Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Ahmad R, Saleem M, Aloysious NS, Yelumalai P, Mohamed N, Hassan S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(9):18599-614.
    PMID: 24025420 DOI: 10.3390/ijms140918599
    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, α-³·⁷ and -α⁴·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α-³·⁷ deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α-³·⁷ deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α⁺ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α⁰ thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
  2. Lee TY, Lai MI, Ismail P, Ramachandran V, Tan JA, Teh LK, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Apr 07;15(2).
    PMID: 27173219 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027400
    Hemoglobin (Hb) Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a non-deletional α-thalassemia variant found in Malaysia. An improvement in the molecular techniques in recent years has made identification of Hb Adana much easier. For this study, a total of 26 Hb Adana α-thalassemia intermedia and 10 Hb Adana trait blood samples were collected from patients. Common deletional and non-deletional α-thalassemia genotypes were determined using multiplex gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ARMS PCR techniques. Identification of the Hb Adana location on the α-globin gene was carried out using genomic sequencing and the location of the mutation was confirmed via restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR. Among the 36 samples, 24 (66.7%) had the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation, while the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation accounted for 2 samples (5.6%) and the remaining 10 (27.8%) samples were α/α(Cd59)α. All 36 samples were found to have the Hb Adana mutation on the α2-globin gene. The position of the α-globin gene mutation found in our cases was similar to that reported in Indonesia (16%) but not to that in Turkey (0.6%). Our results showed that the Hb Adana mutation was preferentially present in the α2-globin genes in Malays compared to the other ethnicities in Malaysia. Thus, the Malays might have similar ancestry based on the similarities in the Hb Adana position.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  3. Amran HS, Aziz MA, George E, Mahmud N, Lee TY, Md Noor S
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):321-326.
    PMID: 29279598 MyJurnal
    Hb Tak is one of more than 200 high affinity haemoglobin variants reported worldwide. It results from the insertion of two nucleotides (AC) at the termination codon, between codon 146 and codon 147 of the beta-globin gene [Beta 147 (+AC)]. Polycythaemia is the main clinical feature although affected carriers are usually asymptomatic and do not require intervention. Several case studies in this region have reported the co-inheritance of Hb Tak with Hb E, delta beta and beta thalassaemia with one case of homozygous Hb Tak in a Thai boy. In this case report, a cluster of haemoglobin Tak was found in a family of Malay ethnic origin. Cascade family screening was conducted while investigating a 4-year old girl who presented with symptomatic polycythaemia. She had 2 previous Hb analysis done, at 7-month and 2-year-old with the diagnosis of possible Hb Q Thailand and Homozygous Hb D, respectively. Both diagnosis did not fit her clinical presentations. She was plethoric, had reduced exercise tolerance as well as cardiomyopathy. Her parents were consanguineously married and later diagnosed as asymptomatic carriers of Hb Tak. Consequently, re-analysis of the girl's blood sample revealed a homozygous state of Hb Tak. In conclusion, high oxygen affinity haemoglobin like Hb Tak should be considered in the investigation of polycythaemic patients with abnormal Hb analyses. In this case, DNA analysis was crucial in determining the correct diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  4. Alauddin H, Mohamad Nasir S, Ahadon M, Raja Sabudin RZ, Ithnin A, Hussin NH, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Dec;37(3):287-92.
    PMID: 26712677
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  5. Zainal NZ, Alauddin H, Ahmad S, Hussin NH
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):207-11.
    PMID: 25500521
    Thalassaemia carriers are common in the Asian region including Malaysia. Asymptomatic patients can be undiagnosed until they present for their antenatal visits. Devastating obstetric outcome may further complicate the pregnancy if both parents are thalassaemia carriers leading to hydrophic fetus due to haemoglobin Bart's disease. However in certain cases where unexplained hydrops fetalis occur in parents with heterozygous thalassaemia carrier,mutated α genes should be suspected. We report a twenty-nine year old woman in her third pregnancy with two previous pregnancies complicated by early neonatal death at 21 and 28 weeks of gestation due to hydrops fetalis. DNA analysis revealed the patient to have heterozygous (--SEA) α-gene deletion, while her husband has a compound heterozygosity for α(3.7) deletion and codon 59 (GGC → GAC) mutation of the α-gene. This mutation, also known as hemoglobin Adana, can explain hydrops fetalis resulting from two alpha gene deletions from the patient (mother) and a single alpha gene deletion with mutation from the father. The third pregnancy resulted in a grossly normal baby boy with 3 α-gene deletions (HbH disease). We postulate that, in view of heterogenisity of the α-thalassaemia in this patient with severely unstable haemoglobin Adana chains from her husband, there will be a 25% possibility of fetal hydrops in every pregnancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  6. Alauddin H, Jaapar NA, Azma RZ, Ithnin A, Razak NF, Loh CK, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2014;38(4):277-81.
    PMID: 24829075 DOI: 10.3109/03630269.2014.916720
    Hb Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a rare hemoglobin (Hb) variant due to a mutation at codon 59 of the α2- or α1-globin gene resulting in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution. Two siblings with a unique coinheritance of Hb Adana and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA; HBA2: c.427 T>C) (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α), were compared phenotypically with another two siblings carrying the Hb Adana mutation and a 3.7 kb deletion (α(codon 59)α/-α(3.7)). Although they all had α-thalassemia intermedia (α-TI), the former were clinically more severe than the latter. The first pair of siblings presented at a much younger age than the second pair and showed lower Hb levels and significant extramedullay hemopoiesis. Another case of a hydropic fetus as a result of Hb H/Hb Adana is also described. Their clinical phenotypes and hematological parameters are all presented for comparison.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  7. Pasangna J, George E, Nagaratnam M
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Jun;27(1):33-7.
    PMID: 16676691
    A 2-year-old Malay boy was brought to the University Malaya Medical Centre for thalassaemia screening. Physical examination revealed thalassaemia facies, pallor, mild jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations on the patient including studies on the parents lead to a presumptive diagnosis of homozygous Haemoglobin Lepore (Hb Lepore). The aim of this paper is to increase awareness of this rare disorder, this being the first case documented in Malaysia in a Malay. The case also demonstrates the need for this disorder to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting clinically like thalassemia intermedia or thalassemia major. Accurate diagnosis would provide information necessary for prenatal diagnosis, proper clinical management and genetic counseling. The clinical, haematological and laboratory features of this disorder are discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  8. Tan JA, Kho SL, Ngim CF, Chua KH, Goh AS, Yeoh SL, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 08;6:26994.
    PMID: 27271331 DOI: 10.1038/srep26994
    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α(3.7)), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (α(codon 59)α/α(Paksé)α) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  9. Lacombe C, Arous N, Pontet F, Blouquit Y, Bardakdjian J, Riou J, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 1987;11(2):173-6.
    PMID: 3114176
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
  10. George E, Kudva MV
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Sep;44(3):255-8.
    PMID: 2626141
    Hereditary stomatocytic ovalocytosis and haemoglobin E are two genes present in 3-5% of Malays. This is a report of a 22 year old Malay college student with homozygous haemoglobin E and hereditary stomatocytic ovalocytosis where the clinical effects seen were the result of the summation of these genes: he was asymptomatic, presenting with moderate jaundice, moderate hepatosplenomegaly, and a mild haemolytic anaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  11. Alauddin H, Kamarudin K, Loong TY, Azma RZ, Ithnin A, Jalil N, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2018 Jul;42(4):247-251.
    PMID: 30623696 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2018.1528985
    Nondeletional α-globin mutations are known to cause more serious clinical effects than deletional ones. A rare IVS-I-1 (G>A) (HBA2: c.95+1G>A) donor splice site mutation interferes with normal splicing of pre mRNA and results in activation of a cryptic splice site as well as a frameshift mutation. Hb Adana [HBA2: c.179G>A (or HBA1)] is a highly unstable variant hemoglobin (Hb) resulting from a mutation at codon 59 on the HBA2 or HBA1 gene, recognized to cause severe α-thalassemia (α-thal) syndromes. We report a unique case of compound heterozygosity for these two mutations in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a Hb level of 5.3 g/dL and hepatomegaly at the age of 15 months. He required regular blood transfusions in view of a Hb level of <7.0 g/dL and failure to thrive. He had thalassemic red cell indices and peripheral blood film. The Hb electrophoresis only showed a raised Hb F level (3.3%) and a pre run peak but the Hb H inclusion test was negative. His father had thalassemic red cell indices but a normal Hb level. His mother had almost normal Hb levels and red cell indices. Hb Adana involving the HBA2 gene was detected by mutiplex amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) in the proband and his father. DNA sequencing of the HBA2 gene confirmed the IVS-I-1 mutation in the proband and his mother. This case highlighted the unique interaction of the IVS-I-1 mutation with Hb Adana in a young Malay boy presenting with transfusion-dependent α-thal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  12. Lie-Injo LE, Herrera AR, Kan YW
    Nucleic Acids Res, 1981 Aug 11;9(15):3707-17.
    PMID: 6269090
    DNA from healthy Malaysian newborns was studied on gene maps after digestion with different restriction endonucleases. Of 65 newborns, two were found to be carriers of two different variants of triplicated alpha-globin loci. In variant no. 1, found in an Malay, the three alpha-globin genes are in an elongated DNA fragment on digestion with Eco RI and Bam HI. The third alpha-globin gene was found in a additional 3.7-kb fragment on digestion with Hpa I, Bgl II and Hind III. In variant no. 2, a new type of triplicated alpha-globin loci, found in a Chinese, the three alpha-globin genes reside in an elongated DNA fragment longer than that of variant no. 1 on digestion with Eco RI and Bam HI. The third alpha-globin gene was found in an additional 4.2-kb fragment on digestion with Hpa I and Hind III. Digestion of this variant DNA with Bg1 II produced an abnormal 16.7-kb fragment in addition to the normal 7.0-kb Bgl-II fragment. The locations of the restriction sites in the two types of triplicated alpha-globin loci are compatible with a mechanism of unequal crossing over following two different modes of misalignment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
  13. George E, Ferguson V, Yakas J, Kronenberg H, Trent RJ
    Pathology, 1989 Jan;21(1):27-30.
    PMID: 2762043
    The clinical spectrum of HbH disease varies from a benign disorder to a severe anemia which is blood-transfusion dependent. Heterogeneity at the clinical level is now being understood in terms of the underlying molecular defects. In this study a mild phenotype found in a group of patients with HbH disease is associated with two types of alpha-thalassemia. These are: alpha+-thalassemia (-alpha 3.7/) and alpha 0-thalassemia (--SEA/). In contrast, a second group with more severe HbH disease has a non-deletional alpha-thalassemia defect instead of alpha+-thalassemia (genotype alpha alpha T/--SEA). In the majority of cases, the basis for non-deletional alpha-thalassemia is Hb Constant Spring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  14. Yamsri S, Kawon W, Duereh A, Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2021 04 01;43(3):e341-e345.
    PMID: 32815885 DOI: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001920
    OBJECTIVES: Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is an inherited red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorder, whereas hemoglobinopathies are inherited globin gene disorders. In an area where both diseases are prevalent, the interaction between them resulting in variable hematologic parameters can be encountered. However, little is known about the genetic interaction of SAO and thalassemia. We investigated the prevalence of SAO and hemoglobinopathy genotypes among newborns in southern Thailand.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was carried out on 297 newborns recruited consecutively at Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital in the south of Thailand. The SAO was identified on blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Thalassemia genotypes were defined. Hematologic parameters and hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were recorded and analyzed.

    RESULTS: Among 297 newborns, 15 (5.1%) carried SAO, whereas 70 (23.6%) had thalassemia with 15 different thalassemia genotypes. Abnormal Hb including Hb C, Hb Q-Thailand, and Hb D-Punjab were observed in 5 newborns. It was found in the nonthalassemic newborns that RBC count, Hb, and hematocrit of the nonthalassemic newborns with SAO were significantly lower than those without SAO. The same finding was also observed in the thalassemic newborns; RBC count, Hb, and hematocrit of the thalassemic newborns with SAO were significantly lower than those without SAO. However, the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, and RBC distribution width of the SAO-newborns were significantly higher.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both SAO and hemoglobinopathy genotypes are common in southern Thailand. One should take this into consideration when evaluating neonatal anemia and other hematologic abnormalities. Identification of both genetic defects and long-term monitoring on the clinical outcome of this genetic interaction should be essential to understand the pathogenesis of these common genetic disorders in the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
  15. Shwe S, Boo NY, Ong HK, Chee SC, Maslina M, Ling MMM, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):253-257.
    PMID: 32860378
    INTRODUCTION: Haemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CoSp) and Haemoglobin Adana (Hb Adana), are two non-deletion type of α-thalassemia reported in Malaysia. Owing to their structural instability, they cause hemolysis and hyperbilirubinemia. This observational study was part of a large study investigating multiple factors associated with severe neonatal jaundice. In this part we aimed to determine the prevalence of Hb CoSp and Hb Adana and their association with clinically significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SigNH, total serum bilirubin (TSB>290µmol/L)) among jaundiced Malaysian term neonates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inclusion criteria were normal term-gestation neonates admitted consecutively for phototherapy. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was applied on DNA extracted from dry blood spot specimens of each neonate to detect for Hb CoSp and Hb Adana gene. Positive samples were verified by gene sequencing.

    RESULTS: Of the 1121 neonates recruited (719 SigNH and 402 no-SigNH), heterozygous Hb CoSp gene was detected in only two (0.27%) neonates. Both were SigNH neonates (0.3% or 2/719). No neonate had Hb Adana variant.

    CONCLUSION: Hb CoSp was not common but could be a risk factor associated with SigNH. No Hb Adana was detected.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  16. Yang KG, Kutlar F, George E, Wilson JB, Kutlar A, Stoming TA, et al.
    Br J Haematol, 1989 May;72(1):73-80.
    PMID: 2736244
    This study concerned the identification of the beta-thalassaemia mutations that were present in 27 Malay patients with Hb E-beta-thalassaemia and seven Malay patients with thalassaemia major who were from West Malaysia. Nearly 50% of all beta-thalassaemia chromosomes carried the G----C substitution at nucleotide 5 of IVS-I; the commonly occurring Chinese anomalies such as the frameshift at codons 41 and 42, the nonsense mutation A----T at codon 17, the A----G substitution at position -28 of the promoter region, and the C----T substitution at position 654 of the second intron, were rare or absent. Two new thalassaemia mutations were discovered. The first involves a frameshift at codon 35 (-C) that was found in two patients with Hb E-beta zero-thalassaemia and causes a beta zero-thalassaemia because a stop codon is present at codon 60. The second is an AAC----AGC mutation in codon 19 that was present on six chromosomes. This substitution results in the production of an abnormal beta chain (beta-Malay) that has an Asn----Ser substitution at position beta 19. Hb Malay is a 'Hb Knossos-like' beta +-thalassaemia abnormality; the A----G mutation at codon 19 likely creates an alternate splicing site between codons 17 and 18, reducing the efficiency of the normal donor splice site at IVS-I to about 60%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  17. Hsu CH, Langdown J, Lynn R, Fisher C, Rose A, Proven M, et al.
    Hemoglobin, 2018 May;42(3):199-202.
    PMID: 30328734 DOI: 10.1080/03630269.2018.1513849
    We report a novel hemoglobin (Hb) variant with a β chain amino acid substitution at codon 78 (CTG>CCG) (HBB: c.236T>C), detected through prenatal screening via capillary electrophoresis (CE) in an otherwise healthy and asymptomatic 38-year-old female of Southeast Asian ancestry. The variant, named Hb Penang after the proband's Malaysian city of origin, underwent further characterization through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), reversed phase HPLC, Sanger sequencing, isopropanol stability testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  18. Azma RZ, Ainoon O, Hafiza A, Azlin I, Noor Farisah AR, Nor Hidayati S, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Apr;36(1):27-32.
    PMID: 24763232 MyJurnal
    Alpha (Α) thalassaemia is the most common inherited disorder in Malaysia. The clinical severity is dependant on the number of Α genes involved. Full blood count (FBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) analysis using either gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) are unable to detect definitively alpha thalassaemia carriers. Definitive diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias requires molecular analysis and methods of detecting both common deletional and non-deletional molecular abnormailities are easily performed in any laboratory involved in molecular diagnostics. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1623 cases referred to our laboratory in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) for the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemia during the period October 2001 to December 2012. We examined the frequency of different types of alpha gene abnormalities and their haematologic features. Molecular diagnosis was made using a combination of multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) and real time PCR to detect deletional and non-deletional alpha genes relevant to southeast Asian population. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias in 736 cases. Majority of the cases were Chinese (53.1%) followed by Malays (44.2%), and Indians (2.7%). The most common gene abnormality was ΑΑ/--(SEA) (64.0%) followed by ΑΑ/-Α(3.7) (19.8%), -Α(3.7) /--(SEA) (6.9%), ΑΑ/ΑΑCS (3.0%), --(SEA)/--(SEA) (1.2%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(3.7) (1.1%), ΑΑ/-Α(4.2) (0.7%), -Α(4.2)/--(SEA (0.7%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(4.2) (0.5%), ΑΑ(CS)/-- SEA) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.4%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.3%), ΑΑ/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%), ΑΑ(Cd59)/ ΑΑ(IVS I-1) (0.1%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.1%) and --(SEA) /ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%). This data indicates that the molecular abnormalities of Α-thalassaemia in the Malaysian population is heterogenous. Although Α-gene deletion is the most common cause, non-deletional Α-gene abnormalities are not uncommon and at least 3 different mutations exist. Establishment of rapid and easy molecular techniques is important for definitive diagnosis of alpha thalassaemia, an important prerequisite for genetic counselling to prevent its deleterious complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics*
  19. Lie-Injo LE, Herrera AR, Lebo RV, Hassan K, Lopez CG
    Am J Hematol, 1985 Mar;18(3):289-96.
    PMID: 2983536
    Restriction enzyme analysis of the alpha and zeta globin genes was carried out in four cases of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis, in three patients with Hb H disease without Hb CoSp, in three patients with Hb H disease with Hb CoSp, in 47 individuals with alpha thalassemia trait, and in 47 normal individuals. All four cases of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis resulted from deletions of alpha 1 and alpha 2 globin genes which did not extend to the psi zeta 1 and zeta 2 globin genes. The same type of deletion was observed in alpha thal1 carriers, but two newborns (one Malay and one of Chinese extraction) had a nondeletion type of alpha thal1 which was confirmed by quantitative alpha globin gene analysis. In addition, two other newborns diagnosed as alpha thal1 trait carriers (one Malay, one Chinese) were shown to have a deletion of both alpha globin genes by quantitative alpha globin gene analysis, but further testing with zeta globin gene probe failed to reveal an abnormal fragment length characteristic of an alpha globin gene deletion. We believe that this last condition is due to a large deletion which includes all alpha globin genes and all zeta globin genes on the same chromosome. On another front, Bgl II restriction analysis of all four Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis cases and the alpha thal1 trait carriers showed a 10.5-kb Bgl II restriction fragment, in the hydrops fetalis as a single band, while in the carriers this 10.5-kb fragment was accompanied by the usual normal 12.5-kb and 11.3-kb fragments. We report that this 10.5-kb fragment, previously thought to be specific for the Southeast Asian alpha thal1 gene deletion, is also common in normal individuals. Nevertheless, digestion with other enzymes can clearly differentiate the alpha thal1 and normal genotypes. We distinguish the findings in the alpha thalassemias from the extensive DNA polymorphism in the region of the alpha and zeta globin genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
  20. Sthaneshwar P, Shanmugam H, Arumugam S
    Pathology, 2014 Apr;46(3):263-5.
    PMID: 24614705 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000090
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics
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