IN connexion with a programme of studies of the relationships between biochemical and ethnological differentiations (some aspects of which have already been discussed1) proceeding in this Department, we wished to explore the possibility of improving existing procedures for the estimation of amino-acids separated on paper chromatograms2, before beginning an investigation of the patterns of urinary excretion of amino-acids by normal members of various ethnic groups living in Malaya.
Rumah kedai bersejarah di Pantai Barat Sabah telah dibina ketika pentadbiran British North Borneo Company (Chatered) seawal akhir abad ke-19. Disebabkan usia bangunan ini ada yang melebihi 100 tahun menyebabkan timbul banyak isu dan ancaman seperti kemusnahan kerana bencana alam. Manakala pengubahsuaian yang tidak sensitif dan perobohan bangunan bersejarah ini bagi memberi laluan kepada pembangunan terkini merupakan ancaman manusia yang utama. Justeru, kajian ini akan membincangkan usaha dalam pemeliharaan dan perlindungan tinggalan bersejarah ini. Perbincangan turut memberi latar belakang sejarah pembinaan rumah kedai dengan menonjolkan keunikan seni binanya. Kajian ini akan menggunakan pendekatan sejarah dalam pengumpulan data dan analisis kritikal pengurusan warisan. Makalah ini diharap dapat menjelaskan bentuk isu dan pendekatan alternatif dalam memelihara dan melindungi bangunan rumah kedai bersejarah yang masih wujud di beberapa pekan dan bandar di Sabah.
One of the primary unanswered questions regarding the dispersal of Romani populations concerns the geographical region and/or the Indian caste/tribe that gave rise to the proto-Romani group. To shed light on this matter, 161 Y-chromosomes from Roma, residing in two different provinces of Serbia, were analyzed. Our results indicate that the paternal gene pool of both groups is shaped by several strata, the most prominent of which, H1-M52, comprises almost half of each collection's patrilineages. The high frequency of M52 chromosomes in the two Roma populations examined may suggest that they descend from a single founder that has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. Moreover, when the Y-STR profiles of haplogroup H derived individuals in our Roma populations were compared to those typed in the South Indian emigrants from Malaysia and groups from Madras, Karnataka (Lingayat and Vokkaliga castes) and tribal Soligas, sharing of the two most common haplotypes was observed. These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans.
The Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project (MyHVP) is one of the eighteen official Human Variome Project (HVP) country-specific nodes. Since its inception in 9(th) October 2010, MyHVP has attracted the significant number of Malaysian clinicians and researchers to participate and contribute their data to this project. MyHVP also act as the center of coordination for genotypic and phenotypic variation studies of the Malaysian population. A specialized database was developed to store and manage the data based on genetic variations which also associated with health and disease of Malaysian ethnic groups. This ethnic-specific database is called the Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project database (MyHVPDb).
The Kelantanese Malays who resided in the remote northeastern regions of the Malay Peninsula in the Kelantan state are believed to have a unique genetic signature. The objective of this review is to analyze the populational sub-structure of the Kelantanese Malays from historical, genetic and linguistic perspectives. Historical data suggest that the Semang were composed of the Jahai, Bateq and Kensiu sub-tribes, whereas the Senoi were composed of only the Temiar sub-tribe. The Mendriq sub-tribe is believed to be the first group of aborigines to land in Kelantan. Subsequently, genetic analysis showed that the Kelantanese Malays are an independent clade at the base of the phylogenetic tree and contain genetic material similar to that of the Semang, specifically the Jahai and the Kensiu sub-tribes. The genetic data are supported by the fact that the Aslian language, a branch of the Austroasiatic languages that is widely spoken by the Semang, was potentially transmitted through agricultural activities. However, the potential limitation of this mini-review is the lack of primary reliable sources covering the historical, linguistic and genetic features of the Kelantanese Malays.
This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-4.04, P < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities.
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disease with a worldwide distribution.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psoriasis according to age, gender and ethnicity among outpatients attending the dermatology clinic in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang Malaysia.
STUDY POPULATION: All outpatients attending the specialist clinic of the dermatology department in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang, Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2005.
METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study of all outpatients who attended the specialist clinic from January 2003 to December 2005 and diagnosed for psoriasis. The study population consisted of patients of all ages, both gender and different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indians and foreign workers) living in the Klang Valley and the surrounding areas.
RESULTS: A total of 5607 patients were examined during a period of three years and 9.5% were found to be suffering with psoriasis. It was more common in males (11.6%) than in females (7.2%). Patients within the 40-60 year age group had the highest (17.2%) rate and were lower in the younger age group including those aged over 60 years (8.1%). With regards to ethnicity, it was more common in Indians followed by Malays, Chinese and migrant foreign workers respectively. The study indicates that psoriasis is common in Malaysia and its distribution varies with age, ethnicity and gender.
Study site: dermatology department in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah,
Malaysia plays the leading role in homeopathy in Southeast Asia. The history of homeopathy in the Malay civilization began in the 1930s. Since then, it has been practiced mainly by Malays who are all Muslims. Homeopathy in multiethnic Malaysia is embedded in Islamic culture and has to do with ethnic identity of the Malays within the Malay/non-Malay dichotomy of the society. This survey explores the relationships between homeopathy and Malay traditional medicine, as well as between homeopathy and Islam.
Iban categories of hot and cold are examined in the context of humoral medical systems in southeast Asia. These categories are more than binary and oppositional: they are also contradictory and can only be understood in terms of their capacity for transformation in 'depth'. Analysis of the Iban epistemology of temperature sensation reveals the limitations of reductionist empirical approaches to hot and cold. Illness is apprehended, at one level, in terms of unusual conjunctions of opposite temperatures which signify a deeper disturbance in the relationship between body and soul, humans and spirits. Iban therapy redefines and relocates these categories in their proper place and at their appropriate level. It progresses from hot lay treatments to cool ritual treatments, yet cannot be accounted for within a limited framework of homeostatic balance. This paper develops an ethnographically grounded definition of humoralism which emphasizes non-reductive logic, cultural practice and transformation. The key element, transformation, is defined as a transition between categories and a shift in the level of interpretation which fundamentally alter the Iban experience of body and illness.
There is a need to define Quality of Life and to develop a practical method to measure objectively this aspect in gastrointestinal diseases. This has not been performed in any Asian population. It is proposed that this evaluation be part of future trials in Asia on the basis that Asian patients are culturally, socially and politically different from Westerners.
A survey of Kayans of Long A tip, Baram, Sarawak, was conducted in 1986 as part of the pre-requisite to the development of a primary health care system for the people of the Baram. A total of 178 Kayans of all ages were surveyed for decayed, missing and filled teeth. Of the aggregate 39.3% did not have any decayed teeth, 37.6% had no missing teeth and 93.8% had not had any fillings. Compared with their neighbouring Penans, the Kayans of Long A tip had a relatively better dental status.