The aim of this study was to describe the sociodemographic aspect, clinical presentation and laboratory support, behaviour factor and vector situation of dengue outbreak. Data was obtained from standard investigation format of 84 cases of suspected dengue fever in two main outbreaks localities in Temerloh District from December 2001 to January 2002. The result showed that most of the cases occurred among 11 years old and above, especially in the age group of 11 to 20 years old. Students and female were the most high risk groups. Rashes and petechiae were more prevalent in Taman Sri Semantan which reflect the case incidence there. Serological result showed that seroprevalence for IgM was 66.1 %. Based on dengue rapid test, secondary infection was more prevalent in Taman Sri Kemuning whereas those in Taman Sri Semantan had more primary infection. About 25% of the cases came late to hospital for treatment. Both localities had different mosquito breeding areas. Further studies are needed to identify behaviour aspect of the population with regard to dengue fever in previous main outbreak localities. A more valid and rapid serological test is required for better case identification.
Keywords: Dengue outbreak, risk factors, patient factor, clinical finding, serological test
François Sirois' influential paradigm for diagnosing episodes of epidemic hysteria is discussed. The part of his schema addressing the large diffuse outbreak should be eliminated as it does not possess characteristic features of mass hysteria and overlooks the potential social, cultural, political, ritualistic and institutional patterning of collective behavior. A case study involving the collective delusion of phantom rockets over Sweden during 1946 illustrates the complexities of such episodes.
Although rove beetles (Paederus spp.) play a beneficial role as biological control agents to manage crop pests in agro-ecosystems, their high prevalence in human settings has elevated them to pest status in urban areas. Rove beetles neither bite nor sting, but accidental crushing on human skin causes them to release the toxin paederin, which causes dermatitis linearis. This review integrates currently available knowledge about the issues pertaining to Paederus infestation. For instance, the results of life history studies conducted under different food and temperature regimes are summarized, as they indicate how large a population can be in a habitat to cause massive and widespread infestation and illustrate the physiological traits required to maintain the population at the maximum level even under adverse conditions. In contrast to what is generally reported, we speculate that climatic factors do not necessarily result in Paederus dispersal in temperate regions; instead, habitat disturbance and site unsuitability may be the main factors that lead to massive dispersal to human settings. Factors such as whether dispersers are adaptable to xeric conditions in human settings, the probability that dispersed Paederus mate with the opposite sex, and whether dispersers have adequate nutrient intake to reproduce are considered to evaluate their potential to reproduce in human settings. Finally, the effectiveness of current commercial insecticides, challenges faced in managing infestations, and sustainable management practices are discussed to provide information for long-term control programs.
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted an observational ecological study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed. A total of 1,229 leptospirosis cases were notified within the three study periods where incidence doubled in the postflood period. Twelve of 66 subdistricts recorded incidence rates of over 100 per 100,000 population in the postflood period, in comparison with only four subdistricts in the preflooding period. Average nearest neighborhood analysis indicated that the cases were more clustered in the postflood period as compared with the preflood period, with observed mean distance of 1,139 meters and 1,666 meters, respectively (both at P < 0.01). Global Moran's I was higher in the postflood period (0.19; P < 0.01) as compared with the preflood period (0.06; P < 0.01). Geographic weighted regression showed that living close to water bodies increased the risk of contracting the disease. Postflooding hotspots were concentrated in areas where garbage cleanup occurred and the incidence was significantly associated with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and river levels. Postflooding leptospirosis outbreak was associated with several factors. Understanding the spatial distribution and associated factors of leptospirosis can help improve future disease outbreak management after the floods.
An epidemiological investigation was carried out on a food borne outbreak in a National Type Primary School (Chinese). The findings of the outbreak are reported. Of the 495 Chinese students (ages between 7-12 years) interviewed, 321 were exposed to one or more of the food items sold at the school canteen. The median incubation period was one hour for the outbreak. The main symptoms were related to the upper gastro-intestinal tract (nausea and vomiting). Fried meehoon (rice vermicelli) was suspected as being the responsible vehicle. The causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus. 48 cases were treated in the Main Health Centre, Kapar.
Human brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease and has widespread geographical distribution. Brucella melitensis has caused outbreaks and sporadic cases in Malaysia. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. melitensis strains isolated from brucellosis patients in Malaysia.