Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 47 of 2,699 stools examined primarily for the exclusion of cholera. All strains grew well in alkaline peptone water containing 0.5% NaCl and in Monsur's medium. Serotyping showed them to be of various types. Adults were mainly affected. The importance of looking for V. parahaemolyticus in clinical specimens from cases of diarrhea is emphasized.
A 16-year-old female from Rantau Panjang, Kelantan reported having diarrhoea for three months. During this period, she lost 15 lb in weight and was treated with antibiotics and anti-spasmodic tablets with no improvement. Stool examinations by private laboratories revealed "worm-like eggs". She was treated for worms with mebendazole which helped to reduce the symptoms but not completely. The patient continued passing out the abnormal "worm-like eggs" which were later identified as pollen grains.
A community based study was conducted on the understanding and knowledge of childhood diarrhoea and use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), in four selected villages in Tumpat District, Kelantan. The calculated annual incidence of diarrhoeal disease in children aged 0 to four years in all study villages was 1.38 episodes for each child. The main care-givers of children aged 0 to four years were interviewed and asked to demonstrate how to mix a standard ORS (oral rehydration solution) sachet if they had previously used ORT. Forty percent of care-givers had heard of the locally available ORT and 30% had actually used ORT. Of those who had heard of or used ORT, 10% had good knowledge of what it was and what it was used for, 51% had some knowledge and 39% had either no knowledge or inaccurate knowledge. Of care-givers who had previously used ORT only 20.5% demonstrated the correct volume of water to add to one sachet of ORT, but 82% would discard an unused solution within 24 hours. Significantly more literate women had used ORT than those not literate (p = 0.002). Mothers, particularly those literate, are the primary target group for ORT intervention strategies. Components of health education should include advice on what ORS is, what it is used for, and how to correctly mix a standard sachet.
The efficacy of Cary Blair medium was compared with that of Selenite 'F'in the isolation of enteropathogens from 805 cases of diarrhoea. It was shown that use of the Cary Blair medium resulted in a significantly higher rate of isolation. Not only were organisms found which were not isolated from the Selenite 'F' but there was a much higher isolation rate of Salmonella from Cary Blair medium althougn Selenite 'F' is generally considered as an enrichment medium for
Salmonella. The findings indicate that it would be advantageous to introduce Cary Blair medium as the sole transport medium for the isolation of enteropathogensfrom cases ofdiarrhoea.
Over a period of 2 months, 35 of 69 (51%) cases of juvenile diarrhoea studied in eastern Malaysia were associated with rotavirus excretion; rotavirus associated diarrhoea occurred most commonly in the 6-24 month age group. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of genome ribonucleic acid showed that only 4 rotavirus electropherotypes could be detected. Of those, 2 predominated and 2 were detected only once each; one of these may have been a reassortment of the two predominant electropherotypes. Analysis of the clinical features of patients excreting rotavirus subgroup 1 or 2, determined by PAGE, demonstrated that rotavirus subgroup 1 was associated with more hypotonic dehydration and need for intravenous therapy: lethargy was significantly more common among those excreting rotavirus subgroup 2.
In a prospective study of 300 infants with acute gastroenteritis 150 infants had enteropathogens in the stools, 58 being due to rotavirus, 130 to adenovirus, 32 to Sahnonella, 18 Shigella and 29 E. coli. Hypernatraemic dehydration was present in 11% and acquired carbohydrate intolerance in 30% of the infants. Protracted diarrhoea was observed in 8% of infants and was commoner in the bacterial than viral group. The study shows that clinical features and simple blood tests cannot be used as reliable indices of predicting the aetiology of AGE. Despite the diverse aetiology of acute gastroenteritis, rehydration by the oral or intravenous route remained the mainstay of therapy.
Keywords: Kuala Lumpur, university hospital,
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age.
METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, EAEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. were detected by gene-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (30.07%) followed by Rotavirus (26.15%), Shigella (23.84%), Adenovirus (4.61%), Cryptosporidium (3.07%), and Giardia (0.77%). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 44 of 130 (33.84%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (65.90%) compared to children of 2-5 years age group (34.09%). An overall result showed significantly higher detection rates among children with diarrhea in both combinations of two as well as three infections concurrently (p = 0.004915 and 0.03917, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Suspecting possible multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can aid in a better pharmacological management of acute childhood diarrhea. It is hypothesized that in cases with concurrent infections the etiological agents might be complementing each other's strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea that could be studied better in experimental infections.
Diarrhoea up till now is still a major problem in Southeast Asia with high morbidity and mortality, particularly among children under 5 years of age, with the peak in children between 6 - 24 months. In Indonesia, in 1981, it was estimated that there are 60 million episodes with 300,000 - 500,000 deaths. In the Philippines, diarrhoea ranks as a second cause of morbidity (600 per 100,000 in 1974) and second cause of infant mortality (5 per 1,000 in 1974). In Thailand, in 1980, the morbidity rate was 524 per 100,000 and the mortality rate 14 per 100,000. In Malaysia, in 1976, diarrhoea was still ranking number 5 (3.1%) as a cause of total admission and number 9 (2.2%) as a cause of total deaths. In Singapore, diarrhoea still ranks number 3 as a cause of deaths (4% of total deaths). In Bangladesh, the overall attack rates imply a prevalence of 2.0% for the entire population, with the highest for under 5 groups i.e. 4.1%. The diarrhoea episode in rural population is 85.4%, 39% of them are children under 5. The most common enteropathogens found in all countries are rotavirus followed by Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter. Malnutrition and decline of giving breast-feeding play an important role in causing high morbidity, besides socio-economic, socio-cultural and poor environmental sanitation.
The incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in patients with and without diarrhoea was studied in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. C. jejuni was recovered from 3.8% and 4.3% of diarrhoeal stools of children and adults, respectively. From the patients without diarrhoea, the relative isolation rates for children and adults were 2.6% and 0%, respectively. Dual infections occurred in two children, with Salmonella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli being the other enteric pathogen in each case. Cary-Blair medium was found to be an effective transport medium in recovering C. jejuni. Campylobacter enteritis occurred in patients of various age groups, indicating that this organism should be sought routinely by diagnostic laboratories in faecal specimens from patients with diarrhoea.