Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 106 in total

  1. Lee MJ, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM, Tan SC
    Anal Biochem, 2020 06 15;599:113733.
    PMID: 32302607 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2020.113733
    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of mitragynine, other closely related Kratom alkaloids and metabolites was developed using polyclonal antibodies. Mitragynine was conjugated to a carrier protein, cationized-bovine serum albumin using Mannich reaction. The synthesized antigen was injected into rabbits to elicit specific polyclonal antibodies against mitragynine. An enzyme conjugate was synthesized for evaluating its performance with the antibodies produced. The assay had an IC50 of 7.3 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 15 ng/mL for mitragynine. Antibody produced have high affinity for mitragynine (100%), other closely related Kratom alkaloids such as paynantheine (54%), speciociliatine (63%), 7α-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine (83%) and cross-reacted with metabolites 9-O-demethyl mitragynine (79%), 16-carboxy mitragynine (103%), 9-O-demethyl mitragynine sulfate (263%), 9-O-demethyl mitragynine glucuronide (60%), 16-carboxy mitragynine glucuronide (60%), 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy mitragynine sulfate (270%) and 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro mitragynine glucuronide (34%). It showed cross-reactivity less than 0.01% to reserpine, codeine, morphine, caffeine, methadone, amphetamine, and cocaine. Ten-fold dilution urine was used in the assay to reduce the matrix effects. The recovery ranged from 83% to 112% with variation coefficients in intraday and interday less than 8% and 6%, respectively. The ELISA turned out to be a convenient tool to diagnose mitragynine, other closely related Kratom alkaloids and metabolites in human urine samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  2. Sue MJ, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Tan SW
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:653014.
    PMID: 24971343 DOI: 10.1155/2014/653014
    Polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is an immunodetection method that can quantify PCR product directly after immobilization of biotinylated DNA on a microplate. This method, which detects nucleic acid instead of protein, is a much more sensitive method compared to conventional PCR method, with shorter analytical time and lower detection limit. Its high specificity and sensitivity, together with its semiquantitative ability, give it a huge potential to serve as a powerful detection tool in various industries such as medical, veterinary, and agricultural industries. With the recent advances in PCR-ELISA, it is envisaged that the assay is more widely recognized for its fast and sensitive detection limit which could improve overall diagnostic time and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  3. Lakshmipriya T, Gopinath SC, Tang TH
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0151153.
    PMID: 26954237 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151153
    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard assay for detecting and identifying biomolecules using antibodies as the probe. Improving ELISA is crucial for detecting disease-causing agents and facilitating diagnosis at the early stages of disease. Biotinylated antibody and streptavidin-conjugated horse radish peroxide (streptavidin-HRP) often are used with ELISA to enhance the detection of various kinds of targets. In the present study, we used a competition-based strategy in which we pre-mixed free biotin with streptavidin-HRP to generate high-performance system, as free biotin occupies some of the biotin binding sites on streptavidin, thereby providing more chances for streptavidin-HRP to bind with biotinylated antibody. ESAT-6, which is a protein secreted early during tuberculosis infection, was used as the model target. We found that 8 fM of free biotin mixed with streptavidin-HRP anchored the higher detection level of ESAT-6 by four-fold compared with detection without free biotin (only streptavidin-HRP), and the limit of detection of the new method was 250 pM. These results suggest that biotin-streptavidin competition can be used to improve the diagnosis of analytes in other types of sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  4. Nazaimoon W, Ng ML, Bak K
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Jun;15(1):75-83.
    PMID: 8277795
    A simple, non-isotopic in-house enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) for human growth hormone (GH) was developed. The assay involved using in-house polyclonal anti-GH adsorbed onto 96-well microtitre plates, commercially prepared mouse monoclonal anti-GH, and goat anti-mouse IgG horseradish peroxidase detection system. Results of recovery and parallelism studies ranged from 95%-106% and 98%-101% respectively, of the expected values. The detection limit of the assay was 0.008 mIU/well or the equivalent to 0.4 mIU/L of undiluted serum. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variations were 4.8%-7.9% and 6.5%-8.7% respectively. Serum GH levels measured in this assay correlated well with those measured in established in-house radioimmunoassays (r = 0.985, p < 0.001) and immunoradiometric assay from NETRIA (r = 0.984, p < 0.001).
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  5. Goh KH, Goh ML, Thean ET, Khalid BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Dec;47(4):248-60.
    PMID: 1303476
    A supersensitive ELISA was developed for measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in serum using in-house rabbit polyclonal antisera and a commercial monoclonal antibody. The assay was optimised and validated by recovery, linearity and cross-reactivity experiments and further compared to other available assays and EQAS samples. Good precision was obtained with a working assay range of 0.2 to 100 mIU/L with < 10% coefficient of variation (CV) for both intra and interassay. The assay is highly sensitive and specific with a minimum detectable limit of 0.07 mIU/L and negligible cross-reactivities against LH, FSH, HCG and other pituitary peptides. Good correlations were obtained when compared to Abbott hTSH EIA (r = 0.993; p < 0.001; n = 85) and NETRIA IRMA (r + 0.995; p < 0.001; n = 76). The normal reference range established was 0.4 to 4.0 mIU/L (n = 76). TSH levels in serum of thyrotoxic patients (n = 83) were significantly lower (0.07 to 0.20 mIU/L, p < 0.0001) and completely distinct from normal values thereby obviating the requirement of a TRH-stimulation test. Stability studies showed that coated wells can be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 2 months. This highly sensitive in-house hTSH ELISA which is cheap, stable and readily available is useful for diagnosis and management of patients with various thyroid disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  6. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Tan Farrizam SN, Arifin N
    Adv Parasitol, 2020;109:131-152.
    PMID: 32381194 DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.003
    Toxocariasis is a human infection primarily caused by larvae of Toxocara canis from dogs, and also by T. cati from cats. Children have a more significant risk of acquiring the infection due to their closer contact with pets, and greater chances of ingesting soil. Diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and serological data. Indirect IgG ELISA is a widely used serodiagnostic method for toxocariasis, with native T. canis TES most commonly used as the antigen. Western blots, using the same antigen, can be used to confirm positive ELISA findings to reduce false-positive results. Improvements in Toxocara serodiagnosis include the use of recombinant TES antigens, simpler and more rapid assay formats, and IgG4 subclass detection. Also, incorporation of recombinant T. cati TES protein increases the diagnostic sensitivity. Development of antigen detection tests using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies, or aptamers can complement the antibody detection assays, and enhance the effectiveness of the serodiagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  7. Lakshmipriya T, Gopinath SCB, Hashim U, Murugaiyah V
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Dec;105(Pt 1):796-800.
    PMID: 28732727 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.07.115
    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a standard assay that has been used widely to validate the presence of analyte in the solution. With the advancement of ELISA, different strategies have shown and became a suitable immunoassay for a wide range of analytes. Herein, we attempted to provide additional evidence with ELISA, to show its suitability for multi-analyte detection. To demonstrate, three clinically relevant targets have been chosen, which include 16kDa protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human blood clotting Factor IXa and a tumour marker Squamous Cell Carcinoma antigen. Indeed, we adapted the routine steps from the conventional ELISA to validate the occurrence of analytes both in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions. With the homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, we could attain the sensitivity of 2, 8 and 1nM for the targets 16kDa protein, FIXa and SSC antigen, respectively. Further, the specific multi-analyte validations were evidenced with the similar sensitivities in the presence of human serum. ELISA assay in this study has proven its applicability for the genuine multiple target validation in the heterogeneous solution, can be followed for other target validations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  8. Hunsperger EA, Yoksan S, Buchy P, Nguyen VC, Sekaran SD, Enria DA, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Oct;8(10):e3171.
    PMID: 25330157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003171
    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  9. Noordin R, Smith HV, Mohamad S, Maizels RM, Fong MY
    Acta Trop, 2005 Jan;93(1):57-62.
    PMID: 15589798
    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, normally relies on a combination of the presence of clinical signs and symptoms backed by positive serology. The use of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES) in ELISA assays increases the test specificity. However, in tropical countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic, cross-reactivity from antibodies to these intestinal parasites poses a significant limitation for Toxocara serodiagnosis. To increase the specificity of serodiagnosis, we compared the use of IgG-ELISA to the use of IgG4-ELISA using commercially manufactured TES-coated plates. The sensitivity of the IgG-ELISA was 97.1%, while that of the IgG4-ELISA was 45.7%; the specificities were 36.0 and 78.6%, respectively. The study shows that employing both assays can improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. An IgG4 immunoassay would also be useful in the secondary screening of antigen clones in the effort to develop improved serological tests for toxocariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  10. Ng LC, Teng LC, Ng ML, Sazali BS, Khalid BA
    Malays J Pathol, 2000 Dec;22(2):73-8.
    PMID: 16329538
    Detection of microalbuminuria is important in the management of diabetic patients since it is predictive of development of proteinuria and nephropathy. Two sensitive and specific in-house ELISAs for microalbuminuria were established and validated. One of the ELISAs was based on antigen coating while the other employed antibody coating. Recovery and linearity experiments gave acceptable results of 100 +/- 10%, while precision results were <10% for intra-assay and <12% for inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs). The standard curve ranged from 10-625 ug/l, equivalent to 0.2-12.5 mg/l for urine samples diluted 1:20 fold. When the antibody coated ELISA was compared to antigen coated ELISA, a correlation of r=0.996 was obtained. When compared to commercial kits, the in-house ELISAs gave good correlations of r=0.961 versus the Boehringer Mannheim Micral Test strips and r=0.940 versus Ames Microalb Turbidimetry. The normal microalbumin reference ranges determined for 12h, first morning and random urine samples were 0.7-5.3 mg, 0.1-10.2 mg/l and 0.8-26.1 mg/l respectively. The normal albumin excretion rate (AER) was 1.0-7.3 ug/min while untimed urine samples gave results of 0.1-0.9 and 0.2-1.6 mg/mmol after dividing by creatinine concentrations. The ELISAs were used to detect microalbuminuria in 338 random urine samples from diabetic patients. A high percentage 47.9% was found to be positive for microalbuminuria and 18.0% had macroalbuminuria >25 mg/mmol. Thus screening for microalbuminuria together with creatinine measurements using random urine samples can be used for management of diabetic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  11. Muniandy S, Qvist R, Zaini A, Chinna K, Ismail IS
    PMID: 16295560
    The concentration of plasma sialic acid was estimated using the modified chemical method and the more sensitive enzymatic method in 20 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 control subjects. The mean sialic acid concentration values of the control subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance using the enzymatic method were 1.747 +/- 0.047 and 2.583 +/- 0.070 mmole/l and 1.753 +/- 0.067 and 2.591 +/- 1.02 mmole/l for the chemical method. The intra-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 1.963% and 1.583%, respectively, for the enzymatic assay and 2.728% and 2.431%, respectively, for the chemical assay. The inter-assay coefficient of variation for the control subjects and for the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were 2.686% and 2.723% for the enzymatic assay, and 3.819% and 3.95% for the chemical assay. Since the values do not differ significantly, the chemical assay is a cost effective method that can be used in large epidemiological studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  12. Rahmah N, Ashikin AN, Anuar AK, Ariff RH, Abdullah B, Chan GT, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1998 12 16;92(4):404-6.
    PMID: 9850392
    A polymerase chain reaction assay based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) has been developed to detect Brugia malayi infection in an area of low endemicity in Malaysia. Blood samples from 239 subjects were tested: 192 amicrofilaraemic individuals, 14 microfilaraemic persons and 3 chronic elephantiasis cases from endemic areas and 30 city-dwellers (non-endemic controls). PCR products were examined by ELISA and Southern hybridization. In the PCR-ELISA, digoxigenin-labelled PCR products were hybridized to a biotin-labelled probe. This was followed by incubation in streptavidin-coated microtitre wells and detection using anti-digoxigenin-peroxidase and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)]. All microfilaraemic samples were positive by PCR-ELISA and Southern hybridization and all samples from non-endemic subjects and chronic elephantiasis patients were negative. The PCR-ELISA detected 12 times as many B. malayi infections as did thick blood film examination. Nineteen of the 194 samples from the endemic area gave positive results by both PCR-ELISA and Southern hybridization, and an additional 5 samples were positive by PCR-ELISA only. The PCR-ELISA was specific and sensitive, detected more infections, and was more reproducible than Southern hybridization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  13. Lam SK, Devine PL
    Clin Diagn Virol, 1998 May 1;10(1):75-81.
    PMID: 9646004
    Rapid diagnosis of dengue infection is essential to patient management and disease control. The development of a rapid (5 min) immunochromatographic test and a 2 h commercial capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies may lead to more rapid and accurate testing in peripheral health settings and diagnostic laboratories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  14. Lam SK
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Jun;15(1):9-12.
    PMID: 8277797
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  15. Eamsobhana P, Mak JW, Yong HS
    PMID: 9139382
    A specific monoclonal antibody (AW-3C2) as revealed by ELISA was produced against the adult worm antigens of Parastrongylus cantonensis and used in a sandwich ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens in the sera of parastrongyliasis patients and those with other parasitic diseases. A total of 60 sera was used in this study. Of these, 10 each were from patients with parastrongyliasis, cysticercosis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, malaria and toxocariasis. The control group consisted of 53 serum samples from normal healthy Thais and Malaysians. The mean +/- optical density (OD) values for the normal Thai and Malaysian groups were 0.126 +/- 0.028 and 0.124 +/- 0.029, respectively. The mean OD values of the parastrongyliasis patient group differed significantly from that of the normal groups as well as those of other parasitic infections. Using a cut-off point of OD +/- 3SD of the control groups as indicating a positive reading, the specificity of the assay with this monoclonal antibody was 100% while the sensitivity was 50%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  16. Mak JW, Khalid BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Dec;47(4):235-7.
    PMID: 1303475
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  17. Cardosa MJ, Tio PH, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Innis B
    PMID: 1298081
    The highly sensitive AFRIMS format IgM capture ELISA for the diagnosis of dengue virus infections requires the use of mouse brain derived hemagglutinins and consequently also the use of 20% acetone extracted normal human serum to eliminate high background. These reagents are not always easily available and we have thus compared the AFRIMS format with another published format which uses cell culture derived antigens (culture fluid, CF, format) in order to determine if it is reasonable to use cell culture derived antigens in situations where hemagglutinins and normal human serum are difficult to obtain. The study shows that using AFRIMS results as the reference point, the CF format described here has a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  18. Noordin R, Shenoy RK, Rahman RA
    PMID: 15115085
    Brugia malayi infection is endemic in several Asian countries. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibody detection based on BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis. Two formats of the test has been reported ie indirect ELISA (BE) and rapid dipstick test (BR). Since different test formats use different amounts of sample and reagents which may affect its sensitivity and specificity, this study was performed to compare these two test formats in the detection of B. malayi. A total of 264 blinded serum samples from India and Malaysia were employed. Group 1 comprised 164 samples from actively infected individuals and group 2 comprised 100 samples from filaria non-endemic areas. Sensitivity was 96.3% (158/164) and 90.8% (149/164) for rapid test and ELISA respectively; chi-square p=0.00. Both test formats demonstrated 100% specificity. Therefore the rapid test format was equally specific but more sensitive than the ELISA format. The ELISA format would be able to demonstrate decline in IgG4 titer post-treatment while the rapid test would be very useful for screening and diagnosis in the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods*
  19. Ramanujam P, Tan WS, Nathan S, Yusoff K
    Biotechniques, 2004 Feb;36(2):296-300, 302.
    PMID: 14989094
    A filamentous phage bearing the peptide sequence TLTTKLY was isolated from a heptapeptide phage display library against a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In order to investigate the potential of this specific phage as an immunological reagent in virus pathotyping, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was developed. This method can differentiate the velogenic strains from the mesogenic and lentogenic strains. An equilibrium-binding assay in solution showed that the interactions between the phage and all the NDV strains gave rise to two widely differing dissociation constants (Kdrel). Based upon the first Kdrel values, NDV strains can be classified into two groups; the first comprises the velogenic strains, and the second consists of the mesogenic and lentogenic strains. These results indicate a high degree of correlation between the binding affinities and pathotyping of NDV strains using the TLTTKLY phage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
  20. Tengku-Idris TIN, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Trop Med Int Health, 2018 12;23(12):1374-1383.
    PMID: 30286271 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13160
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystosis in the local communities of Pangkor and Tioman islands, Malaysia, by using antigenic recombinant surface antigens 2 and 3 from Sarcocystis falcatula (rSfSAG2 and rSfSAG3) as the target proteins via Western blot and ELISA assays.

    METHODS: SfSAG2 and SfSAG3 genes were isolated from S. falcatula and expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 348 serum samples [volunteers from both islands (n = 100), non-Sarcocystis parasitic infections patients (n = 50) and healthy donors (n = 100)] were collected and tested with purified SfSAGs in Western blot and ELISA assays to measure the seroprevalence of human sarcocystosis.

    RESULTS: None of the sera in this study reacted with rSfSAG2 by Western blot and ELISA. For rSfSAG3, relatively high prevalence of sarcocystosis was observed in Tioman Island (75.5%) than in Pangkor Island (34%) by Western blot. In ELISA, the different prevalence rate was observed between Tioman Island (43.8%) and Pangkor Island (37%). The prevalence rate in other parasitic infections (amoebiasis, cysticercosis, filariasis, malaria, toxocariasis and toxoplasmosis) was 30% by Western blot and 26% by ELISA. Only 8% (by Western blot) and 10% (by ELISA) of healthy donors showed reactivity towards rSfSAG3.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in Pangkor and Tioman Islands, Malaysia. The combination of Western blot and ELISA is suitable to be used for serodiagnosis of sarcocystosis. With further evaluations, SfSAG3 can potentially be used to confirm infection, asymptomatic screening, surveillance and epidemiological studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
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