MAIN BODY: This review highlights the roles of CSCs in tumour initiation, progression and metastasis with a focus on the cellular and molecular regulators that influence their phenotypical changes and behaviours in the different stages of cancer progression. We delineate the cross-talks between CSCs with the tumour microenvironment that support their intrinsic properties including survival, stemness, quiescence and their cellular and molecular adaptation in response to therapeutic pressure. An insight into the distinct roles of CSCs in promoting angiogenesis and metastasis has been captured based on in vitro and in vivo evidences.
CONCLUSION: Given dynamic cellular events along the cancer progression and contributions of resistance nature by CSCs, understanding their molecular and cellular regulatory mechanism in a heterogeneous nature, provides significant cornerstone for the development of CSC-specific therapeutics.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the CELSR3 hypermethylation level in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) and to correlate CELSR3 methylation with patient demographic and clinicopathological parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Frozen tissue samples of healthy subjects' normal mucosa and OSCCs were examined with regard to their methylation levels of the CELSR3 gene using MS-HRM.
RESULTS: MS-HRM analysis revealed a high methylation level of CELSR3 in 86% of OSCC cases. Significant correlations were found between CELSR3 quantitative methylation levels with patient ethnicity (P=0.005), age (P=0.024) and pathological stages (P=0.004). A moderate positive correlation between CELSR3 and patient age was also evident (R=0.444, P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: CELSR3 promoter hypermethylation may be an important mechanism involved in oral carcinogenesis. It may thus be used as a biomarker in OSCC prognostication.