Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Maarof M, Lokanathan Y, Ruszymah HI, Saim A, Chowdhury SR
    Protein J, 2018 12;37(6):589-607.
    PMID: 30343346 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9800-z
    Growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are involved in wound healing. Human dermal fibroblasts secrete wound-healing mediators in culture medium known as dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). However, the composition and concentration of the secreted proteins differ with culture conditions and environmental factors. We cultured human skin fibroblasts in vitro using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (EpiLife™ Medium [KM1] and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium [KM2]) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. We identified and compared their proteomic profiles using bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), 1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS/MS). DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 had higher protein concentrations than DFCM-FM but not statistically significant. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS identified the presence of fibronectin, serotransferrin, serpin and serum albumin. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis identified 59, 46 and 58 secreted proteins in DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. The most significant biological processes identified in gene ontology were cellular process, metabolic process, growth and biological regulation. STRING® analysis showed that most secretory proteins in the DFCMs were associated with biological processes (e.g. wound healing and ECM organisation), molecular function (e.g. ECM binding) and cellular component (e.g. extracellular space). ELISA confirmed the presence of fibronectin and collagen in the DFCMs. In conclusion, DFCM secretory proteins are involved in cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation and migration, which were demonstrated to have potential wound-healing effects by in vitro and in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  2. Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Indian J Exp Biol, 2012 May;50(5):332-9.
    PMID: 22803323
    In the present study in vitro expansion of human keratinocytes by supplementing dermal fibroblasts conditioned medium (DFCM) has been reported. Effect of two different DFCM acquired by culturing fibroblasts in keratinocyte-specific medium (defined keratinocytes serum free medium, DFCM-DKSFM) and fibroblast-specific serum free medium (F12: DMEM nutrient mix, DFCM-FD) have been compared. Growth kinetics of keratinocytes in terms of efficiency of cell attachment, expansion index, apparent specific growth rate and growth potential at the end of culture was evaluated in culture supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD in comparison with control i.e. DKSFM only. Results indicated that supplementation of DFCM caused significant increase in keratinocyte attachment. Efficiency of keratinocyte attachment in culture supplemented with bFCM-DKSFM was significantly higher compared to those cultured in DFCM-FD and DKSFM. In addition, the expansion index of keratinocytes in cultures supplemented with DFCM-DKSFM and DFCM-FD were 3.7 and 2.2 times higher than that of control condition even though the apparent growth rate and proliferative potential was found significantly lower. These results suggested that supplementation of DFCM enhanced expansion of keratinocyte by increasing efficiency of cell attachment, and DFCM-DKSFM provided suitable condition for in vitro expansion of keratinocytes compared to DFCM-FD and control condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  3. Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 22;21(8).
    PMID: 32331278 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082929
    Fibroblasts secrete many essential factors that can be collected from fibroblast culture medium, which is termed dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). Fibroblasts isolated from human skin samples were cultured in vitro using the serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (Epilife (KM1), or define keratinocytes serum-free medium, DKSFM (KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to collect DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively). We characterised and evaluated the effects of 100-1600 µg/mL DFCM on keratinocytes based on attachment, proliferation, migration and gene expression. Supplementation with 200-400 µg/mL keratinocyte-specific DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 enhanced the attachment, proliferation and migration of sub-confluent keratinocytes, whereas 200-1600 µg/mL DFCM-FM significantly increased the healing rate in the wound healing assay, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM was suitable to enhance keratinocyte attachment and proliferation. A real-time (RT2) profiler polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that 42 genes in the DFCM groups had similar fold regulation compared to the control group and most of the genes were directly involved in wound healing. In conclusion, in vitro keratinocyte re-epithelialisation is supported by the fibroblast-secreted proteins in 200-400 µg/mL DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM, which could be useful for treating skin injuries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology*
  4. Megat Nabil Mohsin S, Hussein MZ, Sarijo SH, Fakurazi S, Arulselvan P, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6359-6374.
    PMID: 30349255 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S171390
    Introduction: The potential of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as a host of multiple ultraviolet-ray absorbers was investigated by simultaneous intercalation of benzophenone 4 (B4) and Eusolex® 232 (EUS) in Zn/Al LDH.

    Methods: The nanocomposites were prepared via coprecipitation method at various molar ratios of B4 and EUS.

    Results: At equal molar ratios, the obtained nanocomposite showed an intercalation selectivity that is preferential to EUS. However, the selectivity ratio of intercalated anions was shown to be capable of being altered by adjusting the molar ratio of intended guests during synthesis. Dual-guest nanocomposite synthesized with B4:EUS molar ratio 3:1 (ZEB [3:1]) showed an intercalation selectivity ratio of B4:EUS =53:47. Properties of ZEB (3:1) were monitored using powder X-ray diffractometer to show a basal spacing of 21.8 Å. Direct-injection mass spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and ultraviolet-visible spectra confirmed the dual intercalation of both anions into the interlayer regions of dual-guest nanocomposite. The cytotoxicity study of dual-guest nanocomposite ZEB (3:1) on human dermal fibroblast cells showed no significant toxicity until 25 μg/mL.

    Conclusion: Overall, the findings demonstrate successful customization of ultraviolet-ray absorbers composition in LDH host.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  5. Awang MA, Firdaus MA, Busra MB, Chowdhury SR, Fadilah NR, Wan Hamirul WK, et al.
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2014;24(4):1715-24.
    PMID: 24948455 DOI: 10.3233/BME-140983
    Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  6. Abdull Razis AF, Ismail EN, Hambali Z, Abdullah MN, Ali AM, Mohd Lila MA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2008 Mar;144(3):249-61.
    PMID: 18556814
    Recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF) was successfully expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli system. This system was used OmpA signal sequence to produce soluble protein into the periplasm of E. coli. Human EGF (hEGF) synthesized in bacterial cell was found to be similar in size with the original protein and molecular weight approximately at 6.8 kDa. Cell proliferation assay was conducted to characterize the biological activity of hEGF on human dermal fibroblasts. The synthesized hEGF was found to be functional as compared with authentic hEGF in stimulating cell proliferation and promoting growth of cell. In comparison of biological activity between synthesized and commercial hEGF on cell proliferation, the results showed there was no significant different. This finding indicates the synthesized hEGF in E. coli system is fully bioactive in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  7. Alafiatayo AA, Lai KS, Ahmad S, Mahmood M, Shaharuddin NA
    Genomics, 2020 01;112(1):484-493.
    PMID: 30946891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.03.011
    Exposing the skin to solar UV radiation induces cascades of signaling pathways and biological alterations such as redox imbalance, suppression of antioxidant genes and programmed cell death. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use RNA-Seq to unravel the effects of UV radiation on Normal Human Adult Fibroblast cells (NHDF). Cells were exposed to UV (20 mJ/cm2 for 3 mins) and incubated for 24 h. Total mRNA from the cells generated libraries of 72,080,648 and 40,750,939 raw reads from UV-treated and control cells respectively. Of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) produced 2,007 were up-regulated and 2,791 were down-regulated (fold change ≥2, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology*
  8. Lim CK, Halim AS, Yaacob NS, Zainol I, Noorsal K
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2013 Apr;115(4):453-8.
    PMID: 23177217 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.10.010
    The effects of locally produced chitosan (CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate) in the intervention of keloid pathogenesis were investigated in vitro. A human keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model was established to investigate the protein levels of human collagen type-I, III and V in a western blotting analysis, the secreted transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1's intracellular signaling molecules (SMAD2, 3, 4 and 7) in a real-time PCR analysis. Keratinocyte-fibroblast co-cultures were maintained in DKSFM:DMEM:F12 (2:2:1) medium. Collagen type-I was found to be the dominant form in primary normal human dermal fibroblast (pNHDF) co-cultures, whereas collagen type-III was more abundant in primary keloid-derived human dermal fibroblast (pKHDF) co-cultures. Collagen type-V was present as a minor component in the skin. TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 were expressed more in the pKHDF than the pNHDF co-cultures. Co-cultures with normal keratinocytes suppressed collagen type-III, SMAD2, SMAD4 and TGF-β1 expressions and CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate in association with normal-derived keratinocytes demonstrated an ability to reduce TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 expressions in keloid-derived fibroblast cultures, which may be useful in keloid intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
  9. Soe HJ, Khan AM, Manikam R, Samudi Raju C, Vanhoutte P, Sekaran SD
    J Gen Virol, 2017 Dec;98(12):2993-3007.
    PMID: 29182510 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000981
    Plasma leakage is the main pathophysiological feature in severe dengue, resulting from altered vascular barrier function associated with an inappropriate immune response triggered upon infection. The present study investigated functional changes using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system in four (brain, dermal, pulmonary and retinal) human microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) lines infected with purified dengue virus, followed by assessment of cytokine profiles and the expression of inter-endothelial junctional proteins. Modelling of changes in electrical impedance suggests that vascular leakage in dengue-infected MECs is mostly due to the modulation of cell-to-cell interactions, while this loss of vascular barrier function observed in the infected MECs varied between cell lines and DENV serotypes. High levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL20) and adhesion molecules (VCAM-1) were differentially produced in the four infected MECs. Further, the tight junctional protein, ZO-1, was down-regulated in both the DENV-1-infected brain and pulmonary MECs, while claudin-1, PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin were differentially expressed in these two MECs after infection. Non-purified virus stock was also studied to investigate the impact of virus stock purity on dengue-specific immune responses, and the results suggest that virus stock propagated through cell culture may include factors that mask or alter the DENV-specific immune responses of the MECs. The findings of the present study show that high DENV load differentially modulates human microvascular endothelial barrier function and disrupts the function of inter-endothelial junctional proteins during early infection with organ-specific cytokine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dermis/cytology
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