Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Aala F, Sekawi Z, Chong PP
    Mycopathologia, 2010 Apr;169(4):287-95.
    PMID: 19924565 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-009-9251-3
    Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, and the type of infection encompassed by candidiasis ranges from superficial to systemic. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. In this study, we used allicin, an allyl sulfur derivative of garlic, to demonstrate both its intrinsic antifungal activity and its synergy with the azoles, in the treatment of these yeasts in vitro. In this study, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of allicin alone against six Candida spp. ranged from 0.05 to 25 microg/ml. However, when allicin was used in combination with fluconazole or ketoconazole, the MICs were decreased in some isolates. Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, but synergy was not demonstrated in the majority of Candida spp. tested. Nonetheless, In vivo testing needs to be performed to support these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology
  2. Madhavan P, Jamal F, Chong PP, Ng KP
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):200-7.
    PMID: 20962716 MyJurnal
    The in vitro susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates towards fluconazole and voriconazole was determined using the E-test method. A total of 41 clinical isolates recovered from patients since 2004 until 2009 from two local hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were used. These comprised Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata. Strains from American Type Culture Collection were used as quality control. Lawn cultures of the isolates on RPMI-1640 agar medium supplemented with 2% glucose were incubated with the E-test strips at 35ºC for 48 h. Our results show that 71% were susceptible to fluconazole and 90% were susceptible to voriconazole. All strains of C. krusei were resistant to fluconazole and 50% were susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to voriconazole. There were 66% and 33% of C. glabrata that were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. Our study revealed that majority of the clinical Candida isolates was susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole with a small percentage being resistant to both the drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  3. Tay ST, Tanty Haryanty T, Ng KP, Rohani MY, Hamimah H
    Mycoses, 2006 Jul;49(4):324-30.
    PMID: 16784448
    The in vitro susceptibilities of Malaysian clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C . gattii to five antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole) were determined using the Etest method. None of the Malaysian isolates was resistant to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Isolates resistant to flucytosine, fluconazole and itraconazole were observed in this study. Minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of > or = 32 microg ml(-1) against flucytosine, > or = 64 microg ml(-1) against fluconazole and > or = 1 microg ml(-1) against itraconazole were noted in four (8.3%), two (4.2%) and one (2.1%) isolates respectively. There was no significant difference in the MICs for both Cryptococcus species (P > 0.05), indicating that C. gattii was as susceptible as var. grubii to all the antifungal drugs tested. No significant difference in the MICs for both Cryptococcus species collected from 1980 to 1990 and 2002 to 2004 were observed (P > 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology
  4. Chong PP, Chieng DC, Low LY, Hafeez A, Shamsudin MN, Seow HF, et al.
    J Med Microbiol, 2006 Apr;55(Pt 4):423-428.
    PMID: 16533990 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46045-0
    The incidence of candidaemia among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is increasing at an alarming rate. Isolation of clinical strains that are resistant to fluconazole has also risen markedly. We report here the repeated isolation of Candida tropicalis from the blood of a neonatal patient with Hirschsprung's disease. In vitro fluconazole susceptibility tests of the eight isolates obtained at different time points showed that seven of the isolates were resistant and one isolate was scored as susceptible dose-dependent. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of the isolates using three primers and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates were highly similar strains having minor genetic divergence, with a mean pairwise similarity coefficient of 0.893+/-0.041. The source of the infectious agent was thought to be the central venous catheter, as culture of its tip produced fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis. This study demonstrates the utility of applying molecular epidemiology techniques to complement traditional mycological culture and drug susceptibility tests for accurate and appropriate management of recurrent candidaemia and highlights the need for newer antifungals that can combat the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  5. Far FE, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Desa MNM
    J Mycol Med, 2018 Sep;28(3):486-491.
    PMID: 29753721 DOI: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2018.04.007
    BACKGROUND: Malassezia furfur is lipodependent yeast like fungus that causes superficial mycoses such as pityriasis versicolor and dandruff. Nevertheless, there are no standard reference methods to perform susceptibility test of Malassezia species yet.

    AIMS: Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the optimized culture medium for growth of this lipophilic yeast using modified leeming-Notman agar and colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay to assess antimycotic activity of fluconazole against M. furfur.

    RESULTS: The result showed that these assays were more adjustable for M. furfur with reliable and reproducible MIC end-point, by confirming antimycotic activity of fluconazole with MIC of 2μg/ml.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that this method is considered as the rapid and effective susceptibility testing of M. furfur with fluconazole antifungal activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  6. Hussain MA, Ahmed D, Anwar A, Perveen S, Ahmed S, Anis I, et al.
    Int Microbiol, 2019 Jun;22(2):239-246.
    PMID: 30810990 DOI: 10.1007/s10123-018-00043-3
    Silver nanoparticles (SN) have been recently developed as a new class of antimicrobial agents against numerous pathogenic microorganisms. SN have also been used as efficient drug delivery systems and have been linked with increasing drug potency. Here, we demonstrated the enhanced antifungal efficacy of nystatin (NYT) and fluconazole (FLU) after conjugation with SN. The antifungal bioactivity of NYT- and FLU-coated SN was evaluated against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 by the agar tube dilution method. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of NYT and FLU with their SN and, finally, the combination of both nanoparticles as NYT-SN + FLU-SN against pathogenic fungi. The results indicated that all test samples showed a dose-dependent response against tested fungi. SN significantly enhanced the antifungal effects of NYT and FLU as compared to drugs alone. We observed a remarkable increase in the percent inhibition of both fungi (90-100%) when treated with a combination of both nanoparticles NYT-SN + FLU-SN at 200 μg/mL only. Furthermore, the morphological modifications occurred at the surface of fungal species were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While tested against primary human cell line, all SN showed negligible cytotoxicity. Hence, these results suggest that the combination of SN with NYT and FLU may have clinical implications in the treatment of fungal infections. However, in vivo studies are needed before recommending the use of these nanoparticles safely in clinical situations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  7. Anwar A, Siddiqui R, Hussain MA, Ahmed D, Shah MR, Khan NA
    Parasitol Res, 2018 Jan;117(1):265-271.
    PMID: 29218442 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-017-5701-x
    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, killing more than 15 million people worldwide. This is despite our advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care. Nanoparticles offer a promising technology to enhance drug efficacy and formation of effective vehicles for drug delivery. Here, we conjugated amphotericin B, nystatin (macrocyclic polyenes), and fluconazole (azole) with silver nanoparticles. Silver-conjugated drugs were synthesized successfully and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Conjugated and unconjugated drugs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype using amoebicidal assay and host cell cytotoxicity assay. Viability assays revealed that silver nanoparticles conjugated with amphotericin B (Amp-AgNPs) and nystatin (Nys-AgNPs) exhibited significant antiamoebic properties compared with drugs alone or AgNPs alone (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  8. Madhavan P, Jamal F, Pei CP, Othman F, Karunanidhi A, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2018 Jun;183(3):499-511.
    PMID: 29380188 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-018-0243-z
    Infections by non-albicans Candida species are a life-threatening condition, and formation of biofilms can lead to treatment failure in a clinical setting. This study was aimed to demonstrate the in vitro antibiofilm activity of fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa with diverse antifungal susceptibilities to FLU and VOR. The antibiofilm activities of FLU and VOR in the form of suspension as well as pre-coatings were assessed by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay. Morphological and intracellular changes exerted by the antifungal drugs on Candida cells were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of the antibiofilm activities showed that FLU drug suspension was capable of killing C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4× MIC FLU and 256× MIC FLU, respectively. While VOR MICs ranging from 2× to 32× were capable of killing the biofilms of all Candida spp tested. The antibiofilm activities of pre-coated FLU were able to kill the biofilms at ¼× MIC FLU and ½× MIC FLU for C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa strains, respectively. While pre-coated VOR was able to kill the biofilms, all three Candida sp at ½× MIC VOR. SEM and TEM examinations showed that FLU and VOR treatments exerted significant impact on Candida cell with various degrees of morphological changes. In conclusion, a fourfold reduction in MIC50 of FLU and VOR towards ATCC strains of C. glabrata, C. rugosa and C. rugosa clinical strain was observed in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  9. Torey A, Sasidharan S
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2011 Aug;15(8):875-82.
    PMID: 21845797
    Candida (C.) albicans infection in its biofilm mode of growth has taken centre point with the increasing recognition of its role in human infections due to the development of resistance to the commonly used antibiotic or phenotypic adaptation within the biofilm. Hence, in this study the inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Cassia (C.) spectabilis leaves was evaluated against biofilm forming C. albicans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology
  10. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Harmal NS, Sidik SM, Othman F, Sekawi Z, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2011 Feb;315(2):87-93.
    PMID: 21204918 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02170.x
    The efficacy of allicin compared with fluconazole in alleviating systemic Candida albicans infections was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo through a systemic candidiasis mouse model. Determination of in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for different C. albicans isolates revealed that both allicin and fluconazole showed different MICs that ranged from 0.05 to 12.5 μg mL(-1) and 0.25 to 16 μg mL(-1) , respectively. A time-kill study showed a significant effect of allicin (P<0.01) against C. albicans, comparable to that of fluconazole. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that, similar to fluconazole, allicin produced structural destruction of C. albicans cell surface at low MIC and lysis or puncture at high MIC concentrations. Treatment of BALB/c mice systemically infected with C. albicans showed that although the allicin treatment (at 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) was slightly less efficacious than fluconazole treatment in terms of the fungal load reduction and host survival time, it was still effective against C. albicans in terms of mean survival time, which increased from 8.4 to 15.8 days. These results demonstrate the efficacy of anticandidal effects of allicin both in vitro and in an animal model of candidiasis and affirm the potential of allicin as an adjuvant therapy to fluconazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology*
  11. Siew HH
    Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, 2017;58(3):E107-E113.
    PMID: 28855477 DOI: 10.3314/mmj.17.014
    Feline sporotrichosis has been reported in Malaysia since the 1990's. Since then, studies have revealed that clinical clade D, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, of a single clonal strain is the most common cause of this disease in Malaysia. The prevalence of a single clonal strain from a clinical clade was never before reported in Asia in a specific geographical niche. This raises the possibility of a process of purifying selection and subsequent clonal proliferation. While agricultural practices may serve as the selective pressure, direct causality has yet to be established. Studies into the thermo-tolerability of the Malaysian clonal strain of S. schenckii sensu stricto revealed that a small minority of clinical isolates have the capacity to grow at 37℃, while the majority displayed low susceptibility to commonly used antifungals in clinical practice, such as itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine (TRB). Despite unestablished breakpoints, suspected resistance (MIC > 4 mg/mL) towards amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) was recorded in the isolates. This explains the often lack of clinical response in feline patients treated with recommended doses of antifungals, including ITZ. Coupled with the potential zoonotic transmission to clients and veterinarians, protracted treatment period, and subsequent cost of treatment, prognosis of feline sporotrichosis is often regarded to be poor. The use of a higher dose of ITZ has been reported, and an adoption of this high-dose treatment regime is reported in this manuscript, with complete cure achieved in cases of recalcitrant and/or unresponsive feline sporotrichosis, which would otherwise be euthanized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology
  12. Tap RM, Ho Betty LS, Ramli NY, Suppiah J, Hashim R, Sabaratnam P, et al.
    Mycoses, 2016 Nov;59(11):734-741.
    PMID: 27427490 DOI: 10.1111/myc.12509
    Candida wangnamkhiaoensis is a species clustered under the Hyphopichia clade has not ever been isolated from any clinical specimens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. wangnamkhiaoensis associated with fungaemia in immunocompromised paediatric patient. The isolate was assigned a strain name as UZ1679/14, in which the identification was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction-sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA gene. Antifungal susceptibility pattern showed that the isolate was sensitive to anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole. The patient clinically improved after the antifungal treatment with caspofungin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluconazole/pharmacology
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