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  1. Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG
    PMID: 17883020
    This crossover study assessed the effectiveness of plain water (PW), sports drink (SD), fresh young coconut water (CW) and sodium-enriched fresh young coconut water (SCW) on whole body rehydration (R) and plasma volume (PV) restoration after exercise-induced dehydration. Ten healthy male subjects ran at 65% of VO2max in an environmental temperature of 32.06 +/- 0.02 degree C with a relative humidity (rh) of 53.32 +/- 0.17% for 90 minutes to lose 3% body weight (BW). During the 2-hour rehydration period, subjects drank, in randomized order, PW, SD, CW or SCW equivalent to 120% of BW lost in three boluses representing 50, 40 and 30% of the fluid lost at 0, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively. In all trials subjects were still somewhat dehydrated even after the 2-hour rehydration period. Indexes of percent rehydration with PW, SD, CW and SCW were 58 +/- 2, 68 +/- 2, 65+/- 2 and 69 +/- 1%, respectively, with significantly better rehydration with SD and SCW. The rehydration indexes for SD and SCW were significantly lower than PW (p < 0.01). PV was restored to euhydration levels after 2 hours of rehydration with SD, CW and SCW but not with PW. The plasma glucose concentration were significantly higher when SD, CW and SCW were ingested. SCW was similar in sweetness to CW and SD but caused less nausea and stomach upset compared to SD and PW. In conclusion, ingesting SCW was as good as ingesting a commercial sports drink for whole body rehydration after exercise-induced dehydration but with better fluid tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods*
  2. Boo NY, Lee HT
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2002 Apr;38(2):151-5.
    PMID: 12030996
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of decrease in serum bilirubin levels in severely jaundiced healthy term infants given oral or intravenous fluid supplementation during phototherapy.

    METHODS: A randomized controlled study was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia over a 12-month period. Fifty-four healthy term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to receive either solely enteral feeds (n = 27) or both enteral and intravenous (n = 27) fluid during phototherapy.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean birthweight, mean gestational age, ethnic distribution, gender distribution, modes of delivery and types of feeding between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean indirect serum bilirubin (iSB) level at the time of admission to the NICU between the enteral (359 +/- 69 micromol/L [mean +/- SD]) and intravenous group (372 +/- 59 micromol/L; P = 0.4). The mean rates of decrease in iSB during the first 4 h of phototherapy were also not significantly different between the enteral group (10.4 +/- 4.9 micromol/L per h) and intravenous group (11.2 +/- 7.4 micromol/L per h; P = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the proportion of infants requiring exchange transfusion (P = 0.3) nor in the median duration of hospitalization (P = 0.7) between the two groups. No infant developed vomiting or abdominal distension during the study period.

    CONCLUSION: Severely jaundiced healthy term infants had similar rates of decrease in iSB levels during the first 4 h of intensive phototherapy, irrespective of whether they received oral or intravenous fluid supplementation. However, using the oral route avoided the need for intravenous cannulae and their attendant complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods*
  3. Iyngkaran N, Yadav M
    J Trop Pediatr, 1998 08;44(4):199-203.
    PMID: 9718904 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/44.4.199
    Rice-starch based oral rehydration solution (ORS) has been shown to be a suitable alternative to glucose-based ORS in the treatment of both choleragenic and non-choleragenic dehydration in older infants and children. However, in young infants, the wider use of rice-starch ORS has been impeded because of theoretical concern about the poor digestibility of starch. The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rice-starch ORS in the rehydration of acute diarrhoeal dehydration in infants below 6 months of age. Sixty-three infants with clinical features of acute gastroenteritis were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A, comprising 31 infants, received a rice-starch ORS and group B, comprising 32 infants, received a glucose-based ORS. The response to treatment was monitored by weight gain, stool frequency, and decrease in vomiting. The mean weight gain in moderately dehydrated and mildly dehydrated infants in both groups A and B were closely similar at 12, 24, and 48 h after treatment with the respective ORS solution. The infants without dehydration receiving rice-starch ORS had significantly greater weight gain at 12 h compared to those receiving glucose ORS. However, this difference was not observed at 24 and 48 h. The results of this study show that rice-starch ORS is as safe and efficacious as glucose-based ORS in young infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods
  4. Naing CM, Win DK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2010 May;104(5):311-2.
    PMID: 20206954 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2010.02.001
    Permanent neurological impairment or death arising from hospital-acquired hyponatremia in both children and adults is well documented. The choice of intravenous fluids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients is a top priority in evidence-based medicine. The question of whether colloids in comparison to crystalloids can improve mortality in such cases remains to be answered. Well powered, randomized clinical trials addressing the comparative efficacy of different types of intravenous fluids is a high priority as is the ethical justification for such trials. The understanding of the pathophysiological process serves important information on clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods*
  5. Hafizah M, Liu CY, Ooi JS
    J Neurosurg Sci, 2017 Jun;61(3):263-270.
    PMID: 25854455 DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.16.03221-5
    BACKGROUND: This prospective, randomized controlled study compared the changes in acid-base balance and serum electrolytes with the use of intravenous balanced and non-balanced crystalloid solutions intraoperatively during elective neurosurgery.

    METHODS: Thirty consented adult patients who underwent craniotomy were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 patients each. The non-balanced group received 0.9% normal saline while the balanced group received Sterofundin®ISO as the intraoperative fluid for maintenance. Biochemical indices for acid-base balance and serum electrolytes were analyzed periodically.

    RESULTS: In the non-balanced group, significant changes were noted in the pH, base excess and bicarbonate values over time compared to its respective baseline values (P<0.01). Four patients (27.7%) also developed a pH<7.35 and 5 patients (33.3%) developed marked acidosis with base excess fluid maintenance and replacement during elective neurosurgery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods*
  6. Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Taylor DM, Judkins S, Kerr F, Sutcliffe H, et al.
    Emerg Med Australas, 2017 Dec;29(6):643-649.
    PMID: 28597505 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12821
    OBJECTIVE: Patients commonly receive i.v. fluids in the ED. It is still unclear whether the choice of i.v. fluids in this setting influences renal or patient outcomes. We aimed to assess the effects of restricting i.v. chloride administration in the ED on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI).

    METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after trial with 5008 consecutive ED-treated hospital admissions in the control period and 5146 consecutive admissions in the intervention period. During the control period (18 February 2008 to 17 August 2008), patients received standard i.v. fluids. During the intervention period (18 February 2009 to 17 August 2009), we restricted all chloride-rich fluids. We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging to define AKI.

    RESULTS: Stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI decreased from 54 (1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.4) to 30 (0.6%; 95% CI 0.4-0.8) (P = 0.006). The rate of renal replacement therapy did not change, from 13 (0.3%; 95% CI 0.2-0.4) to 8 (0.2%; 95% CI 0.1-0.3) (P = 0.25). After adjustment for relevant covariates, liberal chloride therapy remained associated with a greater risk of KDIGO stage 3 (hazard ratio 1.82; 95% CI 1.13-2.95; P = 0.01). On sensitivity assessment after removing repeat admissions, KDIGO stage 3 remained significantly lower in the intervention period compared with the control period (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: In a before-and-after trial, a chloride-restrictive strategy in an ED was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods*
  7. Lai NM, Ahmad Kamar A, Choo YM, Kong JY, Ngim CF
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 08 01;8:CD011891.
    PMID: 28762235 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011891.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the risks and benefits of fluid supplementation compared to standard fluid management in term and preterm newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia who require phototherapy.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 7 June 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 7 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared fluid supplementation against no fluid supplementation, or one form of fluid supplementation against another.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group using the Covidence platform. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), risk difference (RD), and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: Out of 1449 articles screened, seven studies were included. Three articles were awaiting classification, among them, two completed trials identified from the trial registry appeared to be unpublished so far.There were two major comparisons: IV fluid supplementation versus no fluid supplementation (six studies) and IV fluid supplementation versus oral fluid supplementation (one study). A total of 494 term, healthy newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia were evaluated. All studies were at high risk of bias for blinding of care personnel, five studies had unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors, and most studies had unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment. There was low- to moderate-quality evidence for all major outcomes.In the comparison between IV fluid supplementation and no supplementation, no infant in either group developed bilirubin encephalopathy in the one study that reported this outcome. Serum bilirubin was lower at four hours postintervention for infants who received IV fluid supplementation (MD -34.00 μmol/L (-1.99 mg/dL), 95% CI -52.29 (3.06) to -15.71 (0.92); participants = 67, study = 1) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level for indirectness and one level for suspected publication bias). Beyond eight hours postintervention, serum bilirubin was similar between the two groups. Duration of phototherapy was significantly shorter for fluid-supplemented infants, but the estimate was affected by heterogeneity which was not clearly explained (MD -10.70 hours, 95% CI -15.55 to -5.85; participants = 218; studies = 3; I² = 67%). Fluid-supplemented infants were less likely to require exchange transfusion (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.71; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.02; participants = 462; studies = 6; I² = 72%) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level due to inconsistency, and another level due to suspected publication bias), and the estimate was similarly affected by unexplained heterogeneity. The frequencies of breastfeeding were similar between the fluid-supplemented and non-supplemented infants in days one to three based on one study (estimate on day three: MD 0.90 feeds, 95% CI -0.40 to 2.20; participants = 60) (moderate quality of evidence, downgraded one level for imprecision).One study contributed to all outcome data in the comparison of IV versus oral fluid supplementation. In this comparison, no infant in either group developed abnormal neurological signs. Serum bilirubin, as well as the rate of change of serum bilirubin, were similar between the two groups at four hours after phototherapy (serum bilirubin: MD 11.00 μmol/L (0.64 mg/dL), 95% CI -21.58 (-1.26) to 43.58 (2.55); rate of change of serum bilirubin: MD 0.80 μmol/L/hour (0.05 mg/dL/hour), 95% CI -2.55 (-0.15) to 4.15 (0.24); participants = 54 in both outcomes) (moderate quality of evidence for both outcomes, downgraded one level for indirectness). The number of infants who required exchange transfusion was similar between the two groups (RR 1.60, 95% CI 0.60 to 4.27; RD 0.11, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.34; participants = 54). No infant in either group developed adverse effects including vomiting or abdominal distension.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that IV fluid supplementation affects important clinical outcomes such as bilirubin encephalopathy, kernicterus, or cerebral palsy in healthy, term newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. In this review, no infant developed these bilirubin-associated clinical complications. Low- to moderate-quality evidence shows that there are differences in total serum bilirubin levels between fluid-supplemented and control groups at some time points but not at others, the clinical significance of which is uncertain. There is no evidence of a difference between the effectiveness of IV and oral fluid supplementations in reducing serum bilirubin. Similarly, no infant developed adverse events or complications from fluid supplementation such as vomiting or abdominal distension. This suggests a need for future research to focus on different population groups with possibly higher baseline risks of bilirubin-related neurological complications, such as preterm or low birthweight infants, infants with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia, as well as infants with dehydration for comparison of different fluid supplementation regimen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods
  8. Sreeramareddy CT, Low YP, Forsberg BC
    BMC Pediatr, 2017 03 21;17(1):83.
    PMID: 28320354 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0836-6
    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains to be a main cause of childhood mortality. Diarrhea case management indicators reflect the effectiveness of child survival interventions. We aimed to assess time trends and country-wise changes in diarrhea case management indicators among under-5 children in low-and-middle-income countries.

    METHODS: We analyzed aggregate data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done from 1986 to 2012 in low-and-middle-income countries. Two-week prevalence rates of diarrhea, caregiver's care seeking behavior and three case management indicators were analyzed. We assessed overall time trends across the countries using panel data analyses and country-level changes between two sequential surveys.

    RESULTS: Overall, yearly increase in case management indicators ranged from 1 · 3 to 2 · 5%. In the year 2012, <50% of the children were given correct treatment (received oral rehydration and increased fluids) for diarrhea. Annually, an estimated 300 to 350 million children were not given oral rehydration solutions, or recommended home fluids or 'increased fluids' and 304 million children not taken to a healthcare provider during an episode of diarrhea. Overall, care seeking for diarrhea, increased from pre-2000 to post-2000, i.e. from 35 to 45%; oral rehydration rates increased by about 7% but the rate of 'increased fluids' decreased by 14%. Country-level trends showed that care seeking had decreased in 15 countries but increased in 33 countries. Care seeking from a healthcare provider increased by ≥10% in about 23 countries. Oral rehydration rates had increased by ≥10% in 15 countries and in 30 countries oral rehydration rates increased by <10%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Very limited progress has been made in the case management of childhood diarrhea. A better understanding of caregiver's care seeking behavior and health care provider's case management practices is needed to improve diarrhea case management in low- and-middle-income countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fluid Therapy/methods
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