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  1. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Eng KL, Samarawickrema WA
    J. Helminthol., 1987 Dec;61(4):349-53.
    PMID: 3437114
    This paper reports the experimental transmission of a bird parasite into jirds. Infective larvae of Cardiofilaria nilesi obtained from laboratory colonized Coquillettidia crassipes mosquitoes which had fed on an infected chicken were inoculated subcutaneously into jirds. The number of larvae per jird varied from 10 to 228. Microfilaraemia appeared 22 to 89 days after inoculation of the infective larvae. Experiments were carried out with 24 jirds through six generations extending over a period of 22 months and 17 produced patent infections. At present 8 infected jirds are being maintained in the laboratory; their patent periods ranging from 6 to 13 months. However, the longest patent period observed was about thirteen months. The percentage of adults recovered in autopsied jirds ranged from 0 to 40 with an average of 16. The chicken showed a microfilarial periodicity with the peak microfilarial density around 2200 hours. However, in jirds there was a change in sub-periodicity. This model in the jird may be very useful for the screening of filaricides and in immunological work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae/parasitology*
  2. Tabasi M, Alesheikh AA, Sofizadeh A, Saeidian B, Pradhan B, AlAmri A
    Parasit Vectors, 2020 Nov 11;13(1):572.
    PMID: 33176858 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-020-04447-x
    BACKGROUND: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a neglected tropical disease worldwide, especially the Middle East. Although previous works attempt to model the ZCL spread using various environmental factors, the interactions between vectors (Phlebotomus papatasi), reservoir hosts, humans, and the environment can affect its spread. Considering all of these aspects is not a trivial task.

    METHODS: An agent-based model (ABM) is a relatively new approach that provides a framework for analyzing the heterogeneity of the interactions, along with biological and environmental factors in such complex systems. The objective of this research is to design and develop an ABM that uses Geospatial Information System (GIS) capabilities, biological behaviors of vectors and reservoir hosts, and an improved Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) epidemic model to explore the spread of ZCL. Various scenarios were implemented to analyze the future ZCL spreads in different parts of Maraveh Tappeh County, in the northeast region of Golestan Province in northeastern Iran, with alternative socio-ecological conditions.

    RESULTS: The results confirmed that the spread of the disease arises principally in the desert, low altitude areas, and riverside population centers. The outcomes also showed that the restricting movement of humans reduces the severity of the transmission. Moreover, the spread of ZCL has a particular temporal pattern, since the most prevalent cases occurred in the fall. The evaluation test also showed the similarity between the results and the reported spatiotemporal trends.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the capability and efficiency of ABM to model and predict the spread of ZCL. The results of the presented approach can be considered as a guide for public health management and controlling the vector population .

    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae/parasitology
  3. Junaid OQ, Vythilingam I, Khaw LT, Sivanandam S, Mahmud R
    Parasitol Res, 2020 Apr;119(4):1301-1315.
    PMID: 32179986 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-020-06632-4
    Malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are two leading and common mosquito-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. These two diseases are co-endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical regions and are known to share vectors. The interactions between malaria and filarial parasites are poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed at establishing the interactions that occur between Brugia pahangi and Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) co-infection in gerbils. Briefly, the gerbils were matched according to age, sex, and weight and grouped into filarial-only infection, PbA-only infection, co-infection, and control group. The parasitemia, survival and clinical assessment of the gerbils were monitored for a period of 30 days post Plasmodium infection. The immune responses of gerbils to both mono and co-infection were monitored. Findings show that co-infected gerbils have higher survival rate than PbA-infected gerbils. Food and water consumption were significantly reduced in both PbA-infected and co-infected gerbils, although loss of body weight, hypothermia, and anemia were less severe in co-infected gerbils. Plasmodium-infected gerbils also suffered hypoglycemia, which was not observed in co-infected gerbils. Furthermore, gerbil cytokine responses to co-infection were significantly higher than PbA-only-infected gerbils, which is being suggested as a factor for their increased longevity. Co-infected gerbils had significantly elicited interleukin-4, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrotic factor at early stage of infection than PbA-infected gerbils. Findings from this study suggest that B. pahangi infection protect against severe anemia and hypoglycemia, which are manifestations of PbA infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae/parasitology*
  4. Azuma H, Okamoto M, Oku Y, Kamiya M
    Parasitol Res, 1995;81(2):103-8.
    PMID: 7731915
    The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae/parasitology*
  5. Iwaki T, Nonaka N, Okamoto M, Oku Y, Kamiya M
    J Parasitol, 1994 Jun;80(3):461-7.
    PMID: 8195949
    Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  6. Nonaka N, Iwaki T, Okamoto M, Ooi HK, Oku Y, Ohbayashi M, et al.
    J Vet Med Sci, 1994 Jun;56(3):565-7.
    PMID: 7948394
    Taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from Norway rats captured at Sapporo (SRN isolate) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KRN) and from Bedford's gray red-backed voles at Toubetsu (TCR) and Abuta (ACR). SRN, KRN and TCR isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in Mongolian gerbils and voles. Contrary to this, inoculation with ACR isolate eggs resulted in strobilocerci formation in the liver of voles, but no cysts were observed in rats, mice or gerbils. This host specificity of ACR isolate to voles suggests that it might be a new species of Taenia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  7. Junaid OQ, Wong KT, Khaw LT, Mahmud R, Vythilingam I
    Trop Biomed, 2018 Dec 01;35(4):981-998.
    PMID: 33601846
    Co-infection with multiple different parasites is a common phenomenon in both human and animals. Among parasites that frequently co-infect the same hosts, are the filarial worms and malaria parasites. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these parasites is still relatively unexplored with very few studies available on the resulting pathologies due to co-infection by filarial nematodes and malaria parasites. Hence, this study investigated the histopathological effect of Brugia pahangi and Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infections in gerbil host. Gerbils grouped into B. pahangi-infected, PbA-infected, B. pahangi and PbA-coinfected, and uninfected control, were necropsied at different time points of post PbA infections. Brugia pahangi infections in the gerbils were first initiated by subcutaneous inoculation of 50 infective larvae, while PbA infections were done by intraperitoneal injection of 106 parasitized red blood cells after 70 days patent period of B. pahangi. Organs such as the lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart and liver were harvested aseptically at the point of necropsy. There was significant hepatosplenomegaly observed in both PbA-infected only and coinfected gerbils. The spleen, liver and lungs were heavily pigmented. Both B. pahangi and PbA infections (mono and coinfections) resulted in pulmonary edema, while glomerulonephritis was associated with PbA infections. The presence of both parasites induced extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and liver. These findings suggest that the pathologies associated with coinfected gerbils were synergistically induced by both B. pahangi and PbA infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  8. Junaid QO, Khaw LT, Mahmud R, Ong KC, Lau YL, Borade PU, et al.
    Parasite, 2017;24:38.
    PMID: 29034874 DOI: 10.1051/parasite/2017040
    BACKGROUND: As the quest to eradicate malaria continues, there remains a need to gain further understanding of the disease, particularly with regard to pathogenesis. This is facilitated, apart from in vitro and clinical studies, mainly via in vivo mouse model studies. However, there are few studies that have used gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as animal models. Thus, this study is aimed at characterizing the effects of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in gerbils, as well as the underlying pathogenesis.

    METHODS: Gerbils, 5-7 weeks old were infected by PbA via intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 (0.2 mL) infected red blood cells. Parasitemia, weight gain/loss, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and body temperature changes in both control and infected groups were monitored over a duration of 13 days. RNA was extracted from the brain, spleen and whole blood to assess the immune response to PbA infection. Organs including the brain, spleen, heart, liver, kidneys and lungs were removed aseptically for histopathology.

    RESULTS: Gerbils were susceptible to PbA infection, showing significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, RBC counts, body weights and body temperature, over the course of the infection. There were no neurological signs observed. Both pro-inflammatory (IFNγ and TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were significantly elevated. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were also observed. PbA parasitized RBCs were observed in the organs, using routine light microscopy and in situ hybridization.

    CONCLUSION: Gerbils may serve as a good model for severe malaria to further understand its pathogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae/parasitology*
  9. Muslim A, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Lau YL, Sivanandam S
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:219.
    PMID: 23898840 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-219
    In 2011, we reported occurrence of natural human infections with Brugia pahangi, a filarial worm of dogs and cats, in a surburb of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. Our preliminary entomological survey at that time suggested the mosquito species Armigeres subalbatus as the vector of the zoonotic infections. In this present report, we provide biological evidence to confirm our preliminary finding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  10. Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Junaid QO, Mansor M, Hasan MS, Kassim M
    Pathog Glob Health, 2017 Oct;111(7):388-394.
    PMID: 29065795 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2017.1380946
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Current therapeutics to treat LF are mainly microfilarcidal, and lack activity against adult worms. This set back, poses a challenge for the control and elimination of filariasis. Thus, in this study the activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against the filarial worm B. pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia were evaluated. Different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, 20 μg/ml) of CAPE were used to assess its effects on motility, viability and microfilarial (mf) production of B. pahangi in vitro. Anti-Wolbachial activity of CAPE was measured in worms by quantification of Wolbachial wsp gene copy number using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our findings show that CAPE was found to significantly reduce adult worm motility, viability, and mf release both in vitro and in vivo. 20 μg/ml of CAPE halts the release of mf in vitro by day 6 of post treatment. Also, the number of adult worms recovered in vivo were reduced significantly during and after treatment with 50 mg/kg of CAPE relative to control drugs, diethylcarbamazine and doxycycline. Real time PCR based on the Wolbachia ftsZ gene revealed a significant reduction in Wolbachia copy number upon treatment. Anti-Wolbachia and antifilarial properties of CAPE require further investigation as an alternative strategy to treat LF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  11. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  12. Abdullah WO, Oothuman P, Yunus H
    PMID: 7973943
    In Peninsular Malaysia, only Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are reported to cause human filariasis. Brugia pahangi infects many of the same animal hosts as the zoonotically transmitted subperiodic B. malayi. There is a well-recognized need for improved diagnostic techniques for lymphatic filariasis. Parasite antigen detection is a promising new approach, and it will probably prove to be more sensitive and specific than clinical, microscopic and antibody-based serological methods. We recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAb XC3) from in vitro culture products of adult B. pahangi (B.p. IVP). Filarial antigenemia was quantitated in various hosts including the sera from 6 Malaysian Aborigines with acute lymphatic filariasis. In hosts infected with brugian filariasis and dirofilariasis, antigenemia was scored ranging from 90 ng/ml to 960 ng/ml. None of the control animal and human sera had antigenemia above 90 ng/ml. In addition, MAb XC3 and B.p. IVP were applied in several seroepidemiological surveys among household cats in Kuala Selangor in order to correlate information gathered for future studies of possible cases of human infection. Out of the 81 cats surveyed, 10 (12.35%) and 5 (6.17%) were parasitologically positive for B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. However, 21 (25.92%) were antigenemia positive when serologically investigated with MAb XC3. Antifilarial antibodies to B.p. IVP by direct ELISA showed very high cross-reactivity with non-filarial gut worm infections. 16 (19.75%) cats had reciprocal titers ranging from 320 to 2,560. Only 1 (1.23%) cat from this group was antigenemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  13. Sato H, Torii H, Une Y, Ooi HK
    J Parasitol, 2007 Dec;93(6):1476-86.
    PMID: 18314696 DOI: 10.1645/GE-1106.1
    Strongyloides callosciureus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea), from Asian sciurids, is described based on morphology, morphometry, and the small and large subunit (SSU/LSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. This new species was collected from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) in the central part of mainland Japan (Honshu), which were originally introduced from Taiwan some decades ago, and plantain squirrels (Callosciurus notatus) imported from Malaysia as personal pets. For comparison, Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 1942 was collected from American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) imported from the United States as personal pets. The parasitic females found in North American and Asian sciurids shared some key morphological features such as the ovary running spirally around the gut, and the shapes of the stoma in the apical view and the tail. However, morphometric features of parasitic females in North American and Asian sciurids differed significantly from each other; the former was larger than the latter, and the relative position of the vulva to the whole body length from the mouth was different. The SSU/LSU rDNA sequences supported the division of sciurid Strongyloides isolates by geographical distribution of the host and morphological features, leading us to propose the erection of new species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
  14. Mitutsova V, Yeo WWY, Davaze R, Franckhauser C, Hani EH, Abdullah S, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017 04 18;8(1):86.
    PMID: 28420418 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-017-0539-9
    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic beta cells are unique effectors in the control of glucose homeostasis and their deficiency results in impaired insulin production leading to severe diabetic diseases. Here, we investigated the potential of a population of nonadherent muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) from adult mouse muscle to differentiate in vitro into beta cells when transplanted as undifferentiated stem cells in vivo to compensate for beta-cell deficiency.

    RESULTS: In vitro, cultured MDSC spontaneously differentiated into insulin-expressing islet-like cell clusters as revealed using MDSC from transgenic mice expressing GFP or mCherry under the control of an insulin promoter. Differentiated clusters of beta-like cells co-expressed insulin with the transcription factors Pdx1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, and MafA, and secreted significant levels of insulin in response to glucose challenges. In vivo, undifferentiated MDSC injected into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice engrafted within 48 h specifically to damaged pancreatic islets and were shown to differentiate and express insulin 10-12 days after injection. In addition, injection of MDSC into hyperglycemic diabetic mice reduced their blood glucose levels for 2-4 weeks.

    CONCLUSION: These data show that MDSC are capable of differentiating into mature pancreatic beta islet-like cells, not only upon culture in vitro, but also in vivo after systemic injection in STZ-induced diabetic mouse models. Being nonteratogenic, MDSC can be used directly by systemic injection, and this potential reveals a promising alternative avenue in stem cell-based treatment of beta-cell deficiencies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gerbillinae
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