Mangrove forest plays a very important role for both ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In Vietnam, mangrove is mainly distributed in the Mekong delta. Recently, mangrove areas in this region decreased rapidly in both quality and quantity. The forest became bare, divided and scattered into many small patches, which was a major driver of ecosystem degradation. Without a quantitative method for effectively assessing mangrove health in the regional scale, the sustainably conserving mangrove is the challenge for the local governments. Remote sensing data has been widely used for monitoring mangrove distributions, while the characterization of spatial metrics is important to understand the underlying processes of mangrove change. The objectives of this study were to develop an approach to monitor mangrove health in Mui Ca Mau, Ca Mau province of Vietnam by utilizing satellite image textures to assess the mangrove patterns. The research result showed that mangrove areas increased double by 2015, but the forest had become more fragmented. We can be seen those changes in land use mainly come from land conversion from forest to shrimp farms, settlements areas and public constructions. The conserving existing mangrove forest in Mui Ca Mau should consider the relations between mangrove health and influencing factors indicated in the manuscript.
The numerous explanations for why Earth's biodiversity is concentrated at low latitudes fail to explain variation in the strength and even direction of the gradient through deep time. Consequently, we do not know if today's gradient is representative of what might be expected on other planets or is merely an idiosyncrasy of Earth's history. We propose a hierarchy of factors driving the latitudinal distribution of diversity: (i) over geologically long time spans, diversity is largely predicted by climate; (ii) when climatic gradients are shallow, diversity tracks habitat area; and (iii) historical contingencies linked to niche conservatism have geologically short-term, transient influence at most. Thus, latitudinal diversity gradients, although variable in strength and direction, are largely predictable on our planet and possibly others.
Ecological effects of alien species can be dramatic, but management and prevention of negative impacts are often hindered by crypticity of the species or their ecological functions. Ecological functions can change dramatically over time, or manifest after long periods of an innocuous presence. Such cryptic processes may lead to an underestimation of long-term impacts and constrain management effectiveness. Here, we present a conceptual framework of crypticity in biological invasions. We identify the underlying mechanisms, provide evidence of their importance, and illustrate this phenomenon with case studies. This framework has potential to improve the recognition of the full risks and impacts of invasive species.
A major programme of dam building is underway in many of the world's tropical countries. This raises the question of whether existing research is sufficient to fully understand the impacts of dams on tropical river systems. This paper provides a systematic review of what is known about the impacts of dams on river flows, sediment dynamics and geomorphic processes in tropical rivers. The review was conducted using the SCOPUS® and Web of Science® databases, with papers analysed to look for temporal and geographic patterns in published work, assess the approaches used to help understand dam impacts, and assess the nature and magnitude of impacts on the flow regimes and geomorphology ('hydromorphology') of tropical rivers. As part of the review, a meta-analysis was used to compare key impacts across different climate regions. Although research on tropical rivers remains scarce, existing work is sufficient to allow us to draw some very broad, general conclusions about the nature of hydromorphic change: tropical dams have resulted in reductions in flow variability, lower flood peaks, reductions in sediment supply and loads, and complex geomorphic adjustments that include both channel incision and aggradation at different times and downstream distances. At this general level, impacts are consistent with those observed in other climate regions. However, studies are too few and variable in their focus to determine whether some of the more specific aspects of change observed in tropical rivers (e.g. time to reach a new, adjusted state, and downstream recovery distance) differ consistently from those in other regions. The review helps stress the need for research that incorporates before-after comparisons of flow and geomorphic conditions, and for the wider application of tools available now for assessing hydromorphic change. Very few studies have considered hydromorphic processes when designing flow operational policies for tropical dams.
The structure of ecological networks reflects the evolutionary history of their biotic components, and their dynamics are strongly driven by ecoevolutionary processes. Here, we present an appraisal of recent relevant research, in which the pervasive role of evolution within ecological networks is manifest. Although evolutionary processes are most evident at macroevolutionary scales, they are also important drivers of local network structure and dynamics. We propose components of a blueprint for further research, emphasising process-based models, experimental evolution, and phenotypic variation, across a range of distinct spatial and temporal scales. Evolutionary dimensions are required to advance our understanding of foundational properties of community assembly and to enhance our capability of predicting how networks will respond to impending changes.
Coastal wetlands including salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth. They are known for improving the quality of coastal water and provisioning coastal fisheries. However, this ecosystem is under potential threat due to urban coastal land reclamation, limited sediment supply, increased nutrient/eutrophication, and sea level rise. Therefore, restoration efforts to protect the degraded salt marsh habitat are considerably increasing worldwide. In this paper, we present an overview of salt marsh restoration techniques and success indicators. Published scientific literature in English language was collected by searching the most relevant keywords from popular search engines, namely, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Mendeley to get the information about salt marsh restoration techniques and success indicators. This study comprehensively reviewed data from 78 peer-reviewed papers. Results indicated that much of the salt marsh was restored through assisted abiotic strategies (e.g., recovery of tidal exchange, managed realignment, and sediment level amendment). A total of 214 indicators were found, spanning over six major ecological attributes such as structural diversity, ecosystem functions, physical conditions, species composition, external exchange, and absence of threat. Author keywords analysis revealed several hotspots for recent research (e.g., 16 s rRNA, fungi, microbial communities, carbon accumulation, and blue carbon). This paper proposes a model for restoring degraded salt marsh, as well as tracking their success. The information presented here will assist the marine ecosystem restoration practitioners in getting a comprehensive understanding of salt marsh restoration success evaluation.
This study aims to identify current and future research trends in sustainable bioenergy production. The systematic review is conducted using a social network analysis method. The data were collected from the Web of Science and Scopus database (2010-2021). Out of the 1747 articles reviewed, 100 were found to be relevant for thematic analysis. The results uncovered four domains of palm oil biodiesel production for sustainable energy management: (1) renewable energy, (2) biodiesel, (3) bioenergy, and (4) life cycle assessment. This study has proposed a sustainable bioenergy production framework based on the four main domains. The framework sheds light on the future of sustainable bioenergy production. The findings indicate the potential growth of the research topic, including sustainable bioenergy, palm oil biodiesel, energy management, and carbon emissions reduction. Future research must incorporate the energy management framework to design a sustainable energy management ecosystem strategy. In addition, the industry must comply with the international sustainability standard and sustainable development goals to manage the energy supply chain and consistency of palm oil biodiesel production.
Systematically analysing the relative importance and hierarchical relationships among the influencing factors of the cross-border e-commerce ecosystem holds rich theoretical value and practical significance for the development of this ecosystem. A total of 19 influencing factors covering four aspects affecting the cross-border e-commerce ecosystem are identified by means of the relevant literature, web pages, research, and discussions with relevant experts and scholars, and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and interpretative structural modeling (ISM) method is used to analyse the cause-effect correlation of each factor and to obtain a cause-effect diagram and a multi-level recursive structure model. The results show that three factors, i.e., the e-commerce platform development level, cross-border e-commerce competitiveness, and the cross-border e-commerce transaction scale, have a greater degree of influence on the other influencing factors. Additionally, three factors, i.e., the information development level, GDP, and cross-border online shopping demand, are vulnerable to the influence of the other factors. The level of cross-border e-commerce platform development, cross-border e-commerce competitiveness, and inter-firm competition are the root factors and occupy an important position in the cross-border e-commerce ecosystem as influencing factors and influence the stability of the cross-border e-commerce ecosystem by affecting the other factors.
This paper introduces the concept of free surface breakwaters for coastal protection. The advantages, limitations and applications of these breakwaters are discussed. Based on their configurations, free surface breakwaters have been classified into four types, namely solid-type, plate-type, caisson-type and multipart-type. Typical designs of the respective breakwater types are presented and the hydraulic characteristics are reviewed. In addition, comparisons of hydraulic efficiency of some of the free surface breakwaters are also addressed in this paper.
Due to widespread distribution of dwarf bamboo, Chimonobambusa utilis, in mountain environment, the effects of elevation (low and high) and canopy condition (forest understorey and forest edge) on the clonal morphology and leaf fluctuating asymmetry were investigated in an evergreen broadleaves forest of Jinfo Mountain Nature Reserve. Elevation and canopy condition were significant for all morphological traits of C. utilis (except for effect of elevation on node number under branch). Traits of clonal morphology such as height, basal diameter, height under branch tended to be higher in forest understorey and in high elevation. Forest understorey in high elevation was favour of shooting number. Interaction of elevation and canopy conditions had a significant effect on growth of node. Single leaf area (SLA) and all indices of fluctuating asymmetry were significantly higher in low elevation than that in high elevation of forest understorey. Thus, elevation and canopy condition formed environmental stress that lead to the adaptation of morphological traits and leaf fluctuating asymmetry of C. utilis populations to mountain forest habitats.
Seagrass systems of the Western Pacific region are biodiverse habitats, providing vital services to ecosystems and humans over a vast geographic range. SeagrassNet is a worldwide monitoring program that collects data on seagrass habitats, including the ten locations across the Western Pacific reported here where change at various scales was rapidly detected. Three sites remote from human influence were stable. Seagrasses declined largely due to increased nutrient loading (4 sites) and increased sedimentation (3 sites), the two most common stressors of seagrass worldwide. Two sites experienced near-total loss from of excess sedimentation, followed by partial recovery once sedimentation was reduced. Species shifts were observed at every site with recovering sites colonized by pioneer species. Regulation of watersheds is essential if marine protected areas are to preserve seagrass meadows. Seagrasses in the Western Pacific experience stress due to human impacts despite the vastness of the ocean area and low development pressures.
In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF.
Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox's Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m(-2)) and station II (8517 individuals m(-2)) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p > 0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation.
Logging, pervasive across the lowland tropics, affects millions of hectares of forest, yet its influence on nutrient cycling remains poorly understood. One hypothesis is that logging influences phosphorus (P) cycling, because this scarce nutrient is removed in extracted timber and eroded soil, leading to shifts in ecosystem functioning and community composition. However, testing this is challenging because P varies within landscapes as a function of geology, topography and climate. Superimposed upon these trends are compositional changes in logged forests, with species with more acquisitive traits, characterized by higher foliar P concentrations, more dominant. It is difficult to resolve these patterns using traditional field approaches alone. Here, we use airborne light detection and ranging-guided hyperspectral imagery to map foliar nutrient (i.e. P, nitrogen [N]) concentrations, calibrated using field measured traits, over 400 km2 of northeastern Borneo, including a landscape-level disturbance gradient spanning old-growth to repeatedly logged forests. The maps reveal that canopy foliar P and N concentrations decrease with elevation. These relationships were not identified using traditional field measurements of leaf and soil nutrients. After controlling for topography, canopy foliar nutrient concentrations were lower in logged forest than in old-growth areas, reflecting decreased nutrient availability. However, foliar nutrient concentrations and specific leaf area were greatest in relatively short patches in logged areas, reflecting a shift in composition to pioneer species with acquisitive traits. N:P ratio increased in logged forest, suggesting reduced soil P availability through disturbance. Through the first landscape scale assessment of how functional leaf traits change in response to logging, we find that differences from old-growth forest become more pronounced as logged forests increase in stature over time, suggesting exacerbated phosphorus limitation as forests recover.