Infective colitis can be a cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding requiring acute surgical intervention. Causative organisms include entamoeba and histoplasma species. However, concurrent colonic infection with both these organisms is very rare, and the in vivo consequences are not known. A 58-year-old male presented initially to the physicians with pyrexia of unknown origin and bloody diarrhea. Amoebic colitis was diagnosed based on biopsies, and he was treated with metronidazole. Five days later, the patient developed massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Emergency total colectomy with end-ileostomy was performed. However, he deteriorated and died on the second postoperative day. Histopathological examination revealed multiple deep ulcers at the hepatic flexure where fungal bodies of mycelial and yeast forms were noted. Isolated lymph nodes showed abscess formation with fungal bodies. Infective fungal colitis with Histoplasma capsilatum was diagnosed. In vitro, amoebic parasites can increase virulence and pathogenicity of histoplasma which may account for the fulminant presentation in this patient. Although rare, this unusual dual infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infective colitis, as appropriate antimicrobial treatment may prevent progression to massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding, obviating the need for urgent surgical intervention.
A case of amoebiasis with colonic perforation and ruptured liver abscess is reported. It is rare for both these complications to occur in the same patient. The management is described and the literature reviewed
This is a ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amebiasis in patients admitted to UMMC. A total of 34 cases were analyzed. The most common were amebic liver abscess 22(65%) and the rest were amoebic dysentery 12(35%). Majority of the cases occurred among Malaysians 29(85%), with Chinese 14(41%), followed by the Malays 9(26%) and the Indians 6(18%). Foreigners made up of one Indonesian, one Pakistani and three Myanmarese and constituted 5(15%) of the total cases. Males 24(71%) were more commonly affected. Most of the cases occurred between the age group of 40-49 years, 8(23%) and 60 years and above, 8(23%). Age group of 20-50 years constituted 20(60%) of the cases. The most common clinical presentations were fever with chills and rigors 26(76%), diarrhoea 20 (59%), right hypochondrium pain 17(50%), abdominal pain 17(50%), hepatomegaly 16 (47%) and jaundice 7(20%). All were discharged well after treatment except for one case of death in a 69-year-old Chinese male with amebic liver abscess.
A 10-year experience in the diagnosis and treatment of 92 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in Kuala Lumpur is described. Tuberculosis (34 cases) was the most common inflammatory bowel disease of surgical importance. The clinical presentation of tuberculous enteritis and Crohn's disease is similar, though tuberculosis is strongly suggested by associated pulmonary disease and radiological evidence of caecal involvement. The finding of 10 cases each of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is in keeping with an increased awareness of these conditions in a developing urban society where facilities exist for thorough investigation of diarrhoeal diseases. Amoebiasis sometimes causes a granulomatous lesion simulating carcinoma. Diverticular disease of the colon as known in the West is of very rare occurrence.
A 27-year-old man presented with a two-week history of central colicky abdominal pain associated with loose stools. Further history revealed that he had been exposed to contaminated waters. Stool investigation by direct wet stool smears revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica and Blastocystis hominis cysts. A diagnosis of amoebiasis secondary to E. histolytica and concurrent B. hominis infestation was made. We would like to emphasise the importance of clinical history including recent travel to endemic areas. Any suspicion of parasitic infection should prompt the clinician to investigate. Early diagnosis and management would prevent serious complications associated with E. Histolytica infection.
Amoebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the
intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, most
prevalent in developing countries. It results in 40,000 to
100,000 deaths each year from amoebic colitis and extra
intestinal infections. Amoebic liver abscess (ALA)
is the most common extra intestinal site of infection
with an incidence of between 3% and 9% of all cases of
amoebiasis. Ultrasound which has a sensitivity of more
than 90% for detecting ALA is highly recommended
as an initial investigation followed by serological
demonstration of circulating antibodies specific to
Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml-1. Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml-1. The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.
Amebiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea in the developing countries and it can present with a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms depending on the phase of infection. We described a case of 50 year-old male patient who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. After right hemicolectomy for appendicular abscess with tumour over the ileum, histopathological examinations revealed numerous trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica in a background of inflammations (Figure 1). Following resection of the ameboma, he received intravenous metronidazole treatment for total of two weeks duration.
The indirect hemagglutination test was used to study antibody titers to Entamoeba histolytica in different Malaysian populations. Eighty-seven percent of Orang Asli (western Malaysian aborigines) adults and 79% of Orang Asli children with acute amebic dysentery were seropositive. However, significantly fewer children (39%) with amebic dysentery had high titer responses (titer greater than or equal to 1:1,280) than did adults with amebic dysentery (76%). No correlation between proctoscopic severity and amebic titer was found. Forty-four percent of asymptomatic family members were seroresponders. Satak, an Orang Asli village located near towns, had significantly more seroresponders (32%) than did the isolated, deep jungle village, Belatim (4%).
Amoebiasis, an enteric protozoan disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is a public health problem in many developing countries, causing up to 100,000 fatal cases annually. Detection of the pathogenic E. histolytica and its differentiation from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba spp. play a crucial role in the clinical management of patients. Laboratory diagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis in developing countries still relies on labour-intensive and insensitive methods involving staining of stool sample and microscopy. Newer and more sensitive methods include a variety of antigen detection ELISAs and rapid tests; however, their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity seem to vary between studies, and some tests do not distinguish among the Entamoeba species. Molecular detection techniques are highly sensitive and specific and isothermal amplification approaches may be developed into field-applicable tests; however, cost is still a barrier for their use as a routine laboratory test method in most endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis of extraintestinal amoebiasis faces challenges of lack of definitive detection of current infection and commercially available point-of-care tests. For both types of amoebiasis, there is still a need for highly sensitive and specific tests that are rapid and cost-effective for use in developing countries where the disease is prevalent. In recent years, new molecules of diagnostic value are being discovered and new tests developed. The advances in 'omics' technologies are enabling discoveries of new biomarkers that may help distinguish between different infection stages.
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis and poses a significant health risk for populations in endemic areas. The molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and regulation of the parasite are not well characterized. We aimed to identify and quantify the differentially abundant membrane proteins by comparing the membrane proteins of virulent and avirulent variants of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS, and to investigate the potential associations among the differentially abundant membrane proteins. We performed quantitative proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, in combination with two mass spectrometry instruments, that is, nano-liquid chromatography (nanoLC)-MALDI-MS/MS and nanoLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, 37 membrane proteins were found to be differentially abundant, whereby 19 and 18 membrane proteins of the virulent variant of E. histolytica increased and decreased in abundance, respectively. Proteins that were differentially abundant include Rho family GTPase, calreticulin, a 70-kDa heat shock protein, and hypothetical proteins. Analysis by Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships DB revealed that the differentially abundant membrane proteins were mainly involved in catalytic activities (29.7%) and metabolic processes (32.4%). Differentially abundant membrane proteins that were found to be involved mainly in the catalytic activities and the metabolic processes were highlighted together with their putative roles in relation to the virulence. Further investigations should be performed to elucidate the roles of these proteins in E. histolytica pathogenesis.
Intestinal protozoa are increasingly being studied because of their association with acute and chronic diarrhoea in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patients. Various community outbreaks due to contamination of water or food with these protozoa have further highlighted their importance in public health. Among these important pathogens are Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora belli, and microsporidia. Except for the cyst-forming G. duodenalis and E. histolytica, the others are intracellular and form spores which are passed out with the faeces. These organisms are also found in various animals and birds and zoonotic transmission is thought to occur. These infections are distributed worldwide, with a higher prevalence in developing compared to developed countries. However, the relative importance of zoonotic infections especially in developing countries has not been studied in detail. The prevalence rates are generally higher in immunodeficient compared to immunocompetent patients. Higher prevalence rates are also seen in rural compared to urban communities. Most studies on prevalence have been carried out in developed countries where the laboratory and other health infrastructure are more accessible than those in developing countries. This relative inadequacy of laboratory diagnosis can affect accurate estimates of the prevalence of these infections in developing countries. However, reports of these infections in travellers and workers returning from developing countries can provide some indication of the extent of these problems. Most studies on prevalence of amoebiasis in developing countries were based on morphological identification of the parasite in faecal smears. As the pathogenic E. histolytica is morphologically indistinguishable from that of non-pathogenic E. dispar, estimates of amoebiasis may not be accurate. The epidemiology of human microsporidia infections is not completely understood. Two species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, are associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans and it is believed that human to human as well as animal to human infections occur. However, the importance of zoonotic infections has not been fully characterised. G. duodenalis cysts, microsporidia and Cryptosporidium oocysts have been detected in various ground water resources, but their role in community outbreaks and maintenance of the infection has not been fully characterised. The taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of B. hominis are still controversial. While considered by many as yeast, fungi or protozoon, recent sequence analysis of the complete SSUrRNA gene has placed it within an informal group, the stramenopiles. This review covers recent published data on these zoonotic infections and examines their public health importance in Asian countries.