The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent.
Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a rare tumor that is histologically and immunohistochemically indistinguishable from epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The diagnosis is usually made after excluding gross ovarian involvement or the ovarian involvement is only confined to the surface. A 68-year-old lady presented with right iliac fossa pain and increasing CA125. The CT scan showed bilateral pelvic adnexal masses with peritoneal deposits within the right side of abdomen. She was initially diagnosed as carcinomatosis peritonei from the omental cake removed after exploratory surgery. She was managed as advanced ovarian tumor with peritoneal metastasis and was then administered six cycles of chemotherapy. Surgical intervention included debulking surgery consisting of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy and omentectomy and also with right hemicolectomy. The histopathological findings were of primary peritoneal serous carcinoma with only minimal involvement of the serosal surface of the right ovarian capsule. No microscopic invasion into underlying ovarian cortex and stroma was observed. Multiple tumor deposits were also seen over the right paratubal and paraovarian tissue, both parametrium as well as serosal surface of the terminal ileum and periappendicular tissue. Immunohistochemically, the malignant cells were positive to CA125, focally positive to CK7 and negative to CD20 and Calretinin. PPC is one of important differential diagnosis which needs to be considered in cases of advanced ovarian tumor, although the former can only be ascertained after excluding the ovarian involvement microscopically.
We report a rare case of suppurative epididymo-orchitis caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei in a 56-year-old male. This is a gram negative bacillus found mainly in tropical zones. Diagnosis was reached by culture of the organisms after drainage of the scrotal abscess, and the patient was treated by a course of oral chloramphenicol 500 mg qid for 6 months.