AIM: To investigate the endothelial activation, inflammation, monocyte-endothelial cell binding and oxidative stress effects of four FD varieties.
METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were incubated with different concentrations of aqueous ethanolic extracts of FD var. trengganuensis (FDT), var. kunstleri (FDK), var. deltoidea (FDD) and var. intermedia (FDI), together with LPS. Protein and gene expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 and p65 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured using ELISA and QuantiGene plex, respectively. Adhesion of monocyte to HCAEC and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by Rose Bengal staining and 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay.
RESULTS: FDK exhibited the highest inhibition of biomarkers in relation to endothelial activation and inflammation, second in reducing monocyte binding (17.3%) compared to other varieties. FDK (25.6%) was also the most potent at decreasing ROS production.
CONCLUSION: FD has anti-atherogenic effects, possibly mediated by NF-κB and eNOS pathways; with FDK being the most potent variety. It is potentially beneficial in mitigating atherogenesis.
METHODS: One hundred thirty-one FH patients, 68 RUC and 214 matched NC were recruited. Fasting lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP), endothelial activation (sICAM-1 and E-selectin) and oxidative stress [oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and F2-isoprostanes (ISP)] were analyzed and independent predictor was determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: hsCRP was higher in FH and RUC compared to NC (mean ± SD = 1.53 ± 1.24 mg/L and mean ± SD = 2.54 ± 2.30 vs 1.10 ± 0.89 mg/L, p E-selectin were higher in FH compared to NC (mean ± SD = 947 ± 742 vs 655 ± 191 ng/mL, p 0.05). FH was an independent predictor for sICAM-1 (p = 0.007), ox-LDL (p
METHODS: We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets.
RESULTS: No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P