, health authorities, pharmacist's knowledge level, attire, nationality, age, and pharmacy location.
    KEYWORDS: Community Pharmacy Services; Consumer Satisfaction; Focus Groups; Pharmacies; Professional Practice; United Arab Emirates
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services
  5. See Wan O, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Health Inf Manag, 2018 Sep;47(3):132-139.
    PMID: 28537205 DOI: 10.1177/1833358317697718
    BACKGROUND: The Internet is a resource used by health professionals as well as the public to access health information. Within this context, little is reported on community pharmacists' (CPs') perceptions of online health-related information. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of Malaysian CPs towards online health-related information.

    METHODS: A qualitative research method was adopted with face-to-face interviews, using a semi-structured interview guide. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit a convenient sample of CPs who were practising in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed by the research team using a thematic content analysis framework.

    RESULTS: Eleven CPs participated in the study. Participants reported that online health-related information was accessible, useful, fast, and in some respects, the Internet is a unique source of information. It was reported that there was a need to establish websites for trusted information. CPs also reported that training was needed in Internet searching and website evaluation skills. Most information accessed by CPs related to drugs and diseases and to knowledge-based information. Barriers to efficacy of Internet usage were related to the reliability and volume of information available on the Internet.

    CONCLUSION: Frequent use of online health-related information among CPs was reported. Many CPs supported the use of the Internet for health-related information but certain reservations were also reported. An analysis of the reasons for information seeking and barriers suggests that a wider range of influences on health information seeking should be investigated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  6. Inoue Y, Takikawa M, Morita Y, Takao K, Kanamoto I, Sugibayashi K
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 Mar-Apr;12(2):347-54.
    PMID: 26072001 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.05.005
    In recent years, several developed countries reported on new multidisciplinary roles of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants, especially considering the former's expanding functions. This paper examines differences in pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' professional roles and the dispensing system in Japan with those in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A review of relevant literature was supplemented by interviews of dispensary staff at hospitals and community pharmacies in Malaysia and the Philippines. The UK, Philippines, and Malaysia had dispensing assistants who performed dispensing roles, while Japan did not. Although pharmacy assistants occasionally performed screening and dispensing inspections due to the lack of pharmacists, it is necessary for pharmacists participating in risk management to ensure formula optimization and monitoring. Pharmacists' contribution to medical care involves ensuring safety in drug therapy and overall medical services. Screening is the most fundamental and important function performed exclusively by pharmacists, thereby establishing their status within the medical system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/manpower; Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration
  7. Ahmad A, Khan MU
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 04 23;12(5):811-2.
    PMID: 27157865 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.04.003
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/legislation & jurisprudence; Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration*
  8. Hatah E, Tordoff J, Duffull SB, Braund R
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2014 Jan-Feb;10(1):185-94.
    PMID: 23688540 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.04.008
    In New Zealand, pharmacists are funded to provide adherence support to their patients via a service called "Medicines Use Review" (MUR). The service is based on the assumption that the medication regimen is clinically appropriate and therefore does not include a clinical review. However, whether or not pharmacists make clinical recommendations to patients during MUR is unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/economics; Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration*; Community Pharmacy Services/standards
  9. Kho BP, Hassali MA, Lim CJ, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Apr-Jun;15(2):933.
    PMID: 28690697 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.02.933
    BACKGROUND: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia), and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation.

    RESULTS: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers' knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced.

    CONCLUSION: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists to realise and maximise their potentials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services
  10. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2012 Jun;18(6):635-40.
    PMID: 22888622
    Community pharmacies are valued for their potential role in the management of common ailments. This cross-sectional study aimed to document the management of diarrhoea by community pharmacies in 3 cities in Pakistan. Visits were performed to 371 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated paediatric case of diarrhoea. The pharmacy's management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Customers were served by a salesperson in 97.3% of visits and by a pharmacist in only 2.2%. Medication was dispensed in 77.1% of visits. Of the medications dispensed, 58.7% were antiamoebics, 14.0% antibiotics and 18.9% antidiarrhoeals; only 8.4% were oral rehydration salts. None of the regimens matched with a standard prescription. The dosage regimen was explained to the customer in only 52.6% of cases. Drug safety, unqualified personnel, lack of history taking, inappropriate treatment and lack of counselling are concerns to be addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  11. Chua SS, Lim KP, Lee HG
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2013 Feb;21(1):66-9.
    PMID: 23301536 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00219.x
    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/utilization*
  12. Shafie AA, Hassali MA, Azhar S, See OG
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2012 May-Jun;8(3):258-62.
    PMID: 21824823 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2011.06.002
    The role of pharmacists has transformed significantly because of changes in pharmacists' training and population health demands. Within this context, community pharmacists are recognized as important health personnel for the provision of extended health services. Similarly, in Malaysia, the need to transform community pharmacy practice has been discussed by all interested parties; however, the transition has been slow due in part to the nonexistence of a dispensing separation policy between pharmacists and medical doctors in private community practices. For decades, medical doctors in private community practices have had the right to prescribe and dispense, thus diluting the role of community pharmacists because of overlapping roles. This article explores dispensing separation in Malaysia and, by taking into account the needs of health professionals and health care consumers, suggests a mechanism for how dispensing separation practice can be implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration*
  13. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2011 Oct;33(5):859-67.
    PMID: 21853362 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-011-9554-6
    OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess and compare medication counselling and dispensing practices at community pharmacies in three major cities of Pakistan.

    METHODS: A total of 1113 patient dispenser interactions were observed from a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies by using convenient sampling technique in the three respective cities namely Islamabad (118), Peshawar (120) and Lahore (133). The data collection tool was adapted from WHO structure observation form and was modified according to the objectives of the study.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The process of prescription handling at community pharmacies in terms of patient dispenser interaction, prescription validation and medication counseling was assessed. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16.

    RESULTS: A total of 1113 patient dispenser interactions were observed at the community pharmacies in the three respective cities namely Islamabad (n = 354), Peshawar (n = 360) and Lahore (n = 399). Out of 1113 patient/dispenser interactions the providers present at the community pharmacies were; pharmacist (degree of B-pharm/pharm D) 1.6% (n = 18), pharmacy assistant (diploma in pharmacy) 7% (n = 78), diploma holder (certified course of drug dispensing) 5.6% (n = 62) and salesmen (no medicine related education) 85.8% (n = 955).There was no significant difference in the practice between pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, diploma holders and salesmen. Prescription validation was carried out in 18% (n = 206) of the cases, drugs verification in 32% (n = 360) of the cases while labelling of drugs was performed in only 6% (n = 76) of the cases. Completely counselling about medication was provided in 3.1% (n = 35) of the cases while no counselling at all was given in 52.7% (n = 582) of the cases.

    CONCLUSION: The process of medication counselling and dispensing practices at community pharmacies in Pakistan is not satisfactory. The patients are largely handled by unqualified salesmen. Thus there is a strong need to improve medication counselling and dispensing practices at community pharmacies by improving the skills of the dispensers through a mix of interventions, and law should be implemented to ensure presence of qualified person which in turn will result in the provision of better patient oriented services at community pharmacies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Ting KN, Stratton-Powell DM, Anderson C
    Pharm World Sci, 2010 Jun;32(3):339-42.
    PMID: 20336371 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-010-9382-0
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and views on adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Structured interviews with community pharmacists. Informed consent was obtained and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Content analysis of themes on awareness of ADR reporting, reporting activities, attitudes and views on patient reporting.

    RESULTS: All pharmacists claimed to have some knowledge of a reporting system but only one had submitted a report directly to the regulatory authority. Despite the low level of reporting activities, all participants agreed that it was part of their professional obligation to report an ADR. Most participants were not aware of the direct patient reporting scheme and were skeptical about its success. Lack of awareness and patients' limited knowledge about their medications were viewed as barriers to patient reporting. Local attitudinal issues including pharmacists' attitude towards ADR reporting were described as possible contributing factors.

    CONCLUSION: Community pharmacists have an important role in reporting ADRs. Many Malaysian patients are still perceived to be ill-informed of their medications, an important determinant to the success of patient reporting. There is a need for further training about ADRs and ADR reporting for health professionals and further education for patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services/standards*
  15. Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Ahmed SI
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2009 Nov 12;73(7):136.
    PMID: 19960093
    OBJECTIVES: To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination.

    ASSESSMENT: The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist.

    CONCLUSIONS: A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  16. Chua SS, Paraidathathu T
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2005;17(2):117-23.
    PMID: 16425656
    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by consumers who obtained these drugs from community pharmacies. Factors that influenced community pharmacists in their choice of NSAIDs were also determined. Personal interviews were conducted on consumers who visited the 25 participating community pharmacies throughout Malaysia. Of the 389 respondents, 49% requested for an NSAID by name, 42% asked the pharmacist to recommend a medication and 9% had a doctor's prescription. NSAIDs were mainly purchased for joint/shoulder pain and the most commonly dispensed was diclofenac. Elderly respondents were more likely to be dispensed a selective COX-2 inhibitor than those below 60. NSAIDs were recommended based mainly on the pharmacist's perception of their efficacy, cost and safety. Community pharmacists play an important role in assisting patients in choosing the most appropriate NSAID for their health problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  17. Khan MU, Hassali MA, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM, Zaidi ST, Dhingra S
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0149623.
    PMID: 26901404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149623
    BACKGROUND: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.

    RESULTS: A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8%) believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%). Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%), a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2%) rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p<0.05). Similarly, more experienced pharmacists (> 10 years) held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and practices towards antimicrobial stewardship.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  18. Taha NA, See YL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Oct;24(5):326-32.
    PMID: 26914019 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12256
    OBJECTIVES: The risk for travel-related illnesses has increased with significant growth in international travel, but very few travellers seek travel advice. Community pharmacists can play a vital role in the provision of travel medicine advice due to their accessibility. This study aimed to assess travel medicine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A self-administered KAP questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur identified from the list of licensed community pharmacists in Malaysia year 2014.

    KEY FINDINGS: Questionnaires were returned by 111 pharmacists of 143 distributed (response rate, 78%). Most of the respondents (82%) were not trained in travel medicine. Overall, mean knowledge score was 4.4 ( ± 1.7), indicating a moderate level of knowledge on a variety of travel-related health issues. Community pharmacists who graduated from foreign universities possessed significantly higher knowledge scores than did those who graduated locally (P < 0.05). The majority had a positive attitude towards travel medicine. A vast majority provided travel medicine advice mainly to adults who travel as tourists, and the primary travel advice given was on traveller's diarrhoea.

    CONCLUSION: There are gaps in the knowledge and practice of travel medicine among Malaysian pharmacists. Positive attitudes of pharmacists towards travel medicine and appropriate interventions, such as incorporation of travel medicine in local pharmacy curricula, continuous pharmacy education or certified training may improve the quality of travel advice given and allow pharmacists to be recognised as a credible source of information on travel medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  19. Sawangjit R, Khan TM, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Addiction, 2017 02;112(2):236-247.
    PMID: 27566970 DOI: 10.1111/add.13593
    AIMS: To appraise the evidence critically for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes (pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviours (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID).

    DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    SETTING: Primary care setting.

    PARTICIPANTS: Of 1568 studies screened, 14 studies with 7035 PWID were included.

    MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception to 27 January 2016. All published study designs with control groups that reported the effectiveness of pharmacy-based NSP on outcomes of interest were included. Outcomes of interest are risk behaviour (RB), HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and economic outcomes. The estimates of pooled effects of these outcomes were calculated as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 and χ2 tests.

    FINDINGS: Most studies (nine of 14, 64.3%) were rated as having a serious risk of bias, while 28.6 and 7.1% were rated as having a moderate risk and low risk of bias, respectively. For sharing-syringe behaviour, pharmacy-based NSPs were significantly better than no NSPs for both main (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.34-0.73; I2  = 59.6%) and sensitivity analyses, excluding studies with a serious risk of bias (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.32-0.84; I2  = 41.4%). For safe syringe disposal and HIV/HCV prevalence, the evidence for pharmacy-based NSPs compared with other NSP or no NSP was unclear, as few of the studies reported this and most of them had a serious risk of bias. Compared with the total life-time cost of US$55 640 for treating a person with HIV infection, the HIV prevalence among PWID has to be at least 0.8% (for pharmacy-based NSPs) or 2.1% (for other NSPs) to result in cost-savings.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes appear to be effective for reducing risk behaviours among people who inject drugs, although their effect on HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes is unclear.

    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
  20. Lee SWH, Mak VSL
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Dec;39(6):1166-1170.
    PMID: 29052115 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0540-5
    Background Studies have highlighted the benefits of having community pharmacists to deliver cardiovascular screening to patients. However, only few of such trainings are provided in Malaysia. Objective To describe the implementation and evaluation of a cardiovascular train-the-trainer program for community pharmacists. Method Community pharmacists' attended a 5 h train-the-trainer program. A pre and post-training survey was administered to participants who attended the workshop to determine their requirements for education and effectiveness of the training provided. Results Forty community pharmacists participated and were trained with 35 of them completing both the pre and post training assessment. Participants self-reported confidence, knowledge and ability to conduct a workshop on cardiovascular health increased between 0.22 and 0.75 points post-training (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Community Pharmacy Services*
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