Laboratory studies utilizing radioisotopic techniques were conducted to determine the adsorption, desorption, and mobility of endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxanthiepin3-oxide) and methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphorothioate) in sandy loam and clay soils of the Cameron Highlands and the Muda rice-growing area, respectively. High Freundlich adsorption distribution coefficients [Kads(f)] for endosulfan (6.74 and 18.75) and low values for methamidophos (0.40 and 0.98) were obtained in the sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. The observed Koc values for endosulfan were 350.85 (sandy loam) and 1143.19 (clay) while Koc values of 20.92 (sandy loam) and 59.63 (clay) were obtained for methamidophos. Log Kow of 0.40 and 1.25 were calculated for endosulfan as well as -1.96 and -1.21 for methamidophos in the sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. Desorption was common to both pesticides but the desorption capacity of methamidophos from each soil type far exceeded that of endosulfan. Soil thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column studies showed that while methamidophos was very mobile in both soils, endosulfan displayed zero mobility in clay soil.
Acute and chronic effects of insecticide-endosulfan on the survival and reproduction performance of Moina macrocopa were determined in a laboratory study. Endosulfan concentrations that cause 50% mortality (LC50) after exposure for 24 and 48 h were 3.34 and 0.16 mg L(-1), respectively. Average longevity, initial age of reproduction and intrinsic rate of natural increase were reduced at 0.002 mg L(-1). Fecundity was greatly reduced by about 70% at 0.0004 mg L(-1) and approximately 97% at 0.002 mg L(-1) as compared to control organisms throughout the whole life span of 15 days. If environmental concentration of endosulfan do not exceed 0.0004 mg L(-1), application of this insecticide is unlikely to induce detrimental effects on these cladoceran populations in agro-ecosystem.
A method has been developed for the determination of trace levels of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, and endosulfan diol in rat plasma and tissue samples. Endosulfan and its metabolites in the plasma samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction Chromabond-end-capped C18 cartridges and analyzed by a Shimadzu QP-5050A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) with quadrupole detector in selected-ion-monitoring mode. The analysis of endosulfan and its metabolites in liver and kidney samples involved solvent extraction, Florisil solid-phase-extraction cleanup, and quantitation by GCMS. Recovery experiments for the plasma and tissue samples were conducted over concentration ranges of 10-100 ng mL(-1) and 100-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of trace levels of endosulfan and its metabolites in plasma and tissue samples collected from an animal study. Trace levels of alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan in the ranges of undetectable to 3.11 microg g(-1) and undetectable to 1.19 microg g(-1), respectively, were detected in the kidney samples, whereas trace levels of endosulfan sulfate in the range of 0.02-0.22 microg g(-1) were detected in the liver samples of rats. Neither endosulfan nor its metabolites was detected in any of the plasma samples.
This study investigates the presence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in streams and the lake in the Sembrong Lake Basin in Malaysia. The catchment of Sembrong Lake has been converted to agricultural areas over the past 30 years, with oil palm plantations and modern agricultural farming being the main land use. Surface water samples were collected from eight sites comprising the stream and lake and analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In situ measurement of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were also undertaken at each site. Aldrin, endrin, δ-BHC, 4,4-DDT, methoxychlor and endosulfan were the main OCPs detected in the lake basin. The total OCP concentration ranged between 5.42 and 349.2 ng/L. The most frequently detected OCPs were δ-BHC, heptachlor and aldrin. The maximum values detected were 23.0, 43.2 and 50.4 ng/L respectively. The highest concentration of OCPs was attributed to 4,4-DDT, but such high residue was rare and only detected once. Other OCP residues were low. Significant differences in the mean values were observed between lake and stream for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and α-endosulfan concentration (p endosulfan, endrin and methoxychlor residues were found in lake sites, while the highest 4,4,-DDT residues were observed for the river sites. Temporal variation of OCP residues was observed for heptachlor and β-endosulfan. The highest concentrations of pesticide residues were found in October. DDX and α/ɣ ratios indicate possible fresh inputs of the OCP pesticide in the basin.
An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.
A total of seven pesticides and eight alkylphenols were monitored using this method for the determination of their trace levels in human cord blood. The pesticides are lindane, diazinon, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlorpyrifos and endrin; while the alkylphenols are 4-n-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, nonylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol and bisphenol A. The pesticides and alkylphenols in the cord blood samples were extracted with solid phase extraction IST C18 cartridges and analyzed by selected ion monitoring mode using quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Trace levels of pesticide and alkylphenols in the range of non-detectable to 15.17 ng ml(-1), were detected in the human cord blood samples. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in blood samples is consistent, reliable and cost effective while reducing wastage of time and solvents.
A glutathione S-transferase (GST) with a potential dehalogenation function against various organochlorine substrates was identified from a polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-degrading organism, Acidovorax sp. KKS102. A homolog of the gene BphK (biphenyl upper pathway K), named BphK-KKS, was cloned, purified and biochemically characterized. Bioinformatic analysis indicated several conserved amino acids that participated in the catalytic activity of the enzyme, and site-directed mutagenesis of these conserved amino acids revealed their importance in the enzyme's catalytic activity. The wild-type and mutant (C10F, K107T and A180P) recombinant proteins displayed wider substrate specificity. The wild-type recombinant GST reacted towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide. The mutated recombinant proteins, however, showed significant variation in specific activities towards the substrates. A combination of a molecular docking study and a chloride ion detection assay showed potential interaction with and a dechlorination function against 2-, 3- and 4-chlorobenzoates (metabolites generated during PCB biodegradation) in addition to some organochlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, endosulfan and permethrin). It was demonstrated that the behavior of the dechlorinating activities varied among the wild-type and mutant recombinant proteins. Kinetic studies (using CDNB and glutathione) showed that the kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, Kcat and Km/Kcat were all affected by the mutations. While C10F and A180P mutants displayed an increase in GST activity and the dechlorination function of the enzyme, the K107T mutant displayed variable results, suggesting a functional role of Lys107 in determining substrate specificity of the enzyme. These results demonstrated that the enzyme should be valuable in the bioremediation of metabolites generated during PCB biodegradation.
An ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research should meet several characteristics, such as low cost and amenable for high throughput testing. Javanese medaka (JM) has been widely used in the ecotoxicological studies related to the marine and freshwater environment, but rarely utilized for biomedical research. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of using JM in the neurotoxicology research was assessed using biochemical comparison with an established model organism, the zebrafish. Identification of biochemical changes due to the neurotoxic effects of ethanol and endosulfan was assessed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Treatment with ethanol affected the level of lipids, proteins, glycogens and nucleic acids in the brain of JM. Meanwhile, treatment with endosulfan showed alteration in the level of lipids and nucleic acids. For the zebrafish, exposure to ethanol affected the level of protein, fatty acid and amino acid, and exposure to endosulfan induced alteration in the fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and protein in the brain of zebrafish. The sensitive response of the JM toward chemicals exposure proved that it was a valuable model for neurotoxicology research. More studies need to be conducted to further develop JM as an ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research.