Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 110 in total

  1. Aizuddin AN, Ramdzan AR, Syed Omar SA, Mahmud Z, Latiff ZA, Amat S, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 Aug 19;18(16).
    PMID: 34444499 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168752
    With the increasing number of cancer cases worldwide, genetic testing for familiar cancers seems inevitable, yet little is known on population interest and the monetary value for cancer genetic risk information. The current study aimed to determine the willingness to undergo and pay for cancer genetic testing among the Malaysian population. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to cancer patients and their family members in the oncology and daycare units in several government hospitals. Of 641 respondents (354 patients, 287 family members), 267 (41.7%) were willing to undergo cancer genetic testing. The median that respondents were willing to pay was USD 48.31 (MYR 200.00) IQR USD 96.91 (MYR 400), while 143 (22.3%) respondents were willing to pay a shared cost with the insurance company. Regression analysis identified independent positive predictors of willingness to pay as respondent's status as a family member, high education level, and willingness to undergo cancer genetic testing in general, while in patients, female gender and high level of education were identified as independent positive predictors. Generally, the population needs more information to undergo and pay for cancer genetic testing. This will increase the utilization of the services offered, and with cost-sharing practices with the provider, it can be implemented population-wide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing*
  2. Ramli AB, Rafii MY, Latif MA, Saleh GB, Omar OB, Puteh AB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Mar;96(5):1593-600.
    PMID: 25982124 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7260
    Genetic analysis using generation mean analysis is a tool for designing the most appropriate breeding approaches to developing varieties of rice. It estimates the gene actions that control quantitative traits, as well as the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. This study was conducted using three rice populations that were derived from parental lines with different amylose content. The aim was to partition the gene actions using generation mean analysis for the selected populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  3. Elbashir H, Fathalla W, Mundada V, Iqbal M, Al Tawari AA, Chandratre S, et al.
    J Neuromuscul Dis, 2022;9(6):787-801.
    PMID: 36245386 DOI: 10.3233/JND-221528
    BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe neuromuscular disorder which leads to progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Most patients die from cardiac or respiratory failure. Gene transfer therapy offers a promising approach to treating this disorder.

    OBJECTIVE: Given the genetic disease burden, family size, and the high consanguinity rates in the Middle East, our objective is to address current practices and challenges of DMD patient care within two countries in this region, namely the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, and to outline readiness for gene therapy.

    METHODS: An expert panel meeting was held to discuss the DMD patient journey, disease awareness, current management of DMD, challenges faced and recommendations for improvement. Opportunities and challenges for gene therapy in both countries were also deliberated. A pre-meeting survey was conducted, and the results were used to guide the discussion during the meeting.

    RESULTS: DMD awareness is poor resulting in a delay in referral and diagnosis of patients. Awareness and education initiatives, along with an interconnected referral system could improve early diagnosis. Genetic testing is available in both countries although coverage varies. Corticosteroid therapy is the standard of care however there is often a delay in treatment initiation. Patients with DMD should be diagnosed and managed by a multi-disciplinary team in centers of excellence for neuromuscular disorders. Key success factors to support the introduction of gene therapy include education and training, timely and accessible genetic testing and resolution of reimbursement and cost issues.

    CONCLUSION: There are many challenges facing the management of DMD patients in the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait and most likely other countries within the Middle East. Successful introduction of gene therapy to treat DMD will require careful planning, education, capacity building and prioritization of core initiatives.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  4. Rosli AA, Azlan A, Rajasegaran Y, Mot YY, Heidenreich O, Yusoff NM, et al.
    Clin Exp Med, 2023 Aug;23(4):1137-1159.
    PMID: 36229751 DOI: 10.1007/s10238-022-00913-1
    Chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have significantly contributed to scientific understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, which has aided in the development of therapeutic strategies and enhanced management of AML patients. The diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of AML have also rapidly transformed in recent years, improving initial response to treatment, remission rates, risk stratification and overall survival. Hundreds of rare chromosomal abnormalities in AML have been discovered thus far using chromosomal analysis and next-generation sequencing. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized AML into subgroups based on genetic, genomic and molecular characteristics, to complement the existing French-American classification which is solely based on morphology. In this review, we aim to highlight the most clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations in AML together with the technologies employed to detect these aberrations in laboratory settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  5. Watts GF, Gidding SS, Hegele RA, Raal FJ, Sturm AC, Jones LK, et al.
    Nat Rev Cardiol, 2023 Dec;20(12):845-869.
    PMID: 37322181 DOI: 10.1038/s41569-023-00892-0
    This contemporary, international, evidence-informed guidance aims to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) across different countries. FH, a family of monogenic defects in the hepatic LDL clearance pathway, is a preventable cause of premature coronary artery disease and death. Worldwide, 35 million people have FH, but most remain undiagnosed or undertreated. Current FH care is guided by a useful and diverse group of evidence-based guidelines, with some primarily directed at cholesterol management and some that are country-specific. However, none of these guidelines provides a comprehensive overview of FH care that includes both the lifelong components of clinical practice and strategies for implementation. Therefore, a group of international experts systematically developed this guidance to compile clinical strategies from existing evidence-based guidelines for the detection (screening, diagnosis, genetic testing and counselling) and management (risk stratification, treatment of adults or children with heterozygous or homozygous FH, therapy during pregnancy and use of apheresis) of patients with FH, update evidence-informed clinical recommendations, and develop and integrate consensus-based implementation strategies at the patient, provider and health-care system levels, with the aim of maximizing the potential benefit for at-risk patients and their families worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  6. Olesen AP, Nor SN, Amin L
    Sci Eng Ethics, 2016 Feb;22(1):133-46.
    PMID: 25724710 DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9639-z
    While pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is available and legal in Malaysia, there is an ongoing controversy debate about its use. There are few studies available on individuals' attitudes toward PGD, particularly among those who have a genetic disease, or whose children have a genetic disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is, in fact, the first study of its kind in Malaysia. We conducted in-depth interviews, using semi-structured questionnaires, with seven selected potential PGD users regarding their knowledge, attitudes and decisions relating to the use PGD. The criteria for selecting potential PGD users were that they or their children had a genetic disease, and they desired to have another child who would be free of genetic disease. All participants had heard of PGD and five of them were considering its use. The participants' attitudes toward PGD were based on several different considerations that were influenced by various factors. These included: the benefit-risk balance of PGD, personal experiences of having a genetic disease, religious beliefs, personal values and cost. The study's findings suggest that the selected Malaysian participants, as potential PGD users, were supportive but cautious regarding the use of PGD for medical purposes, particularly in relation to others whose experiences were similar. More broadly, the paper highlights the link between the participants' personal experiences and their beliefs regarding the appropriateness, for others, of individual decision-making on PGD, which has not been revealed by previous studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing*
  7. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2013 Mar;61(3):217-23.
    PMID: 23785790
    This study was done to detect and diagnose beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal) gene quickly. We applied sequence specific Amplification (SSA) method to the analysis. 13 kinds of beta-Thal and two kinds of hemoglobin variants were able to detect under the same PCR condition. These mutations were found frequently in ten countries of Asian region (the southern part of China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan, India), and 15 kinds in total (-28CapA-->G, CD5-CT, CD8/9+-G, CD15G-->A, CD17A-->T, IVSI-1G-->T, CD41/42-4del, CD16-C, CD26G-->A(betaE), IVSI-5G-->C, CD35C-->A, CD71/72 +A, CD6A-->T (betaS), -619del, IVSII-654C-->T). More than 80% of patients are included in these mutations. To make the reagents a kit, the procedure became simple and rapid. DNA was extracted by salting out method. The PCR product was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The confirmation of the variant was done by the PCR-direct sequencing method. It took approximately six hours for PCR reaction, electrophoresis and staining. This method made us to detect and diagnose beta-Thal in one day.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods
  8. Yip CH, Evans DG, Agarwal G, Buccimazza I, Kwong A, Morant R, et al.
    World J Surg, 2019 05;43(5):1264-1270.
    PMID: 30610270 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-018-04897-6
    Hereditary breast cancers, mainly due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, account for only 5-10% of this disease. The threshold for genetic testing is a 10% likelihood of detecting a mutation, as determined by validated models such as BOADICEA and Manchester Scoring System. A 90-95% reduction in breast cancer risk can be achieved with bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy in unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. In patients with BRCA-associated breast cancer, there is a 40% risk of contralateral breast cancer and hence risk-reducing contralateral mastectomy is recommended, which can be performed simultaneously with surgery for unilateral breast cancer. Other options for risk management include surveillance by mammogram and breast magnetic resonance imaging, and chemoprevention with hormonal agents. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and development of multigene panel testing, the cost and time taken for genetic testing have reduced, making it possible for treatment-focused genetic testing. There are also drugs such as the PARP inhibitors that specifically target the BRCA mutation. Risk management multidisciplinary clinics are designed to quantify risk, and offer advice on preventative strategies. However, such services are only possible in high-income settings. In low-resource settings, the prohibitive cost of testing and the lack of genetic counsellors are major barriers to setting up a breast cancer genetics service. Family history is often not well documented because of the stigma associated with cancer. Breast cancer genetics services remain an unmet need in low- and middle-income countries, where the priority is to optimise access to quality treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing*
  9. Padmanabhan H, Mariapun S, Lee SY, Hassan NT, Lee DS, Meiser B, et al.
    J Genet Couns, 2023 Feb;32(1):43-56.
    PMID: 35913122 DOI: 10.1002/jgc4.1619
    Cascade testing for families with BRCA pathogenic variants is important to identify relatives who are carriers. These relatives can benefit from appropriate risk management and preventative strategies arising from an inherited increased risk of breast, ovarian, prostate, melanoma, and pancreatic cancers. Cascade testing has the potential to enable cost-effective cancer control even in low- and middle-income settings, but few studies have hitherto evaluated the psychosocial impact of cascade testing in an Asian population, where the cultural and religious beliefs around inheritance and destiny have previously been shown to influence perception and attitudes toward screening. In this study, we evaluated the short- and long-term psychosocial impact of genetic testing among unaffected relatives of probands identified through the Malaysian Breast Cancer Genetics Study and the Malaysian Ovarian Cancer Study, using validated questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Cancer Worry Scale) administered at baseline, and 1-month and 2-year post-disclosure of results. Of the 305 unaffected relatives from 98 independent families who were offered cascade testing, 256 (84%) completed predictive testing and family history of cancers was the only factor significantly associated with uptake of predictive testing. We found that the levels of anxiety, depression, and cancer worry among unaffected relatives decreased significantly after result disclosure and remained low 2-year post-result disclosure. Younger relatives and relatives of Malay descent had higher cancer worry at both baseline and after result disclosure compared to those of Chinese and Indian descent, whereas relatives of Indian descent and those with family history of cancers had higher anxiety and depression levels post-result disclosure. Taken together, the results from this Asian cohort highlight the differences in psychosocial needs in different communities and inform the development of culture-specific genetic counseling strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods
  10. Chin JJ, Tham HW
    Front Genet, 2020;11:512582.
    PMID: 33343613 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2020.512582
    Genetic testing aids patients in making important decisions in the prevention, treatment, or early detection of hereditary disorders. Low awareness of the importance of genetic testing contributes to the increase in the incidence of hereditary disorders. This study aims to explore the knowledge, awareness, and perception of genetic testing for hereditary disorders among local residents of the Klang Valley, Malaysia, and the potential variables that influence their understanding of genetic testing. A survey was conducted in different municipalities of the Klang Valley through self-administered questionnaire assessing the public's knowledge, awareness, and perception of genetic testing. Overall, the results revealed adequate knowledge and positive awareness of genetic testing, in which both were influenced by the respondent's educational level (P < 0.001), field of study (P < 0.001), and status of heard or unheard of genetic testing (P < 0.001). The perception of genetic testing was generally positive and influenced by the respondent's differences in age (P < 0.016), educational level (P < 0.001), field of study (P < 0.001), and status of heard or unheard of genetic testing (P < 0.001). Although positive responses were obtained, ~20.2% of the respondents had never heard of genetic testing. Of the respondents, 24.5% were unwilling to undergo genetic testing, with 25.1% believing that genetic testing tampers with nature and 18% believing that it opposes religion and their beliefs. Such attitude calls for the need to conduct programs to eliminate any misconception, as well as to educate the public to lessen any perceived misunderstanding of the concepts of genetic testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  11. Gan HM, Eng WWH, Barton MK, Adams LE, Samsudin NA, Bartl AJ, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2017 Aug 24;5(34).
    PMID: 28839032 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00857-17
    We report here the genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains TT6675 and TT9097, which we utilize for genetic analyses of giant bacterial viruses. Our analyses identified several genetic variations between the two strains, most significantly confirming strain TT6675 as a serine suppressor and TT9097 as a nonsuppressor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  12. Kountouris P, Stephanou C, Lederer CW, Traeger-Synodinos J, Bento C, Harteveld CL, et al.
    Hum Mutat, 2022 Aug;43(8):1089-1096.
    PMID: 34510646 DOI: 10.1002/humu.24280
    Accurate and consistent interpretation of sequence variants is integral to the delivery of safe and reliable diagnostic genetic services. To standardize the interpretation process, in 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) published a joint guideline based on a set of shared standards for the classification of variants in Mendelian diseases. The generality of these standards and their subjective interpretation between laboratories has prompted efforts to reduce discordance of variant classifications, with a focus on the expert specification of the ACMG/AMP guidelines for individual genes or diseases. Herein, we describe our experience as a ClinGen Variant Curation Expert Panel to adapt the ACMG/AMP criteria for the classification of variants in three globin genes (HBB, HBA2, and HBA1) related to recessively inherited hemoglobinopathies, including five evidence categories, as use cases demonstrating the process of specification and the underlying rationale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  13. Ainoon O, Alawiyah A, Yu YH, Cheong SK, Hamidah NH, Boo NY, et al.
    PMID: 12971572
    Neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency has long been established in many countries. The aim of the study was to determine whether the routine semiquantitative fluorescent spot test could detect all cases of G6PD deficiency, including those cases with partial deficiency (residual red cell G6PD activity between 20-60% of normal). We compared the results of G6PD screening by the semiquantitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative G6PD activity assay on a group of 976 neonates and 67 known female heterozygotes. The values for mean G6PD activity of G6PD-normal neonates and 293 healthy adult females were determined. There was no significant difference in the mean normal G6PD activity between the two racial groups in the neonates (669 Malays, 307 Chinese) and in the 293 healthy adult females (150 Malays, 143 Chinese) group. The values for the upper limits of total deficiency (20% of normal residual activity) for neonates and adult females were 2.92 U/gHb and 1.54 U/gHb, respectively. The upper limits of partial deficiency (60% of normal residual activity) were 8.7 U/gHb and 4.6 U/gHb respectively. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the male neonates was 5.1% (26) by both the fluorescent spot test and the enzyme assay method. The G6PD activity levels of all 26 cases of G6PD-deficient male neonates were < 20% normal (severe enzyme deficiency). In the female neonate group, the frequency of G6PD deficiency was 1.3% (6 of 472) by the fluorescent spot test and 9.35% (44 of 472) by enzyme assay. The 6 cases diagnosed as deficient by the fluorescent spot test showed severe enzyme deficiency (< 2.92 U/gHb). The remaining 38 female neonates had partial enzyme deficiency and all were misdiagnosed as normal by the fluorescent spot test. In the female heterozygote group, G6PD deficiency was diagnosed in 53% (35 of 67) by enzyme assay and in 7.5% (4 of 67) of cases by the fluorescent spot test. The 4 cases detected by fluorescent spot test had severe enzyme deficiency (<1.6 U/gHb). The remaining 31 (46.3%) cases, diagnosed as normal by fluorescent spot test, showed partial G6PD deficiency. In conclusion, we found that the semiquantitative fluorescent spot test could only diagnose cases of total G6PD deficiency and misclassified the partially-deficient cases as normal. In this study, the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 3.28% by the semiquantitative fluorescent spot test and 7.17% by enzyme assay. This means that 3.9% of G6PD-deficient neonates were missed by the routine fluorescent spot test and they were found to be exclusively females. This study demonstrates a need to use a method that can correctly classify female heterozygotes with partial G6PD deficiency. The clinical implication is that these individuals may be at risk of the hemolytic complication of G6PD deficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods; Genetic Testing/standards*
  14. Choong SS, Latiff ZA, Mohamed M, Lim LL, Chen KS, Vengidasan L, et al.
    Clin Genet, 2012 Dec;82(6):564-8.
    PMID: 22233476 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2012.01841.x
    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a highly penetrant, autosomal dominant disorder where affected individuals carry a 50% risk of developing cancer before 30 years of age. It is most commonly associated with mutations in the tumour suppressor gene, TP53. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare paediatric cancer, and up to 80% of affected children are found to carry germline TP53 mutations. Hence, we propose using childhood ACC incidence as selection criteria for referral for TP53 mutation testing, independent of familial cancer history. Under the auspices of the Malaysian Society of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, four eligible children diagnosed with ACC over a 30-month study period were referred for mutation testing. Three had a germline TP53 mutation. Subsequent TP53 testing in relatives showed two inherited mutations and one de novo mutation. These findings strongly support paediatric ACC as a useful sentinel cancer for initiating a germline TP53/LFS detection programme, particularly in countries where the lack of structured oncogenetic practice precludes the identification of families with LFS features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods*; Genetic Testing/standards
  15. Loh KH, Shao KT, Ho HC, Lim PE, Chen HM
    Zootaxa, 2015;4060:30-40.
    PMID: 26701587 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4060.1.5
    The following nine elongate unpatterned muraenid species of the subfamily Muraeninae, including one new species, are recognized from Taiwan and adjacent waters: Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel), G. dorsalis Seale, G. melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen, G. phasmatodes (Smith), G. prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka, G. sagmacephalus Böhlke, Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker), Strophidon sathete (Hamilton) and G. pseudomelanosomatus new species, described from two specimens. This new moray eel is distinguished from its similar species, G. melanosomatus, by the following features: grey brown body (vs. black), snout length 20.5% (vs. 17.8%) of head length, smaller eye diameter 8.2% (vs. 10.0%) of head length; preanal length 49.5% (vs. 58.5%) total length, and preanal vertebrae 89-89 (vs. 105-109). Phylogenetic relationships of the nine species were examined using nucleotide sequence data from partial sequences of mitochondrial ND5 gene (600 bp), and seven species form COI (600 bp). The genetic analyses suggest that G. pseudomelanosomatus is distinct from G. melanosomatus and the other six species of Gymnothorax. Morphological features and mitogenetic affinities strongly suggest that "G." dorsalis should be placed in Strophidon rather than in Gymnothorax. The results also suggest that employment of ND5 and COI gene sequences are rather useful for identification of species and for obtaining reasonable insights into the phylogeny of the muraenid species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  16. Fulazzaky MA, Abdullah S, Salim MR
    Data Brief, 2016 Jun;7:834-8.
    PMID: 27077083 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2016.03.058
    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  17. Nawawi HM, Chua YA, Watts GF
    Curr Opin Cardiol, 2020 05;35(3):226-233.
    PMID: 32097179 DOI: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000721
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the exception of familial hypercholesterolaemia, the value of genetic testing for managing dyslipidaemias is not established. We review the genetics of major dyslipidaemias in context of clinical practice.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia is valuable to enhance diagnostic precision, cascade testing, risk prediction and the use of new medications. Hypertriglyceridaemia may be caused by rare recessive monogenic, or by polygenic, gene variants; genetic testing may be useful in the former, for which antisense therapy targeting apoC-III has been approved. Familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations, but there is no effective therapy. Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) is caused by polygenic variants for which there is no specific gene testing panel. Familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia is less frequent and commonly caused by APOE ε2ε2 homozygosity; as with FCHL, it is responsive to lifestyle modifications and statins or/and fibrates. Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a quantitative genetic trait whose value in risk prediction over-rides genetic testing; treatment relies on RNA therapeutics.

    SUMMARY: Genetic testing is not at present commonly available for managing dyslipidaemias. Rapidly advancing technology may presage wider use, but its worth will require demonstration of cost-effectiveness and a healthcare workforce trained in genomic medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  18. Ramdzan AR, Manaf MRA, Aizuddin AN, Latiff ZA, Teik KW, Ch'ng GS, et al.
    PMID: 34444091 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168330
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Approximately 3-5% of CRCs are associated with hereditary cancer syndromes. Individuals who harbor germline mutations are at an increased risk of developing early onset CRC, as well as extracolonic tumors. Genetic testing can identify genes that cause these syndromes. Early detection could facilitate the initiation of targeted prevention strategies and surveillance for CRC patients and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of CRC genetic testing. We utilized a cross-sectional design to determine the cost-effectiveness of CRC genetic testing as compared to the usual screening method (iFOBT) from the provider's perspective. Data on costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of 200 CRC patients from three specialist general hospitals were collected. A mixed-methods approach of activity-based costing, top-down costing, and extracted information from a clinical pathway was used to estimate provider costs. Patients and family members' HRQoL were measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Data from the Malaysian Study on Cancer Survival (MySCan) were used to calculate patient survival. Cost-effectiveness was measured as cost per life-year (LY) and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The provider cost for CRC genetic testing was high as compared to that for the current screening method. The current practice for screening is cost-saving as compared to genetic testing. Using a 10-year survival analysis, the estimated number of LYs gained for CRC patients through genetic testing was 0.92 years, and the number of QALYs gained was 1.53 years. The cost per LY gained and cost per QALY gained were calculated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) showed that genetic testing dominates iFOBT testing. CRC genetic testing is cost-effective and could be considered as routine CRC screening for clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing
  19. Hamidah NH, Munirah AR, Hafiza A, Farisah AR, Shuhaila A, Norzilawati MN, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):163-8.
    PMID: 25500514 MyJurnal
    Prenatal diagnosis is essential in the new era of diagnosis and management of genetic diseases in obstetrics. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a recent technique for prenatal diagnosis for the relative quantification of 40 different nucleic acid sequences in one single reaction. We had utilized the MLPA technique in detecting aneuploidies in amniotic fluid samples from 25 pregnant women from the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department UKMMC, versus the quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method. Conclusive results were obtained in 18 cases and all were concordant with that of the QF-PCR. All four cases of trisomies were correctly identified including one case with maternal cell contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods*
  20. Zainal NZ, Alauddin H, Ahmad S, Hussin NH
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):207-11.
    PMID: 25500521
    Thalassaemia carriers are common in the Asian region including Malaysia. Asymptomatic patients can be undiagnosed until they present for their antenatal visits. Devastating obstetric outcome may further complicate the pregnancy if both parents are thalassaemia carriers leading to hydrophic fetus due to haemoglobin Bart's disease. However in certain cases where unexplained hydrops fetalis occur in parents with heterozygous thalassaemia carrier,mutated α genes should be suspected. We report a twenty-nine year old woman in her third pregnancy with two previous pregnancies complicated by early neonatal death at 21 and 28 weeks of gestation due to hydrops fetalis. DNA analysis revealed the patient to have heterozygous (--SEA) α-gene deletion, while her husband has a compound heterozygosity for α(3.7) deletion and codon 59 (GGC → GAC) mutation of the α-gene. This mutation, also known as hemoglobin Adana, can explain hydrops fetalis resulting from two alpha gene deletions from the patient (mother) and a single alpha gene deletion with mutation from the father. The third pregnancy resulted in a grossly normal baby boy with 3 α-gene deletions (HbH disease). We postulate that, in view of heterogenisity of the α-thalassaemia in this patient with severely unstable haemoglobin Adana chains from her husband, there will be a 25% possibility of fetal hydrops in every pregnancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Testing/methods*
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