Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Kiah ML, Nabi MS, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA
    J Med Syst, 2013 Oct;37(5):9971.
    PMID: 24037086 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-013-9971-2
    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records*
  2. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010;39(1):30-5.
    PMID: 20335647
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records*
  3. El-Hassan O, Sharif A, Al Redha M, Blair I
    PMID: 29295053
    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), health services have developed greatly in the past 40 years. To ensure they continue to meet the needs of the population, innovation and change are required including investment in a strong e-Health infrastructure with a single transferrable electronic patient record. In this paper, using the Emirate of Dubai as a case study, we report on the Middle East Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM). Between 2011-2016, the number of participating hospitals has increased from 23 to 33. Currently, while 20/33 of hospitals are at Stage 2 or less, 10/33 have reached Stage 5. Also Dubai's median EMRAM score in 2016 (2.5) was higher than the scores reported from Australia (2.2), New Zealand (2.3), Malaysia (0.06), the Philippines (0.06) and Thailand (0.5). EMRAM has allowed the tracking of the progress being made by healthcare facilities in Dubai towards upgrading their information technology infrastructure and the introduction of electronic medical records.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records*
  4. Yau WC, Phan RC
    J Med Syst, 2013 Dec;37(6):9993.
    PMID: 24194093 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-013-9993-9
    Many authentication schemes have been proposed for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) to ensure the privacy, integrity, and availability of patient records. These schemes are crucial for TMIS systems because otherwise patients' medical records become susceptible to tampering thus hampering diagnosis or private medical conditions of patients could be disclosed to parties who do not have a right to access such information. Very recently, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems in a recent issue of Journal of Medical Systems. They claimed that the authentication scheme can withstand various attacks and it is secure to be used in TMIS. In this paper, we show that this authentication scheme is vulnerable to key-compromise impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks upon compromising of a smart card, and parallel session attacks. We also exploit weaknesses in the password change phase of the scheme to mount a denial-of-service attack. Our results show that this scheme cannot be used to provide security in a telecare medicine information system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/standards
  5. Alanazi HO, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Kiah ML, Al-Bakri SH
    J Med Syst, 2015 Jan;39(1):165.
    PMID: 25481568 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-014-0165-3
    This study has two objectives. First, it aims to develop a system with a highly secured approach to transmitting electronic medical records (EMRs), and second, it aims to identify entities that transmit private patient information without permission. The NTRU and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cryptosystems are secured encryption methods. The AES is a tested technology that has already been utilized in several systems to secure sensitive data. The United States government has been using AES since June 2003 to protect sensitive and essential information. Meanwhile, NTRU protects sensitive data against attacks through the use of quantum computers, which can break the RSA cryptosystem and elliptic curve cryptography algorithms. A hybrid of AES and NTRU is developed in this work to improve EMR security. The proposed hybrid cryptography technique is implemented to secure the data transmission process of EMRs. The proposed security solution can provide protection for over 40 years and is resistant to quantum computers. Moreover, the technique provides the necessary evidence required by law to identify disclosure or misuse of patient records. The proposed solution can effectively secure EMR transmission and protect patient rights. It also identifies the source responsible for disclosing confidential patient records. The proposed hybrid technique for securing data managed by institutional websites must be improved in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/organization & administration*
  6. Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Al-Haiqi A, Kiah ML, Hussain M, Abdulnabi M
    J Biomed Inform, 2015 Feb;53:390-404.
    PMID: 25483886 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.11.012
    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records*
  7. Kiah ML, Haiqi A, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014 Nov;117(2):360-82.
    PMID: 25070757 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.07.002
    The use of open source software in health informatics is increasingly advocated by authors in the literature. Although there is no clear evidence of the superiority of the current open source applications in the healthcare field, the number of available open source applications online is growing and they are gaining greater prominence. This repertoire of open source options is of a great value for any future-planner interested in adopting an electronic medical/health record system, whether selecting an existent application or building a new one. The following questions arise. How do the available open source options compare to each other with respect to functionality, usability and security? Can an implementer of an open source application find sufficient support both as a user and as a developer, and to what extent? Does the available literature provide adequate answers to such questions? This review attempts to shed some light on these aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/organization & administration*
  8. Jayabalan M, O'Daniel T
    J Med Syst, 2016 Dec;40(12):261.
    PMID: 27722981
    This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/organization & administration*
  9. Simon SK, Seldon HL
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2012;182:125-32.
    PMID: 23138087
    A target of telehealth is to maintain or improve the health of people outside the normal healthcare infrastructure. A modern paradigm in healthcare, and one which fits perfectly with telehealth, is "person self-monitoring", and this fits with the concept of "personal health record" (PHR). One factor in maintaining health is to monitor physiological parameters; this is of course especially important in people with chronic maladies such as diabetes or heart disease. Parameters to be monitored include blood pressure, pulse rate, temperature, weight, blood glucose, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. So one task within telehealth would be to help monitor an individual's physiological parameters outside of healthcare institutions and store the results in a PHR in a way which is available, comprehensible and beneficial to the individual concerned and to healthcare providers. To date many approaches to this problem have been fragmented - emphasizing only part of the problem - or proprietary and not freely verifiable. We describe a framework to approach this task; it emphasizes the implementation of standards for data acquisition, storage and transmission in order to maximize the compatibility among disparate components, e.g. various PHR systems. Data from mobile biosensors is collected on a smartphone using the IEEE 11073 standard where possible; the data can be stored in a PHR on the phone (using standard formats) or can be converted in real-time into more useful information in the PHR, which is based on the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC2e). The phone PHR data or information can be uploaded to a central online PHR using either the Wi-Fi or GSM transmission protocol together with the Continuity of Care Record message format (CCR, ASTM E2369).
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/instrumentation; Electronic Health Records/organization & administration*
  10. Usir E, Lua PL, Majeed AB
    J Pharm Pract, 2012 Jun;25(3):374-80.
    PMID: 22551563 DOI: 10.1177/0897190012442218
    This study aimed to determine the availability and usage of printed and electronic references and Patient Medication Record in community pharmacy. It was conducted for over 3 months from 15 January to 30 April 2007. Ninety-three pharmacies participated. Structured questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacies. Six weeks later a reminder was sent to all non responders, who were given another six weeks to return the completed questionnaire. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test of independence. Almost all the pharmacies (96.8%) have at least Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) while 78.5% have at least MIMS ANNUAL in their stores. Only about a third (31.2%) of the pharmacies were equipped with online facilities of which the majority referred to medical websites (88.9%) with only a minority (11.1%) referring to electronic journals. More than half (59.1%) of the pharmacists kept Patient Medication Record profiles with 49.1% storing it in paper, 41.8% electronically and 9.1% in both printed and electronic versions. In general, prevalence and usage of electronic references in community pharmacies were rather low. Efforts should be increased to encourage wider usage of electronic references and Patient Medication Records in community pharmacies to facilitate pharmaceutical care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/trends; Electronic Health Records/utilization*
  11. Lai BF, Safii R, Nyulang L, Dunggau C, Riffin MA, Khu FM, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):237-241.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TelePrimary Care (TPC) to monitor immunization programmed in a clinic. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination was selected as an example because its coverage has not been satisfactory when compared to that of other vaccinations, which generally exceed 90%.
    Methods Data for all children who were eligible for JE vaccination (age range from 9 months to 30 months) who attended Sarikei Health Clinic between 1 January 2007 till 31 June 2008, was extracted from the TPC database and analyzed for completeness and timeliness of JE vaccination.
    Results The analysis showed that although 1,243 children were eligible to receive their first dose of J vaccine at 9 months of age, only 560 (45%) received it. 15 (3%) received on time, and 545 (97%) received it late (age range from 10 months to 20 months). Out of the 560 who were scheduled to receive their second dose of JE vaccine four weeks after the first, 382 (88%) received it on time, and 55 (12%) received it late. Only 78 (18%) out of 429 children aged between 18 months to 24 months received their booster dose; 52 (67%) received it on time and 26 (33%) received it late.TPC not only enables health staff to monitor immunization coverage and timeliness accurately, but it also helps them to identify defaulters quickly so that these children can be traced and immunized. Doing these tasks manually is time-consuming and tedious, leading to delays in tracing defaulters.
    Conclusions TPC provides an effective system for staff to easily access real time child health data to monitor and audit their immunization programme and take remedial action where necessary.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Sarikei, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  12. Bulgiba, A.M.
    JUMMEC, 2006;9(1):39-43.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of the study was to research the use of a simple neural network in diagnosing angina in patients complaining of chest pain. A total of 887 records were extracted from the electronic medical record system (EMR) in Selayang Hospital, Malaysia. Simple neural networks (simple perceptrons) were built and trained using a subset of 470 records with and without pre-processing using principal components analysis (PCA). These were subsequently tested on another subset of 417 records. Average sensitivity of 80.75% (95% CI 79.54%, 81.96%), specificity of 41.64% (95% CI 40.13%, 43.15%), PPV of 46.73% (95% CI 45.20%, 48.26%) and NPV of 77.39% (95% CI 76.11%, 78.67%) were achieved with the simple perceptron. When PCA pre-processing was used, the perceptrons had a sensitivity of 1.43% (95% CI 1.06%, 1.80%), specificity of 98.32% (95% CI 97.92%, 98.72%), PPV of 32.95% (95% CI 31.51%, 34.39%) and NPV of 61.33% (95% CI 59.84%, 62.82%). These results show that it is possible for a simple neural network to have respectable sensitivity and specificity levels for angina.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  13. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010 Mar;39(1):30-35.
    PMID: 28683624 DOI: 10.1177/183335831003900105
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  14. Ghaibeh AA, Kasem A, Ng XJ, Nair HLK, Hirose J, Thiruchelvam V
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2018;247:386-390.
    PMID: 29677988
    The analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is attracting a lot of research attention in the medical informatics domain. Hospitals and medical institutes started to use data mining techniques to gain new insights from the massive amounts of data that can be made available through EHRs. Researchers in the medical field have often used descriptive statistics and classical statistical methods to prove assumed medical hypotheses. However, discovering new insights from large amounts of data solely based on experts' observations is difficult. Using data mining techniques and visualizations, practitioners can find hidden knowledge, identify interesting patterns, or formulate new hypotheses to be further investigated. This paper describes a work in progress on using data mining methods to analyze clinical data of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cancer patients. NPC is the fifth most common cancer among Malaysians, and the data analyzed in this study was collected from three states in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Sabah and Sarawak), and is considered to be the largest up-to-date dataset of its kind. This research is addressing the issue of cancer recurrence after the completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. We describe the procedure, problems, and insights gained during the process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  15. Sayyah Gilani M, Iranmanesh M, Nikbin D, Zailani S
    Inform Health Soc Care, 2017 Mar;42(2):153-165.
    PMID: 27100821 DOI: 10.3109/17538157.2016.1160245
    Electronic medical records (EMRs) have been proven to be effective tools for improving the safety and quality of healthcare despite their relatively low usage rate in hospitals. The long-term development by EMRs depends on the continued use of healthcare professionals. In this study, technology continuance theory (TCT) was used to evaluate the short-term and long-term continuance acceptance of EMRs among healthcare professionals. Data were gathered by surveying 195 medical professionals in Iran. The data were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The analysis showed that the TCT provided a deep understanding of user continuance intention toward EMRs. In addition, the findings illustrated that the determinants of continuance intention vary between short-term and long-term users. The theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/utilization*
  16. Mohd Nor NA, Taib NA, Saad M, Zaini HS, Ahmad Z, Ahmad Y, et al.
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2019 Feb 04;19(Suppl 13):402.
    PMID: 30717675 DOI: 10.1186/s12859-018-2406-9
    BACKGROUND: Advances in medical domain has led to an increase of clinical data production which offers enhancement opportunities for clinical research sector. In this paper, we propose to expand the scope of Electronic Medical Records in the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) using different techniques in establishing interoperability functions between multiple clinical departments involving diagnosis, screening and treatment of breast cancer and building automatic systems for clinical audits as well as for potential data mining to enhance clinical breast cancer research in the future.

    RESULTS: Quality Implementation Framework (QIF) was adopted to develop the breast cancer module as part of the in-house EMR system used at UMMC, called i-Pesakit©. The completion of the i-Pesakit© Breast Cancer Module requires management of clinical data electronically, integration of clinical data from multiple internal clinical departments towards setting up of a research focused patient data governance model. The 14 QIF steps were performed in four main phases involved in this study which are (i) initial considerations regarding host setting, (ii) creating structure for implementation, (iii) ongoing structure once implementation begins, and (iv) improving future applications. The architectural framework of the module incorporates both clinical and research needs that comply to the Personal Data Protection Act.

    CONCLUSION: The completion of the UMMC i-Pesakit© Breast Cancer Module required populating EMR including management of clinical data access, establishing information technology and research focused governance model and integrating clinical data from multiple internal clinical departments. This multidisciplinary collaboration has enhanced the quality of data capture in clinical service, benefited hospital data monitoring, quality assurance, audit reporting and research data management, as well as a framework for implementing a responsive EMR for a clinical and research organization in a typical middle-income country setting. Future applications include establishing integration with external organization such as the National Registration Department for mortality data, reporting of institutional data for national cancer registry as well as data mining for clinical research. We believe that integration of multiple clinical visit data sources provides a more comprehensive, accurate and real-time update of clinical data to be used for epidemiological studies and audits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records*
  17. Salmasi S, Wimmer BC, Khan TM, Zaidi STR, Ming LC
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2018 Feb;14(2):207-209.
    PMID: 28330781 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.015
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  18. Ahmadi H, Nilashi M, Ibrahim O, Raisian K
    Curr Health Sci J, 2016 03 29;42(1):82-93.
    PMID: 30568817 DOI: 10.12865/CHSJ.42.01.12
    As Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have a great possibility for rising physician's performance in their daily work which improves quality, safety and efficiency in healthcare, they are implemented throughout the world (Boonstra and Broekhuis, 2010). In physician practices the rate of EMRs adoption has been slow and restricted (around 25%) according to Endsley, Baker, Kershner, and Curtin (2005) in spite of the cost savings through lower administrative costs and medical errors related with EMRs systems. The core objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyse meso-level factors introduced by Lau et al, 2012, perceived by physicians to the adoption of EMRs in order to give more knowledge in primary care setting. Finding was extracted through questionnaire which distributed to 350 physicians in primary cares in Malaysia to assess their perception towards EMRs adoption. The findings showed that Physicians had positive perception towards some features related to technology adoption success and emphasized EMRs had helpful impact in their office. The fuzzy TOPSIS physician EMRs adoption model in meso-level developed and its factors and sub-factors discussed in this study which provide making sense of EMRs adoption. The related factors based on meso-level perspective prioritized and ranked by using the fuzzy TOPSIS. The purpose of ranking using these approaches is to inspect which factors are more imperative in EMRs adoption among primary care physicians. The result of performing fuzzy TOPSIS is as a novelty method to identify the critical factors which assist healthcare organizations to inspire their users in accepting of new technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  19. Chan JCN, Lim LL, Luk AOY, Ozaki R, Kong APS, Ma RCW, et al.
    Diabetes Care, 2019 Nov;42(11):2022-2031.
    PMID: 31530658 DOI: 10.2337/dci19-0003
    In 1995, the Hong Kong Diabetes Register (HKDR) was established by a doctor-nurse team at a university-affiliated, publicly funded, hospital-based diabetes center using a structured protocol for gathering data to stratify risk, triage care, empower patients, and individualize treatment. This research-driven quality improvement program has motivated the introduction of a territory-wide diabetes risk assessment and management program provided by 18 hospital-based diabetes centers since 2000. By linking the data-rich HKDR to the territory-wide electronic medical record, risk equations were developed and validated to predict clinical outcomes. In 2007, the HKDR protocol was digitalized to establish the web-based Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Program complete with risk levels and algorithms for issuance of personalized reports to reduce clinical inertia and empower self-management. Through this technologically assisted, integrated diabetes care program, we have generated big data to track secular trends, identify unmet needs, and verify interventions in a naturalistic environment. In 2009, the JADE Program was adapted to form the Risk Assessment and Management Program for Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in the publicly funded primary care clinics, which reduced all major events by 30-60% in patients without complications. Meanwhile, a JADE-assisted assessment and empowerment program provided by a university-affiliated, self-funded, nurse-coordinated diabetes center, aimed at complementing medical care in the community, also reduced all major events by 30-50% in patients with different risk levels. By combining universal health coverage, public-private partnerships, and data-driven integrated care, the Hong Kong experience provides a possible solution than can be adapted elsewhere to make quality diabetes care accessible, affordable, and sustainable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records
  20. Pahl C, Zare M, Nilashi M, de Faria Borges MA, Weingaertner D, Detschew V, et al.
    J Biomed Inform, 2015 Jun;55:174-87.
    PMID: 25900270 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.04.004
    This work investigates, whether openEHR with its reference model, archetypes and templates is suitable for the digital representation of demographic as well as clinical data. Moreover, it elaborates openEHR as a tool for modelling Hospital Information Systems on a regional level based on a national logical infrastructure. OpenEHR is a dual model approach developed for the modelling of Hospital Information Systems enabling semantic interoperability. A holistic solution to this represents the use of dual model based Electronic Healthcare Record systems. Modelling data in the field of obstetrics is a challenge, since different regions demand locally specific information for the process of treatment. Smaller health units in developing countries like Brazil or Malaysia, which until recently handled automatable processes like the storage of sensitive patient data in paper form, start organizational reconstruction processes. This archetype proof-of-concept investigation has tried out some elements of the openEHR methodology in cooperation with a health unit in Colombo, Brazil. Two legal forms provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health have been analyzed and classified into demographic and clinical data. LinkEHR-Ed editor was used to read, edit and create archetypes. Results show that 33 clinical and demographic concepts, which are necessary to cover data demanded by the Unified National Health System, were identified. Out of the concepts 61% were reused and 39% modified to cover domain requirements. The detailed process of reuse, modification and creation of archetypes is shown. We conclude that, although a major part of demographic and clinical patient data were already represented by existing archetypes, a significant part required major modifications. In this study openEHR proved to be a highly suitable tool in the modelling of complex health data. In combination with LinkEHR-Ed software it offers user-friendly and highly applicable tools, although the complexity built by the vast specifications requires expert networks to define generally excepted clinical models. Finally, this project has pointed out main benefits enclosing high coverage of obstetrics data on the Clinical Knowledge Manager, simple modelling, and wide network and support using openEHR. Moreover, barriers described are enclosing the allocation of clinical content to respective archetypes, as well as stagnant adaption of changes on the Clinical Knowledge Manager leading to redundant efforts in data contribution that need to be addressed in future works.
    Matched MeSH terms: Electronic Health Records/organization & administration*
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