Pleosporales is the largest order in the fungal class Dothideomycetes. We report the 36,814,818-bp draft genome sequence and gene annotation of UM1110, a Pleosporales isolate associated with unclassified genera that is potentially a new fungal species. Analysis of the genome sequence led to the finding of genes associated with fungal adhesive proteins, secreted proteases, allergens, and pseudohyphal development.
Cladophialophora bantiana is a dematiaceous fungus with a predilection for causing central nervous system (CNS) infection manifesting as brain abscess in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In this paper, we report comprehensive genomic analyses of C. bantiana isolated from the brain abscess of an immunocompetent man, the first reported case in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The identity of the fungus was determined using combined morphological analysis and multilocus phylogeny. The draft genome sequence of a neurotrophic fungus, C. bantiana UM 956 was generated using Illumina sequencing technology to dissect its genetic fundamental and basic biology. The assembled 37.1 Mb genome encodes 12,155 putative coding genes, of which, 1.01% are predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features support its saprophytic lifestyle, renowned for its versatility in decomposing hemicellulose and pectin components. The C. bantiana UM 956 was also found to carry some important putative genes that engaged in pathogenicity, iron uptake and homeostasis as well as adaptation to various stresses to enable the organism to survive in hostile microenvironment. This wealth of resource will further catalyse more downstream functional studies to provide better understanding on how this fungus can be a successful and persistent pathogen in human.
Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus.
The gene encoding a cellobiohydrolase 7B (CBH7B) of the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris was identified, subcloned, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. CBH7B encoded 455 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 51.8 kDa. Domain analysis indicated that CBH7B contains a family 7 glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core but lacks a carbohydrate-binding module. Purified CBH7B exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 55 °C with 4-methylumbelliferryl-cellobioside as the substrate and retained 85% of its activity following 24 H incubation at 50 °C. Despite the lack of activity toward microcrystalline substrates, this enzyme worked synergistically with the commercial enzyme cocktail Cellic(®) CTec2 to enhance saccharification by 39% when added to a reaction mixture containing 0.25% alkaline pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested a reduction of lignin and crystalline cellulose in OPEFB samples supplemented with CBH7B. Scanning electron microscopy revealed greater destruction extent of OPEFB strands in samples supplemented with CBH7B as compared with the nonsupplemented control. Therefore, CBH7B has the potential to complement commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing lignocellulosic biomass.