Venoms of Calliophis bivirgata and Calliophis intestinalis exhibited moderate binding activities toward Neuro Bivalent Antivenom (Taiwan) but not the other six elapid monovalent or bivalent antivenoms available in the region. All antivenoms failed to neutralize C. bivirgata venom lethality in mice. The findings indicate the need to validate antivenom cross-reactivity with in vivo cross-neutralization, and imply that distinct antigens of Calliophis venoms should be incorporated in the production of a pan-regional poly-specific antivenom.
The proteome of the Pakistani B. sindanus venom was investigated with reverse-phase HPLC and nano-ESI-LCMS/MS analysis. At least 36 distinct proteins belonging to 8 toxin protein families were identified. Three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (including β-bungarotoxin A-chains) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI) were the most abundant, constituting ~95% of total venom proteins. The other toxin proteins of low abundance are snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), vespryn and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP). The venom was highly lethal to mice with LD50 values of 0.04 μg/g (intravenous) and 0.15 μg/g (subcutaneous). The 3FTx proteins are diverse, comprising kappa-neurotoxins, neurotoxin-like protein, non-conventional toxins and muscarinic toxin-like proteins. Kappa-neurotoxins and β-bungarotoxins represent the major toxins that mediate neurotoxicity in B. sindanus envenoming. Alpha-bungarotoxin, commonly present in the Southeast Asian krait venoms, was undetected. The Indian VINS Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) was immunoreactive toward the venom, and it moderately cross-neutralized the venom lethality (potency = 0.25 mg/ml). VPAV was able to reverse the neurotoxicity and prevent death in experimentally envenomed mice, but the recovery time was long. The unique toxin composition of B. sindanus venom may be considered in the formulation of a more effective pan-regional, polyspecific antivenom. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Bungarus sindanus, an endemic krait species distributed mainly in the Sindh Province of Pakistan is a cause of snake envenomation. Its specific antivenom is, however, lacking. The proteomic study of its venom revealed a substantial presence of κ-bungarotoxins and β-bungarotoxins. The toxin profile corroborates the potent neurotoxicity and lethality of the venom tested in vivo. The heterologous Indian VINS polyvalent antivenom (VPAV) cross-reacted with B. sindanus venom and cross-neutralized the venom neurotoxicity and lethality in mice, albeit the efficacy was moderate. The findings imply that B. sindanus and the phylogenetically related B. caeruleus of India share certain venom epitopes. Research should be advanced to improve the efficacy spectrum of a pan-regional polyspecific antivenom.
An indirect enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of total 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in serum using monoclonal antibodies generated in our laboratory was developed. Here, (a) instead of extraction with solvents, serum was heated to free protein-bound 17OHP and assay was performed at pH 9.6, (b) to ensure uniform assay conditions for both standards and samples, buffer for standards contained charcoal-stripped pre-heated pooled cord serum. Assays were done in 96-well EIA microplates pre-coated with 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-3-(o-carboxymethyl)oxime: bovine serum albumin. Secondary antibody was horseradish peroxidase-linked sheep anti-mouse IgG polyclonal antibody. The method was accurate and suitable for screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Trimeresurus bite is a serious medical problem in Asia. However, at present only a few monospecific Trimeresurus antivenoms are available. Investigation of the cross-neutralization capacity of three Trimeresurus antivenoms indicates that the antivenoms exhibit broad cross-reactivity. A polyvalent Trimeresurus antivenom was also found to be effective in neutralization of the haemorrhagic, necrotizing and thrombin-like activities of heterologous Trimeresurus venoms.
Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. This study investigated the cross-neutralizing potential of three regionally produced anti-cobra antivenoms against the venoms of Malaysian H. schistosus and H. curtus. All three antivenoms conferred paraspecific protection from sea snake venom lethality in mice, with potency increasing in the following order: Taiwan bivalent antivenom < Thai monocled cobra monovalent antivenom < Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (NPAV). NPAV demonstrated cross-neutralizing potencies of 0.4 mg/vial for H. schistosus venom and 0.8 mg/vial for H. curtus, which translates to a dose of less than 20 vials of NPAV to neutralize an average amount of sea snake venom per bite (inferred from venom milking). The cross-neutralization activity was supported by ELISA cross-reactivity between NPAV and the venoms of H. schistosus (58.4%) and H. curtus (70.4%). These findings revealed the potential of NPAV as a second-line treatment for sea snake envenomation in the region. Further profiling of the cross-neutralization activity should address the antivenomic basis using purified toxin-based assays.
The major hemorrhagin from C. purpureomaculatus (mangrove pit viper) venom was purified to homogeneity and termed Maculatoxin. Maculatoxin has a molecular weight of 38 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is an acidic protein (pI= 4.2) and exhibited proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities (MHD10 = 0.84 microg in mice) but was not lethal to mice at a dose of 1 microg/g. The hemorrhagic activity of Maculatoxin was completely inactivated by EDTA and partially inhibited by ATP and citrate. The N-terminal sequence of Maculatoxin (TPEQQRFPPTYIDLGIFVDHGMYAT) shares a significant degree of homology with the metalloprotease domain of other venom hemorrhagins. Indirect ELISA showed anti-Maculatoxin cross reacted with protein components of many snake venoms. In the double-sandwich ELISA, however, anti-Maculatoxin cross-reacted only with venoms of certain species of the Trimeresurus (Asia lance-head viper) complex, and the results support the recent proposed taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.
Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in many rural areas of Asia and Africa. Antivenom has hitherto been the definite treatment for snake envenomation. Owing to a lack of local production of specific antivenom, most countries in these regions fully depend on foreign supplies of antivenoms. Often, the effectiveness of the imported antivenoms against local medically important species has not been validated. This study aimed to assess cross-neutralizing capacity of a recently developed polyvalent antivenom, Hemato Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (HPAV), against venoms of a common viper and some pit vipers from Southeast Asia. Neutralisation assays showed that HPAV was able to effectively neutralize lethality of the common Southeast Asian viperid venoms examined (Calloselasma, Crytelytrops, Popeia, and Daboia sp.) except for Tropidolaemus wagleri venom. HPAV also effectively neutralized the procoagulant and hemorrhagic activities of all the venoms examined, corroboratively supporting the capability of HPAV in neutralizing viperid venoms which are principally hematoxic. The study also indicated that HPAV fully prevented the occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria in mice envenomed with Thai Daboia siamensis venom but was only partially effective against venoms of Myanmar D. siamensis. Thus, HPAV appears to be useful against its homologous venoms and venoms from Southeast Asian viperids including several medically important pit vipers belonging to the Trimeresurus complex. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of HPAV as a paraspecific antivenom for treatment of viperid envenomation in Southeast Asian region requires further assessment from future clinical trials.
An immunofluorescent assay (IFAT) using whole cell antigen derived from Burkholderia thailandensis used for detection of total antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei, was found to compare favorably with a previous published report on a B. pseudomallei IFAT assay. At a 1:20 cut-off titer, the assay had high sensitivity (98.9%) and satisfactory specificity (92.3%), when tested against sera from 94 patients suspected of melioidosis. Sera from 12 patients with culture proven melioidosis gave absolute concordance with the 2 test antigens. No sera from 50 blood donors had a titer of > or =20. Cross-reactivity with patients' sera positive for Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Legionella and typhoid was not observed, except for 3 sera from typhus patients and one from a patient with leptospirosis. The major advantage of this assay is that the cultivation and preparation of B. thailandensis as antigen can be carried out in any laboratory with basic microbiological set-up. The serodiagnosis of melioidosis can be made safe for medical laboratory personnel, particularly in B. pseudomallei endemic regions.
Arboreal pit vipers of the Trimeresurus complex group are medically important species in Indonesia (west of Wallace's line), but there is no specific antivenom produced in the country for treating related envenomation. Instead, the exiting trivalent Indonesian antivenom, Biosave® Serum Anti Bisa Ular (SABU, indicated for envenoming by Malayan pit viper, Javan spitting cobra and banded krait) is often misused to treat Trimeresus envenoming resulting in poor therapeutic outcome. Here, we investigated the cross-reactivity and neutralization capability of Thai Green Pit Viper Antivenom (GPVAV) against the venoms of four Indonesian Trimeresurus species. Consistently, the venoms of Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) insularis, Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus, Trimeresurus (Parias) hageni and Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) puniceus of Indonesia showed stronger immunoreactivity on ELISA to GPVAV than to Biosave®. The findings correlated with in vivo neutralization results, whereby GPVAV was far more effective than Biosave® in cross-neutralizing the lethality of the venoms by a potency of at least 13 to 80 times higher. The efficacy of GPVAV is partly attributable to its cross-neutralization of the procoagulant effect of the venoms, thereby mitigating the progression of venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy. The paraspecific effectiveness of GPVAV against Trimeresurus species envenoming in Indonesia await further clinical investigation.
This study probes into the prospect of cross-reactivity of HCMV with RCMV which has not been acknowledged to date. We describe the uncovering of a protein with an estimated size of between 61-68 kDa from local RCMV strains which reacted with HCMV positive sera. Our findings are a first disclosure of a plausible immunological cross-reactivity between RCMV with its human counterpart which grounds substantial interest implying existence of conserved determinants between rat and human CMV polypeptides. The cross-reactive protein most likely represents an enveloped glycoprotein, though the precise identification and its degree of similarity needs to be evidently defined and further elucidated in forthcoming experiments.
Malaria is caused by multiple different species of protozoan parasites, and interventions in the pre-elimination phase can lead to drastic changes in the proportion of each species causing malaria. In endemic areas, cross-reactivity may play an important role in the protection and blocking transmission. Thus, successful control of one species could lead to an increase in other parasite species. A few studies have reported cross-reactivity producing cross-immunity, but the extent of cross-reactive, particularly between closely related species, is poorly understood. P. vivax and P. knowlesi are particularly closely related species causing malaria infections in SE Asia, and whilst P. vivax cases are in decline, zoonotic P. knowlesi infections are rising in some areas. In this study, the cross-species reactivity and growth inhibition activity of P. vivax blood-stage antigen-specific antibodies against P. knowlesi parasites were investigated. Bioinformatics analysis, immunofluorescence assay, western blotting, protein microarray, and growth inhibition assay were performed to investigate the cross-reactivity. P. vivax blood-stage antigen-specific antibodies recognized the molecules located on the surface or released from apical organelles of P. knowlesi merozoites. Recombinant P. vivax and P. knowlesi proteins were also recognized by P. knowlesi- and P. vivax-infected patient antibodies, respectively. Immunoglobulin G against P. vivax antigens from both immune animals and human malaria patients inhibited the erythrocyte invasion by P. knowlesi. This study demonstrates that there is extensive cross-reactivity between antibodies against P. vivax to P. knowlesi in the blood stage, and these antibodies can potently inhibit in vitro invasion, highlighting the potential cross-protective immunity in endemic areas.
Statistically designed experiments were used in developing a low-serum medium for the production of a diagnostic monoclonal antibody against congenital adrenal hyperplasia using hybridoma 192. A two-level half-fractional factorial design was used for screening six components (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle amino acids, 2-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, ferric citrate, zinc sulfate, and sodium selenite). The experimental design was then augmented to central composite design. The basal Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM; containing 4 mM L-glutamine, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic agent) supplemented with 0.4% by volume fetal bovine serum (FBS), 311.8 mM ferric citrate, 17.3 nM sodium selenite, and 4.5 mM zinc sulfate (LSD) was found to support the growth of the hybridoma. Specific cell growth rate in the LSD (0.033 ± 0.001/h) was slightly lower than in the control medium (i.e., basal DMEM supplemented with 2% FBS; 0.0045 ± 0.003/h). Nevertheless, the specific MAb production rate for LSD was higher (0.057 ± 0.015 pg/cell · h versus 0.004 ± 0.002 pg/cell · h in LSD and control, respectively). The antibody produced in the LSD showed high specificity and no cross-reactivity with the other structural resemblance's steroid hormones, revealing no structural changes owing to the new medium formulation developed. The new medium formulation effectively reduced the medium cost by up to 64.6%.
Pathogenic leptospiras (1,424) isolated from natural waters and wet soils in Malaysia comprised 29 different serovars (synonym serotypes). All except two of the serovars had been found previously in Malaysia. The exceptional serovars were werrasingha, an Autumnalis serogroup member originally isolated in Ceylon, and a new serovar designated evansi. Serovar evansi had serological affinities with serovar ranarum which was isolated from the kidney of a frog in Iowa. The large variety of serovars found in jungle areas was consistent with similar previous findings of diverse serovar infections in troops who had operated in Malaysian jungles.
Green pit viper (Trimeresurus sp.) bite occurred throughout Myanmar, but there is no specific antivenom produced in the country for related envenomation. Instead, Myanmar Russell's viper antivenom (Anti-MRV) was often misused because of prolonged clotting time was observed from both species. Thai green pit viper antivenom (Anti-TGPV) raised against Trimeresurus albolabris was found to be effective against venoms of more than ten Trimeresurus sp. from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. The present study compared the neutralization capacities of Anti-TGPV and Anti-MRV towards the venom from T. erythrurus from Myanmar. Anti-TGPV was more efficacious than Anti-MRV in cross-neutralizing the lethal and haemorrhagic activities of the venom by a potency of a least 1.4 times higher. Although Anti-TGPV effectively cross-neutralized the coagulation activity of the venom, Anti-MRV failed to do so. Immunodiffusion and immunoblot experiments showed that Anti-TGPV cross-reacted with more protein components of the venom than Anti-MRV. In conclusion, Anti-TGPV is a better choice for patients bitten by Myanmar green pit viper, but further clinical investigation is required. The current findings highlight the development of a specific antivenom against Myanmar green pit viper venom.
Hannahtoxin, the major hemorrhagin purified from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom, elicits hemorrhages in rabbits but not in mice. Two antisera against hannahtoxin were prepared: one raised against purified hannahtoxin, while the other was raised against glutaraldehyde cross-linked and detoxified hannahtoxin. The antisera were refined by pepsin digestion and ammonium sulfate precipitation. They are of approximately equal potency in their ability to neutralize the hemorrhagic activity of king cobra venom in rabbits. The antisera did not form a precipitin line with venom of snakes of the Viperidae family nor neutralize hemorrhages elicited in mice by any of these venoms. However, when the hemorrhagic activity was assayed in rabbits, both antisera were able to abolish the hemorrhages elicited by all of the venoms tested. These results suggest that hannahtoxin displays few epitopes in common with hemorrhagins of viperid venoms, except those involved in the neutralization of hemorrhagic activity in rabbits. The epitopes of viperid venom hemorrhagins involved in the neutralization reaction in rabbits are different from those in mice.
Dengue virus type 3 genotype III (DENV-3/III) is widely distributed in most dengue-endemic regions. It emerged in Malaysia in 2008 and autochthonously spread in the midst of endemic DENV-3/I circulation. The spread, however, was limited and the virus did not cause any major outbreak. Spatiotemporal distribution study of DENV-3 over the period between 2005 and 2011 revealed that dengue cases involving DENV-3/III occurred mostly in areas without pre-existing circulating DENV-3. Neutralisation assays performed using sera of patients with the respective infection showed that the DENV-3/III viruses can be effectively neutralised by sera of patients with DENV-3 infection (50% foci reduction neutralisation titres (FRNT50) > 1300). Sera of patients with DENV-1 infection (FRNT50 ⩾ 190), but not sera of patients with DENV-2 infection (FRNT50 ⩽ 50), were also able to neutralise the virus. These findings highlight the possibility that the pre-existing homotypic DENV-3 and the cross-reacting heterotypic DENV-1 antibody responses could play a role in mitigating a major outbreak involving DENV-3/III in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.
Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In this study, the envelope E1 gene of CHIKV was cloned and expressed in a baculovirus system. The recombinant E1 protein with N-term 6-His residues protein was successfully expressed and purified as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. The seroreactivity of the recombinant protein was evaluated in immunoassay for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies. The recombinant antigen showed 69% sensitivity and 100% specificity for anti-CHIKV IgG by dot blot assay. Detection of anti-CHIKV IgM by dot assay showed 79% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No cross reactivity of the antigen was observed with anti-dengue virus serum samples. The results strongly support that the recombinant E1 protein has potential to be used as diagnostic antigen. The used of the antigen in a dot blot assay gives an advantage for laboratory detection without the need of any specialised equipment.
Candida parapsilosis has emerged as one of the most common causes of bloodstream infection worldwide. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis etiological agents to the species level remains a laboratory and clinical challenge. Thus, specific monoclonal antibodies to detect systemic candidiasis and to identify Candida virulence factors and associated pathogenesis through immunohistochemistry would be very useful. Inbred Balb/c mice were immunized with C. parapsilosis antigens, and blood was checked for the presence of reactive antibodies using ELISA. Fusion was performed using the harvested spleen cells and NS1 myeloma cells, and the clones were screened for the presence of antibody producing hybrid cells by dot-blot. The 1B11 clone secreted IgG2a monoclonal antibody that was reactive with the C. parapsilosis antigen at MW of 59 kDa and cross-reacted with C. tropicalis but not with other fungal and bacterial antigens tested. Another 3D1 clone secreted IgG1 monoclonal antibody that was reactive with C. parapsilosis antigen at MW of 30 kDa. The 3D1 monoclonal antibody was found to be species specific. Experimental systemic candidiasis in rats was induced through intravenous injection of C. parapsilosis, and all the vital organs were collected for immunohistochemistry study. These monoclonal antibodies were reactive against surface epitopes on the yeast cells, pseudohyphae, and immune complexes in tissue sections. Sandwich ELISAs using these antibodies were developed and were able to detect circulating antigens in experimental candidiasis in rats at 0.2 μg/μL. These monoclonal antibodies may have potential as primary capture antibodies for the development of rapid diagnostic test for human systemic fungal infection.
Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.