INTRODUCTION: While methadone effectively treats opiate dependence, the side effect of erectile dysfunction (ED) may interfere with treatment adherence and benefits.
AIM:To determine the rate of ED and the associated factors which predict ED in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a Malaysian population.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
METHODS: A total of 108 participants diagnosed with heroin dependence were assessed. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I) on subjects who received MMT, and they were assessed using the IIEF-15, the BDI, and measures of other clinical and sociodemographic variables.
RESULTS: The rate of ED among men on MMT was 68.5% (mild ED, 36.1%; mild to moderate ED, 22.2%; severe ED, 3.7%). The mean age of the participants was 43.45 years. Older age (P = 0.002), concurrent illicit heroin use (P = 0.024), and having an older partner (P = 0.039) were significantly associated with ED. Following multivariate analysis, it was found that older age was the only significant predictor of ED, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.16). Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not significantly associated with ED.
CONCLUSION: ED was highly prevalent among male patients on MMT. This suggests that there is a need for routine assessment of sexual function in patients on methadone. Among the risk factors, age was the only factor that was significantly associated with ED. The current use of MMT in Malaysia in terms of dosage and duration did not pose a significant risk for ED.
KEYWORDS: Erectile Dysfunction; Methadone Therapy; Opiate Dependence
Study site: outpatient clinic for opiate substitution therapy, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia
The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia.
We interviewed a population sample of 2412 men aged 40-70 y in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia about medical history, lifestyle habits and sexual behavior. Men were classified as having moderate or complete erectile dysfunction (ED) if they reported to be sometimes or never able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse, respectively. There were 1335 men with no diagnosis of cardiovascular or prostate diseases, diabetes, ulcer or depression, nor taking hormones. The prevalence of ED was 16.1%. ED was associated with age (the risk increased 8% per y), moderate (odds ratio (OR)=2.2) or severe (OR=4.9) lower urinary tract symptoms and smoking (OR=2.3 for >30 cigarettes/day). It was inversely associated with physical activity (OR=0.5) and higher educational levels. Between the ages of 40 and 70 y, almost one in six 'healthy' men is affected by ED. Further research should look at preclinical disease stages and genetic factors.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among healthcare personnel in selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at three large healthcare facilities that were selected by convenience sampling. Within each facility, stratified random sampling was used to select suitable candidates to participate in the study (n=201). Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FSD was 5.5%. Women with sexual dysfunction were more likely to be married longer (OR=4.08; 95% CI; 1.15-4.50), had lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR=5.00; 95% C; 1.05-23.76) and had a spouse with ED (OR=24.35; 95% CI; 4.55-130.37). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was the strongest predictor for FSD (AOR=27.30; 95% CI; 4.706-159.08).
CONCLUSION: One in eighteen female healthcare personnel suffered from FSD and presence of ED in the partner strongly impacted her sexual function, negatively. The findings highlight the importance of including the male partner in clinical assessment of FSD.
Despite the rise in recreational use of ketamine in Malaysia, there have been no studies of users or of the health-related consequences they face. This study was initiated to examine ketamine use and its health consequences. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information. A final sample of 127 males was divided into persons who used only ketamine and those who were poly-drug users. Each group was further divided into long-period and short-period users. Urine toxicology screening for ketamine and other illicit drugs commonly used in Malaysia was also done. Our findings corroborate those of earlier studies that link ketamine use to urological problems such as frequent urination, dysuria, incontinence, painful bladder, nocturia, and urinary urgency. A new finding in this study is the significant association between ketamine use and erectile dysfunction, such that higher odds of reporting erectile dysfunction were linked to long-period users. Our findings strengthen the case for early intervention, as ketamine users are drawn from young and unmarried male participants. The association of ketamine use with erectile dysfunction, if substantiated, will help physicians in their diagnosis of erectile dysfunction, particularly among youths.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of sexual dysfunction in our primary care referral population.
METHODS: Participants seeking treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) were recruited from general urology clinics. The subjects completed the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, International Index of Erectile Function-5, and selected questions from the University of Washington Symptom Score. Additional information on demographics and medical and treatment history were also obtained. Sexual dysfunction was defined as self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) or ejaculatory difficulty, or both.
RESULTS: Of 296 participants with CP/CPPS, 214 (72.3%) reported sexual dysfunction. The National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total score averaged 22.5 +/- 6.9 for participants with sexual dysfunction compared with 20.4 +/- 7.8 for participants who did not report sexual dysfunction (P = 0.03). Of the 214 participants with sexual dysfunction, 54 (25.0%) complained of ED only, 71 (33.4%) complained of ejaculatory difficulties only, and 89 (41.6%) complained of both ED and ejaculatory difficulties. Men reporting both ED and ejaculatory difficulty reported worse CP/CPPS symptoms (analysis of variance, P = 0.042) and worse quality of life (analysis of variance, P = 0.006) than men without sexual dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost three quarters of patients with CP/CPPS. Patients with CP/CPPS and sexual dysfunction experienced substantially worse symptoms, particularly worse quality of life, than other patients with CP/CPPS. Sexual dysfunction merits consideration as an important aspect of CP/CPPS and a potential outcome measure.
OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a population-based survey, the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and incontinence in community-dwelling men in multiethnic Malaysia, as currently available Western demographic data might not be applicable in the Asian population.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out in the State of Penang, Malaysia, with a target population of men aged > or = 40 years. Using a multistage study design, random systematic sampling was used to represent the target population, who were weighted based on ethnicity and rural-urban ratios so as to represent the general population distribution. Trained field-workers conducted direct interviews and administered the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and questions on incontinence based on the International Continence Society 2002 definition.
RESULTS: In all, 418 men aged > or = 40 years were interviewed, of whom 353 completed the AUA-SI questionnaire (84.5% response rate). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe LUTS was 80.6%, 6% and 0.3%, respectively. The prevalent symptoms were frequency and nocturia. There was moderate and severe ED in 45.9% of men, whereas incontinence was reported by 8.2%. The AUA-SI correlated strongly with age (R = 0.291, P < 0.001), IIEF-5 (R = - 0.265, P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence and severity of LUTS, ED and incontinence increased with age in this multiethnic Asian population, in which ED correlated strongly with LUTS. Compared to the Western population, the prevalence of LUTS was significantly lower, while the prevalence of ED and incontinence were comparable.
Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction.
To measure the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in community-based populations in Brazil, Italy, Japan, and Malaysia and to study its association with the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, and health-related behavior.
The etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is multi-factorial. This paper examines the association between ED, testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Malaysian men in an urban setting. One thousand and forty-six men aged ≥ 40 years from Subang Jaya, Malaysia were randomly selected from an electoral-roll list. The men completed questionnaires that included: socio-demographic data, self-reported medical problems and the International Index of erectile function (IIEF-5). Physical examination and the following biochemical tests were performed: lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and total testosterone. The response rate was 62.8% and the mean age of men was 55.8 ± 8.4 (41-93) years. Ethnic distribution was Chinese, 48.9%; Malay, 34.5%; Indian, 14.8%. The prevalence of moderate-severe ED was 20.0%, while 16.1% of men had TDS (< 10.4 nmol/L) and 31.3% of men had MS. Indian and Malay men were significantly more likely to have ED (p = 0.001), TDS (p < 0.001) and MS (p < 0.001) than the Chinese. Multivariate regression analysis showed that elevated blood pressure, elevated FBG, low high-density lipoprotein and heart disease were predictors of ED while all MS components were independently associated with TDS. Malay and Indian men have a higher disease burden compared to Chinese men and were more likely to suffer with ED, TDS and MS. MS components were closely related to TDS and ED.
Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression, and androgen deficiency are common conditions affecting aging men over 50 years. However, data were limited in developing countries.
AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, androgen deficiency symptoms, and lifestyle of aging men in Malaysia, and to examine their associations with sociodemographic factors.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire
METHODS: A randomized survey of 351 men using structured questionnaires consisting of self-reported medical conditions, International Index for Erectile Function-5, International Prostate Symptom Score, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and St Louis University questionnaire for ADAM. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipid, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and hormones.
RESULTS: Mean age was 58+/-7 years. Prevalence of ED was 70.1% (mild ED 32.8%, mild to moderate ED 17.7%, moderate ED 5.1%, and severe ED 14.5%). There were 29% of men with moderate and severe LUTS; 11.1% had severe depression; 25.4% scored positive on ADAM questionnaire; 30.2% self-reported hypertension, 21.4% self-reported diabetes mellitus; 10.8% self-reported coronary artery disease; 19.1% were smokers; and 34% consumed alcohol. There were 78.6% of men that are overweight and obese; 28.8% had a fasting blood sugar (FBS) >or=6.1 mmol/L, 70.1% had total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L, 19.1% had total testosterone >or=11.0 nmoL/L, 14.0% had calculated free testosterone <0.0225 nmoL/dL; 4% had PSA >4 microg/L; 9.4% had insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level below age specific range, 5.1% had abnormal sex hormone binding globulin (<15 nmoL/L and >70 nmol/L). ED was found to be significantly associated with LUTS, depression (P<0.001 respectively). Similarly, LUTS was significantly associated with depression and ADAM questionnaire status (P<0.001 respectively); and ADAM questionnaire status was also significantly associated with depression (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: ED, LUTS, depression, and androgen deficiency symptoms are common in urban aging men. As these conditions are possibly interrelated, strategies for early disease prevention and detection are warranted when one disease presents.
INTRODUCTION: There have been limited multiregional studies in Asia examining the parameters of men's general and sexual health and quality of life in the general population vs. those in clinical cohorts of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED).
AIMS: The aims of the Asian Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (Asian MALES) study were to investigate the prevalence of ED, associated health conditions, and ED treatment-seeking patterns in the general male population in five regions of Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Standardized questionnaire previously used in a similar multiregional study and modified to ensure culturally appropriate content for Asia.
METHODS: Phase I of the study involved 10,934 adult men, aged 20-75 years, who were interviewed using the standardized questionnaire. Phase II of the study involved men with self-reported ED recruited from Phase I and via physician referral, invitations in general practitioner offices, and street interception (total Phase II sample, N = 1,209).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED in the Phase I study population was 6.4%. ED prevalence varied by region and significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). Men with ED reported significantly greater rates of comorbid illness (P < 0.0001) and a reduced quality of life (P = 0.0001), compared with men without ED. Phase II of the study revealed that fewer than half of men with self-reported ED had sought treatment for their problem. Men were more likely to seek help for erection difficulties from Western doctors than from traditional medicine practitioners (P = 0.0001). A man's partner/spouse was the most common influencer of treatment seeking in all regions except Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: The findings confirm those of existing research on ED in both Asian and non-Asian males: ED is a prevalent condition; the prevalence of ED increases with age and is strongly associated with comorbid conditions; and the majority of men have never sought treatment for their condition. This study highlights a substantial need for the evaluation and treatment of ED in Asian men.
Aim: To explore the barriers faced by general practitioners (GPs) in the management of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED).
Methods: This was a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews involving 28 Malaysian GPs.
Results: GPs' perception of ED being not a serious condition was a major determinant of their prescribing practice. Doctor's age (younger), gender (female), short consultation time and lack of experience were cited as barriers. The GPs' prescribing habits were heavily influenced by the feedback from the first few patients under treatment, the uncertainty of etiology of ED without proper assessment and the profit margin with bulk purchase. Other barriers include Patients' coexisting medical conditions, older age, lower socio-economic status, unrealistic expectations and inappropriate use of the anti-impotent drugs. Cardiovascular side effects and cost were two most important drug barriers.
Conclusion: The factors influencing the management of ED among the general practitioners were multiple and complex. An adequate understanding of how these factors (doctors, patients and drugs) interact can assist in the formulation and implementation of strategies that encourage GPs to identify and manage ED patients.
INTRODUCTION: Sexual problems are common in the general population. Studies have shown that most of these sexual problems are related to their social lives, medical illnesses, and psychological status. Among the sexual problems in men, premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most frequent, yet it is the least well-understood of the sexual dysfunctions of men.
AIM: To determine the prevalence of sexual problem particularly PE and erectile dysfunction (ED) among people living in urban areas and to investigate the characteristics associated with these sexual problems in a Malaysian population.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The PE which is defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time less than 2 minutes was assessed in the ED and non-ED group.
METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale is used as a measure of the psychological status . The ED status was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported sexual problems for ED and PE were 41.6% and 22.3%, respectively. In those subjects with ED, 33.5% reported to have PE. Of the total of 430 subjects, anxiety was present in 8.1%, while depression was 5.3%. The prevalence of PE accounted for 25% anxiety and 14.6% for depression respectively in the population. EDs were associated with diabetes and hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 5.33 [2.33, 10.16], 3.40 [1.76, 6.57], P < 0.05), respectively, while factors associated with PE were anxiety and depression (OR [95% CI]: 1.29 [0.68, 2.45], 1.39 [0.69, 2.78]), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of ED is associated with medical symptoms such as diabetes and hypertension and a rise in the prevalence of age while psychological distress such as anxiety and depression also contribute to a higher PE rate.