Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Lu XF, Wang ZG, Wang BY
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2004 Jun;25(6):541-3.
    PMID: 15231143
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  2. Matlani M, Chakravarti A, Rawal A, Kashyap B, Gurtoo A
    Trop Doct, 2009 Apr;39(2):115-6.
    PMID: 19299303 DOI: 10.1258/td.2008.080257
    As well as dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever-dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), other atypical manifestations of dengue virus infection have also been reported. The frequency of CNS involvement in dengue remains unknown, although isolated cases with neurological manifestations have been reported in Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Burma, Puerto Rico and India. We present two cases of encephalitis associated with DF and DHF from New Delhi, India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  3. Lo MK, Rota PA
    J Clin Virol, 2008 Dec;43(4):396-400.
    PMID: 18835214 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.08.007
    Nipah virus first emerged in Malaysia and Singapore between 1998 and 1999, causing severe febrile encephalitis in humans with a mortality rate of close to 40%. In addition, a significant portion of those recovering from acute infection had relapse encephalitis and long-term neurological defects. Since its initial outbreak, there have been numerous outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, in which the mortality rate rose to approximately 70%. These subsequent outbreaks were distinct from the initial outbreak, both in their epidemiology and in their clinical presentations. Recent developments in diagnostics may expedite disease diagnosis and outbreak containment, while progress in understanding the molecular biology of Nipah virus could lead to novel therapeutics and vaccines for this deadly pathogen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  4. Ternhag A, Penttinen P
    Lakartidningen, 2005 Apr;102(14):1046-7.
    PMID: 15892474
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  5. Tan CT, Wong KT
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2003 Jan;32(1):112-7.
    PMID: 12625108
    INTRODUCTION: Between September 1998 and June 1999, there was a severe outbreak of viral encephalitis among the pig farm workers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a review of the published literature related to the outbreak with the focus on human diseases.

    RESULTS: The encephalitis was caused by a newly discovered paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, later named Nipah virus. There were 265 patients with acute encephalitis. The disease is thought to spread from pig to man through close contact. The risk of human-to-human spread is thought to below. The disease affected mainly adult Chinese males, half of whom had affected family members. The disease presented mainly as acute encephalitis with a short incubation period of less than two weeks, with the main symptoms of fever, headache, and giddiness followed by coma. Distinctive clinical signs include segmental myoclonus, areflexia and hypotonia, hypertension, and tachycardia. Initial cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 75% of patients. Serology was helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed distinctive changes of multiple, discrete, and small high signal lesions, best seen with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Mortality was high at 40% and death was probably due to severe brainstem involvement. The main necropsy finding in acute encephalitis was that of disseminated microinfarction associated with vasculitis and direct neuronal involvement. Ribavirin was able to reduce the mortality by 36%. Relapse encephalitis was seen in 7.5% of those who recovered from acute encephalitis, and late-onset encephalitis in 3.4% of those with initial non-encephalitic or asymptomatic diseases. The mean interval between initial illness and the onset of the complication was 8.4 months. The relapse and late-onset encephalitis which manifested as focal encephalitis arose from recurrent infection.

    CONCLUSION: Nipah virus, a recently discovered paramyxovirus, causes a unique encephalitis with high mortality as well as relapse and late-onset encephalitis. The infection is mainly spread from pigs to man.

    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  6. Easton A
    BMJ, 1999 May 08;318(7193):1232.
    PMID: 10231244
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  7. Hinson VK, Tyor WR
    Curr. Opin. Neurol., 2001 Jun;14(3):369-74.
    PMID: 11371762
    Over 100 viruses have been associated with acute central nervous system infections. The present review focuses on some of the most common agents of viral encephalitis, as well as important emerging viral encephalitides. In this context, the initial detection of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere during the 1999 New York City outbreak, the first description of Nipah virus in Malaysia, and the appearance in Asia of a new neurovirulent enterovirus 71 strain that causes severe neurologic disease are highlighted. In addition, advances regarding diagnosis, neuroimaging and treatment of Japanese and herpes simplex encephalitis are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  8. Fong MY, Yusup R, Yusof R, Lam SK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2004 Jun;98(6):379-81.
    PMID: 15099995
    The amino acid sequences of the envelope (E) protein of four encephalitogenic and five non-encephalitogenic dengue 3 virus strains isolated in Malaysia were determined and compared. Multiple sequence alignment revealed a high degree of similarity in the E protein of the strains suggesting that neurovirulence of these four encephalitogenic strains is not attributed to this protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  9. Caplan CE
    CMAJ, 1999 Jun 15;160(12):1697.
    PMID: 10410627
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  10. Yew MMT, Lip JQ, Ling APK
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Sep 01;38(3):435-445.
    PMID: 34608117 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.3.086
    Ever since the first reported case series on SARS-CoV-2-induced neurological manifestation in Wuhan, China in April 2020, various studies reporting similar as well as diverse symptoms of COVID-19 infection relating to the nervous system were published. Since then, scientists started to uncover the mechanism as well as pathophysiological impacts it has on the current understanding of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor which is present in certain parts of the body which are responsible for regulating blood pressure and inflammation in a healthy system. Presence of the receptor in the nasal and oral cavity, brain, and blood allows entry of the virus into the body and cause neurological complications. The peripheral and central nervous system could also be invaded directly in the neurogenic or hematogenous pathways, or indirectly through overstimulation of the immune system by cytokines which may lead to autoimmune diseases. Other neurological implications such as hypoxia, anosmia, dysgeusia, meningitis, encephalitis, and seizures are important symptoms presented clinically in COVID-19 patients with or without the common symptoms of the disease. Further, patients with higher severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are also at risk of retaining some neurological complications in the long-run. Treatment of such severe hyperinflammatory conditions will also be discussed, as well as the risks they may pose to the progression of the disease. For this review, articles pertaining information on the neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were gathered from PubMed and Google Scholar using the search keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", and "neurological dysfunction". The findings of the search were filtered, and relevant information were included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  11. Chua KB
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):69-73.
    PMID: 21329176 MyJurnal
    The outbreak of Nipah virus, affecting pigs and pig-farm workers, was first noted in September 1998 in the north-western part of peninsular Malaysia. By March 1999, the outbreak had spread to other pig-farming areas of the country, inclusive of the neighbouring country, Singapore. A total of 283 human cases of viral encephalitis with 109 deaths were recorded in Malaysia from 29 September 1998 to December 1999. During the outbreak period, a number of surveillances under three broad groups; Surveillance in Human Health Sector, Surveillance in Animal Health Sector, and Surveillance for the Reservoir Hosts, were carried out to determine the prevalence, risk of virus infections and transmission in human and swine populations as well as the source and reservoir hosts of Nipah virus. Surveillance data showed that the virus spread rapidly among pigs within infected farms and transmission was attributed to direct contact with infective excretions and secretions. The spread of the virus among pig farms within and between states of peninsular Malaysia was due to movement of pigs. The transmission of the virus to humans was through close contact with infected pigs. Human to human transmission was considered a rare event though the Nipah virus could be isolated from saliva, urine, nasal and pharyngeal secretions of patients. Field investigations identified fruitbats of the Pteropid species as the natural reservoir hosts of the viruses. The outbreak was effectively brought under control following the discovery of the virus and institution of correct control measures through a combined effort of multi-ministerial and multidisciplinary teams working in close co-operation and collaboration with other international agencies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  12. Chow VT, Tambyah PA, Yeo WM, Phoon MC, Howe J
    J Clin Virol, 2000 Dec;19(3):143-7.
    PMID: 11090749
    BACKGROUND: between 1998 and 1999, an outbreak of potentially fatal viral encephalitis erupted among pig farm workers in West Malaysia, and later spread to Singapore where abattoir workers were afflicted. Although Japanese encephalitis virus was initially suspected, the predominant aetiologic agent was subsequently confirmed to be Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus related to but distinct from Hendra virus.

    OBJECTIVE: to describe a case of Nipah virus encephalitis in a pig farm worker from Malaysia.

    STUDY DESIGN: the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of this patient were scrutinized. Special emphasis was placed on the electron microscopic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen from this patient.

    RESULTS: the neurological deficits indicative of cerebellar involvement were supported by the magnetic resonance imaging that showed prominent cerebellar and brainstem lesions. CSF examination provided further evidence of viral encephalitis. Complement fixation and/or RT-PCR assays were negative for Japanese encephalitis, herpes simplex, measles and mumps viruses. ELISA for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Hendra viral antigens were equivocal for the CSF specimen, and tested initially negative for the first serum sample but subsequently positive for the repeat serum sample. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively-stained preparations of CSF revealed enveloped virus-like structures fringed with surface projections as well as nucleocapsids with distinctive helical and herringbone patterns, features consistent with those of other paramyxoviruses, including Hendra virus.

    CONCLUSION: this case report reiterates the relevant and feasible role of diagnostic electron microscopy for identifying and/or classifying novel or emerging viral pathogens for which sufficiently specific and sensitive tests are lacking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  13. Chua BH, McMinn PC, Lam SK, Chua KB
    J Gen Virol, 2001 Nov;82(Pt 11):2629-39.
    PMID: 11602774
    The complete nucleotide sequences are reported of two strains of echovirus 7, the prototype Wallace strain (Eo7-Wallace) and a recent Malaysian strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with fatal encephalomyelitis (Eo7-UMMC strain). The molecular findings corroborate the serological placement of the UMMC strain as echovirus 7. Both Eo7-Wallace and Eo7-UMMC belong to the species human enterovirus B and are most closely related to echovirus 11. Eo7-UMMC has undergone significant genetic drift from the prototype strain in the 47 years that separate the isolation of the two viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Eo7-UMMC did not arise from recombination with another enterovirus serotype. The molecular basis for the severely neurovirulent phenotype of Eo7-UMMC remains unknown. However, it is shown that mutations in the nucleotide sequence of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Eo7-UMMC result in changes to the putative structure of the 5' UTR. It is possible that these changes contribute to the neurovirulence of Eo7-UMMC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  14. Cardosa MJ, Hooi TP, Kaur P
    PMID: 8629059
    This study was carried out to determine if Japanese encephalitis virus is an important causative agent of viral encephalitis among pediatric admissions in Penang, Malaysia. 195 children with CNS symptoms and 482 children with non-specific febrile illness admitted into the Pediatric Ward of Penang Hospital during a 16 month period were entered into the study. The presence in serum of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) specific IgM was determined by an IgM capture ELISA and cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific IgM was determined using a commercially available kit (Behringwerke AG). It was determined that 5 of 13 children with a discharge diagnosis of viral encephalitis had JEV specific IgM in csf, indicating that 38.5% of the viral encephalitis cases was due to JEV. One of the non-JEV cases was found to have mumps virus specific IgM in csf, while no etiology was determined for the other cases. It was also determined that 4 of the 195 (2.1%) cases with CNS symptoms had IgM to CMV, suggesting CMV may be an agent of encephalopathy in children in Penang. Other viruses found to be associated with CNS symptoms in children admitted into our study were measles and herpes simplex virus. A viral etiology was confirmed for 13 or the 195 cases (6.7%). We also screened 482 non-specific febrile cases for IgM to JEV and to dengue viruses and found that 2 (0.4%) had IgM specific for JEV and 9 (1.9%) had IgM specific for dengue virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  15. Goldsmith CS, Whistler T, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, et al.
    Virus Res, 2003 Mar;92(1):89-98.
    PMID: 12606080
    Nipah virus, which was first recognized during an outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in Peninsular Malaysia during 1998-1999, is most closely related to Hendra virus, another emergent paramyxovirus first recognized in Australia in 1994. We have studied the morphologic features of Nipah virus in infected Vero E6 cells and human brain by using standard and immunogold electron microscopy and ultrastructural in situ hybridization. Nipah virions are enveloped particles composed of a tangle of filamentous nucleocapsids and measured as large as 1900 nm in diameter. The nucleocapsids measured up to 1.67 microm in length and had the herringbone structure characteristic for paramyxoviruses. Cellular infection was associated with multinucleation, intracytoplasmic nucleocapsid inclusions (NCIs), and long cytoplasmic tubules. Previously undescribed for other members of the family Paramyxoviridae, infected cells also contained an inclusion formed of reticular structures. Ultrastructural ISH studies suggest these inclusions play an important role in the transcription process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  16. Chua KB
    PMID: 22782307 DOI: 10.1007/82_2012_218
    Until the Nipah outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, knowledge of human infections with the henipaviruses was limited to the small number of cases associated with the emergence of Hendra virus in Australia in 1994. The Nipah outbreak in Malaysia alerted the global public health community to the severe pathogenic potential and widespread distribution of these unique paramyxoviruses. This chapter briefly describes the initial discovery of Nipah virus and the challenges encountered during the initial identification and characterisation of the aetiological agent responsible for the outbreak of febrile encephalitis. The initial attempts to isolate Nipah virus from the bat reservoir host are also described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  17. Stone R
    Science, 2011 Mar 4;331(6021):1128-31.
    PMID: 21385693 DOI: 10.1126/science.331.6021.1128
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  18. Maisner A, Neufeld J, Weingartl H
    Thromb. Haemost., 2009 Dec;102(6):1014-23.
    PMID: 19967130 DOI: 10.1160/TH09-05-0310
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that was first isolated in 1999 during an outbreak in Malaysia. In contrast to other paramyxoviruses NiV infects many mammalian species. Because of its zoonotic potential, the high pathogenicity and the lack of therapeutic treatment, NiV was classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen. In humans NiV causes a severe acute encephalitis whereas in some animal hosts respiratory symptoms are predominantly observed. Despite the differences in the clinical outcome, microvascular endothelial cell damage predominantly underlies the pathological changes in NiV infections in all susceptible host species. NiV generally induces a pronounced vasculitis which is primarily characterised by endothelial cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. For future developments of specific antiviral therapies or vaccines, a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of NiV pathogenesis is required. This article reviews the current knowledge about natural and experimental infections in different mammals, focusing on the main organ and cell tropism in vivo, and summarises some recent studies in cell culture on the role of ephrin-B2 and -B3 receptors in NiV infection of endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
  19. Chan YF, AbuBakar S
    Virol J, 2005;2:74.
    PMID: 16122396
    At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had >= 85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology*
  20. Chong HT, Kamarulzaman A, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Thayaparan T, Kunjapan SR, et al.
    Ann Neurol, 2001 Jun;49(6):810-3.
    PMID: 11409437
    Nipah virus, a newly identified paramyxovirus caused a severe outbreak of encephalitis in Malaysia with high fatalities. We report an open-label trial of ribavirin in 140 patients, with 54 patients who were managed prior to the availability of ribavirin or refused treatment as control. There were 45 deaths (32%) in the ribavirin arm; 29 deaths (54%) occurred in the control arm. This represents a 36% reduction in mortality (p = 0.011). There was no associated serious side effect. This study suggests that ribavirin is able to reduce the mortality of acute Nipah encephalitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis, Viral/virology
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