A 16-year-old female from Rantau Panjang, Kelantan reported having diarrhoea for three months. During this period, she lost 15 lb in weight and was treated with antibiotics and anti-spasmodic tablets with no improvement. Stool examinations by private laboratories revealed "worm-like eggs". She was treated for worms with mebendazole which helped to reduce the symptoms but not completely. The patient continued passing out the abnormal "worm-like eggs" which were later identified as pollen grains.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 47 of 2,699 stools examined primarily for the exclusion of cholera. All strains grew well in alkaline peptone water containing 0.5% NaCl and in Monsur's medium. Serotyping showed them to be of various types. Adults were mainly affected. The importance of looking for V. parahaemolyticus in clinical specimens from cases of diarrhea is emphasized.
A community based study was conducted on the understanding and knowledge of childhood diarrhoea and use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), in four selected villages in Tumpat District, Kelantan. The calculated annual incidence of diarrhoeal disease in children aged 0 to four years in all study villages was 1.38 episodes for each child. The main care-givers of children aged 0 to four years were interviewed and asked to demonstrate how to mix a standard ORS (oral rehydration solution) sachet if they had previously used ORT. Forty percent of care-givers had heard of the locally available ORT and 30% had actually used ORT. Of those who had heard of or used ORT, 10% had good knowledge of what it was and what it was used for, 51% had some knowledge and 39% had either no knowledge or inaccurate knowledge. Of care-givers who had previously used ORT only 20.5% demonstrated the correct volume of water to add to one sachet of ORT, but 82% would discard an unused solution within 24 hours. Significantly more literate women had used ORT than those not literate (p = 0.002). Mothers, particularly those literate, are the primary target group for ORT intervention strategies. Components of health education should include advice on what ORS is, what it is used for, and how to correctly mix a standard sachet.
The efficacy of Cary Blair medium was compared with that of Selenite 'F'in the isolation of enteropathogens from 805 cases of diarrhoea. It was shown that use of the Cary Blair medium resulted in a significantly higher rate of isolation. Not only were organisms found which were not isolated from the Selenite 'F' but there was a much higher isolation rate of Salmonella from Cary Blair medium althougn Selenite 'F' is generally considered as an enrichment medium for
Salmonella. The findings indicate that it would be advantageous to introduce Cary Blair medium as the sole transport medium for the isolation of enteropathogensfrom cases ofdiarrhoea.
Over a period of 2 months, 35 of 69 (51%) cases of juvenile diarrhoea studied in eastern Malaysia were associated with rotavirus excretion; rotavirus associated diarrhoea occurred most commonly in the 6-24 month age group. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of genome ribonucleic acid showed that only 4 rotavirus electropherotypes could be detected. Of those, 2 predominated and 2 were detected only once each; one of these may have been a reassortment of the two predominant electropherotypes. Analysis of the clinical features of patients excreting rotavirus subgroup 1 or 2, determined by PAGE, demonstrated that rotavirus subgroup 1 was associated with more hypotonic dehydration and need for intravenous therapy: lethargy was significantly more common among those excreting rotavirus subgroup 2.
In a prospective study of 300 infants with acute gastroenteritis 150 infants had enteropathogens in the stools, 58 being due to rotavirus, 130 to adenovirus, 32 to Sahnonella, 18 Shigella and 29 E. coli. Hypernatraemic dehydration was present in 11% and acquired carbohydrate intolerance in 30% of the infants. Protracted diarrhoea was observed in 8% of infants and was commoner in the bacterial than viral group. The study shows that clinical features and simple blood tests cannot be used as reliable indices of predicting the aetiology of AGE. Despite the diverse aetiology of acute gastroenteritis, rehydration by the oral or intravenous route remained the mainstay of therapy.
Keywords: Kuala Lumpur, university hospital,
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age.
METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, EAEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. were detected by gene-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (30.07%) followed by Rotavirus (26.15%), Shigella (23.84%), Adenovirus (4.61%), Cryptosporidium (3.07%), and Giardia (0.77%). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 44 of 130 (33.84%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (65.90%) compared to children of 2-5 years age group (34.09%). An overall result showed significantly higher detection rates among children with diarrhea in both combinations of two as well as three infections concurrently (p = 0.004915 and 0.03917, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Suspecting possible multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can aid in a better pharmacological management of acute childhood diarrhea. It is hypothesized that in cases with concurrent infections the etiological agents might be complementing each other's strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea that could be studied better in experimental infections.
BACKGROUND: Accurate national estimates of the disease burden associated with rotavirus diarrhea are essential when considering implementation of a rotavirus vaccination program. We sought to estimate rotavirus disease-associated morbidity and mortality in Malaysia, using available sources of information.
METHODS: We analyzed national data from the Ministry of Health (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) to derive rates of hospitalization, clinic visits, and deaths related to acute gastroenteritis (AG) among children <5 years of age. The number of events attributable to rotavirus infection was estimated by multiplying age-stratified rates of detection of rotavirus from 2 hospital surveillance sites by national data.
RESULTS: In 1999 and 2000, an average of 13,936 children (1 in 187 children) were hospitalized annually for AG. Surveillance of visits to outpatient clinics for AG identified an average of 60,342 such visits/year between 1998 and 2000. The AG-associated mortality rate was 2.5 deaths/100,000 children. On the basis of the finding that 50% of children were hospitalized for rotavirus diarrhea, we estimated that 1 in 61 children will be hospitalized for rotavirus disease and that 1 in 37 children will seek treatment as an outpatient.
CONCLUSIONS: Among Malaysian children, there is a significant burden associated with AG- and rotavirus disease-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits, and this burden potentially could be prevented by the use of rotavirus vaccines.
Data source: (1) hospital discharges, (2) clinic visits for AG, and (3) registration of deaths, together with (4) new data from hospital-based rotavirus surveillance studies
The prevalence rate of trichuriasis in children in certain areas of Kelantan is high. However the Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome (TDS), a condition in children characterized by chronic diarrhoea, stunting and anaemia is said to be rare. A recent change in policy at our institution to lower the threshold for undertaking colonoscopy in children with chronic diarrhoea resulted in the detection of 6 cases of TDS in less than a year. The median age was 7 years (range 3-13) and the median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2 years (range 1-8). The insidious nature of TDS and the low level of awareness of this condition even among health care workers may result in considerable underdiagnosis.
Plesiomonas shigelloides was isolated from 5 (2.1%) of the 234 children with diarrhoea and none of the 230 controls. In one child, the organism was found in association with Salmonella. Two strains had Shigella sonnei phase I antigen. All the strains were susceptible to the aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole; but resistant to the penicillins. Alkaline peptone water enrichment subcultured to desoxycholale citrate agar proved to be a useful method for isolating this organism from faeces. As the roie of P. shigelloides in causing gastrointestinal disease remains controversial, further studies are necessary to determine its enteropathogenicily.