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  1. Azman BZ, Akhir SM, Zilfalil BA, Ankathil R
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Apr;49(4):e98-e100.
    PMID: 18418516
    We report two cases of deletion 5p or cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) with different presentations and risks of transmission: one case with paternal chromosome 5 involvement and another, a de novo case with atypical clinical presentation. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on the two cases and their parents. GTG-banded karyotype analysis of Cases 1 and 2 revealed abnormal 46,XY,del(5)(p13-15) male karyotypes. For Case 1, the mother showed normal female karyotype while the father showed an abnormal karyotype involving a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(5;10)(p13;p15). For Case 2, however, both parents showed a normal karyotype pattern. In Case 1, the clinical features, particularly the distinct facial phenotype in combination with a characteristic cat-like cry and hypotonia, aided in the diagnosis at birth and the karyotype analysis was resolutive. The boy in Case 2 presented with atypical clinical features. Even though this patient had multiple syndromic features, the typical high pitched cat-like cry was not prominent. Instead, the patient manifested persistent stridor (from day three of life), which might have prevented the clinician from suspecting CdCS at birth. However, when this patient was presented at seven months of age for cytogenetic analysis, a confirmatory diagnosis of CdCS was established. For children with congenital abnormalities, an early clinical diagnosis confirmed through cytogenetic and molecular investigations, is important for providing personalised diagnostic and prognostic evaluation, and also for genetic counselling on the reproductive risk, particularly for patients with parental chromosome translocation involvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection*
  2. Hafiza A, Malisa MY, Khirotdin RD, Azlin I, Azma Z, Thong MC, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):161-4.
    PMID: 23424780
    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new system that utilizes the principle of electrokinetic separation of molecules in eight electrolyte buffer-filled silica capillaries. In this study, we established the normal ranges of haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and haemoglobin F (HbF) levels for normal individuals using this system and also the HbA2 level in beta thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (HbE) individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection/methods
  3. Vigorito E, Kuchenbaecker KB, Beesley J, Adlard J, Agnarsson BA, Andrulis IL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(7):e0158801.
    PMID: 27463617 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158801
    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection*
  4. Hussein N, Weng SF, Kai J, Kleijnen J, Qureshi N
    PMID: 26264938 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010849.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials.Date of latest search of the registers: 25 June 2015.Date of latest search of all other sources: 10 December 2014.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Any randomised or quasi-randomised control trials (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease when compared to usual care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 19 papers, describing 13 unique trials which were potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. However, after assessment, no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, or Tay-Sachs disease were found for inclusion in this review, the research evidence for current policy recommendations is limited to non-randomised studies.Information from well-designed, adequately powered, randomised trials is desirable in order to make more robust recommendations for practice. However, such trials must also consider the legal, ethical, and cultural barriers to implementation of preconception genetic risk assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection*
  5. Hussein N, Weng SF, Kai J, Kleijnen J, Qureshi N
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 03 14;3:CD010849.
    PMID: 29537064 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010849.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting. This is an update of a previously published review.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials.Date of latest search of the registers: 20 June 2017.Date of latest search of all other sources: 16 November 2017.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease when compared to usual care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 25 papers, describing 16 unique trials which were potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. However, after assessment, no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were included. One ongoing trial has been identified which may potentially eligible for inclusion once completed.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, or Tay-Sachs disease were found for inclusion in this review, the research evidence for current policy recommendations is limited to non-randomised studies.Information from well-designed, adequately powered, randomised trials is desirable in order to make more robust recommendations for practice. However, such trials must also consider the legal, ethical, and cultural barriers to implementation of preconception genetic risk assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection*
  6. Ishak R, Zakaria Z
    PMID: 9561621
    Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessive disorder of the hemostasis involving a defective clotting factor IX. Amplification of the regions containing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) can be achieved by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This paper describes the analysis of 2 RFLPs involving the Dde1 and Taq1 restriction sites within the factor IX gene in a family with hemophilia B. Digestion of the PCR products with Taq1 revealed a 163bp fragment in all the family members. This finding suggests the absence of restriction site for Taq1 enzyme. However, the Dde1 digest results in bands 369bp and 319bp segregated amongst the family members. The pattern of inheritance of the 369bp fragment in this family suggested that both the patient's mother and aunt are not carriers and that the patient's factor IX gene could have undergone a de novo mutation producing a defective factor IX gene responsible for the hemophilia B. This is supported by the fact that no family history of hemophilia B is indicated in the other male members within the family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection/methods*
  7. Isa MN, Boyd E, Turner TL, Tolmie J, Connor JM
    PMID: 8629150
    The chromosome in situ suppression hybridization or chromosome painting technic was applied to confirm and eliminate the markers involving chromosome 21 segments using a chromosome 21 DNA library. The library ATCCLL21SNO2 was amplified, directly biotinylated using the polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated a translocation of chromosome 21 material on chromosome 2 and X and eliminate the origin of the marker. Thus, the technique provides an important tool to complement the conventional G-banding technic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection*
  8. Page EC, Bancroft EK, Brook MN, Assel M, Hassan Al Battat M, Thomas S, et al.
    Eur Urol, 2019 12;76(6):831-842.
    PMID: 31537406 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2019.08.019
    BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p =  0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p =  0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p =  0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection/methods*
  9. Chen JJ, Tan JA, Chua KH, Tan PC, George E
    BMJ Open, 2015 Jul 22;5(7):e007648.
    PMID: 26201722 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007648
    OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a mutation can be used to identify the presence of the paternally-inherited wild-type or mutant allele as result of the inheritance of either allele in the fetus and allows the prediction of the fetal genotype. This study aims to identify paternal SNPs located at the flanking regions upstream or downstream from the β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42 (HBB:c.127_130delCTTT), IVS1-5 (HBB:c.92+5G>C) and IVS2-654 (HBB:c.316-197C>T) using free-circulating fetal DNA.

    SETTING: Haematology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Malaya.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eight couples characterised as β-thalassaemia carriers where both partners posed the same β-globin gene mutations at CD41/42, IVS1-5 and IVS2-654, were recruited in this study.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Genotyping was performed by allele specific-PCR and the locations of SNPs were identified after sequencing alignment.

    RESULTS: Genotype analysis revealed that at least one paternal SNP was present for each of the couples. Amplification on free-circulating DNA revealed that the paternal mutant allele of SNP was present in three fcDNA. Thus, the fetuses may be β-thalassaemia carriers or β-thalassaemia major. Paternal wild-type alleles of SNP were present in the remaining five fcDNA samples, thus indicating that the fetal genotypes would not be homozygous mutants.

    CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary research demonstrates that paternal allele of SNP can be used as a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis approach for at-risk couples to determine the β-thalassaemia status of the fetus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  10. Abdullah WA, Jamaluddin NB, Kham SK, Tan JA
    PMID: 9031421
    The spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malays in Singapore and Kelantan (Northeast Malaysia) was studied. Allele specific priming was used to determine the mutations in beta-carriers at -28, Codon 17, IVSI #1, IVSI #5, Codon 41-42 and IVSII #654 along the beta-globin gene. The most common structural hemoglobin variant in Southeast Asia, Hb E, was detected by DNA amplification with restriction enzyme (Mnl1) analysis. Direct genomic sequencing was carried out to detect the beta-mutations uncharacterized by allele-specific priming. The most prevalent beta-mutations in Singaporean Malays were IVSI #5 (45.83%) followed by Hb E (20.83%), codon 15 (12.5%) and IVSI #1 and IVSII #654 at 4.17% each. In contrast, the distribution of the beta-mutations in Kelantan Malays differed, with Hb E as the most common mutation (39.29%) followed by IVSI #5 (17.86%), codon 41-42 (14.29%), codon 19 (10.71%) and codon 17 (3.57%). The beta-mutations in Kelantan Malays follow closely the distribution of beta-mutations in Thais and Malays of Southern Thailand and Malays of West Malaysia. The AAC-->AGC base substitution in codon 19 has been detected only in these populations. The spectrum of beta-mutations in the Singaporean Malays is more similar to those reported in Indonesia with the beta-mutation at codon 15 (TGG-->TAG) present in both populations. The characterization of beta-mutations in Singaporean and Kelantan Malays will facilitate the establishment of effective prenatal diagnosis programs for beta-thalassemia major in this ethnic group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  11. Fix AG
    Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1984 Oct;65(2):201-12.
    PMID: 6507610
    A Monte Carlo simulation based on the population structure of a small-scale human population, the Semai Senoi of Malaysia, has been developed to study the combined effects of group, kin, and individual selection. The population structure resembles D.S. Wilson's structured deme model in that local breeding populations (Semai settlements) are subdivided into trait groups (hamlets) that may be kin-structured and are not themselves demes. Additionally, settlement breeding populations are connected by two-dimensional stepping-stone migration approaching 30% per generation. Group and kin-structured group selection occur among hamlets the survivors of which then disperse to breed within the settlement population. Genetic drift is modeled by the process of hamlet formation; individual selection as a deterministic process, and stepping-stone migration as either random or kin-structured migrant groups. The mechanism for group selection is epidemics of infectious disease that can wipe out small hamlets particularly if most adults become sick and social life collapses. Genetic resistance to a disease is an individual attribute; however, hamlet groups with several resistant adults are less likely to disintegrate and experience high social mortality. A specific human gene, hemoglobin E, which confers resistance to malaria, is studied as an example of the process. The results of the simulations show that high genetic variance among hamlet groups may be generated by moderate degrees of kin-structuring. This strong microdifferentiation provides the potential for group selection. The effect of group selection in this case is rapid increase in gene frequencies among the total set of populations. In fact, group selection in concert with individual selection produced a faster rate of gene frequency increase among a set of 25 populations than the rate within a single unstructured population subject to deterministic individual selection. Such rapid evolution with plausible rates of extinction, individual selection, and migration and a population structure realistic in its general form, has implications for specific human polymorphisms such as hemoglobin variants and for the more general problem of the tempo of evolution as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  12. Okamoto M, Ito A, Kurosawa T, Oku Y, Kamiya M, Agatsuma T
    Int J Parasitol, 1995 Feb;25(2):221-8.
    PMID: 7622329
    The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  13. Yenchitsomanus PT, Sawasdee N, Paemanee A, Keskanokwong T, Vasuvattakul S, Bejrachandra S, et al.
    J Hum Genet, 2003;48(9):451-456.
    PMID: 12938018 DOI: 10.1007/s10038-003-0059-6
    We have previously demonstrated that compound heterozygous (SAO/G701D) and homozygous (G701D/G701D) mutations of the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) gene, encoding erythroid and kidney AE1 proteins, cause autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (AR dRTA) in Thai patients. It is thus of interest to examine the prevalence of these mutations in the Thai population. The SAO and G701D mutations were examined in 844 individuals from north, northeast, central, and south Thailand. Other reported mutations including R602H, DeltaV850, and A858D were also examined in some groups of subjects. The SAO mutation was common in the southern Thai population; its heterozygote frequency was 7/206 and estimated allele frequency 1.70%. However, this mutation was not observed in populations of three other regions of Thailand. In contrast, the G701D mutation was not found in the southern population but was observed in the northern, northeastern, and central populations, with heterozygote frequencies of 1/216, 3/205, and 1/217, and estimated allele frequencies of 0.23%, 0.73%, and 0.23%, respectively. The higher allele frequency of the G701D mutation in the northeastern Thai population corresponds to our previous finding that all Thai patients with AR dRTA attributable to homozygous G701D mutation originate from this population. This suggests that the G701D allele that is observed in this region might arise in northeastern Thailand. The presence of patients with compound heterozygous SAO/G701D in southern Thailand and Malaysia and their apparently absence in northeastern Thailand indicate that the G701D allele may have migrated to the southern peninsular region where SAO is common, resulting in pathogenic allelic interaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  14. Low CF, Mohd Tohit ER, Chong PP, Idris F
    Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2011 Jun;283(6):1255-60.
    PMID: 20552210 DOI: 10.1007/s00404-010-1548-4
    Diabetes and pregnancy can be associated in two ways: pregnancy that occurs in women who are already diabetic (diabetes of pre-gestational origin); and diabetes that occur in women who are already pregnant [gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (O'sullivan 1961)]. Patients with previous GDM history have higher risk of developing diabetes outside of pregnancy. Accumulating literature had suggested that adiponectin plays a role in the pathophysiology of this metabolic syndrome, and several of the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in adiponectin gene have been identified in type 2 diabetes. Thus, one of the commonly found SNP was studied to determine its association with GDM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  15. Wee YC, Tan KL, Chow TW, Yap SF, Tan JA
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2005 Dec;31(6):540-6.
    PMID: 16343256 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2005.00333.x
    AIM: Interactions between different determinants of alpha-thalassemia raises considerable problems, particularly during pregnancies where antenatal diagnosis is necessary. This study aims to determine the different types of deletional alpha-thalassemia and Hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS), and their frequency in Malays, Chinese and Indians in Malaysia.
    METHODS: DNA from 650 pregnant women from the Antenatal Clinic of the University of Malaya Medical Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia who showed mean cell volume < or =89 fL and/or mean cell hemoglobin < or =28 pg were analyzed for the double alpha-globin gene South-East Asian deletion (--SEA), the -alpha3.7 and -alpha4.2 single alpha-globin gene deletions and HbCS.
    RESULTS: One hundred and three (15.8%) of the pregnant women were confirmed as alpha-thalassemia carriers: 25 (3.8%) were alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers with the --SEA/alphaalpha genotype, 64 (9.8%) were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 rightward deletion (-alpha3.7/alphaalpha), four (0.6%) were heterozygous for the -alpha4.2 leftward deletion (-alpha4.2/alphaalpha), nine (1.4%) were heterozygous for HbCS (alphaCSalpha/alphaalpha) and one (0.2%) was compound heterozygous with the -alpha3.7/alphaCSalpha genotype. The double alpha-globin gene --SEA deletion was significantly higher in the Chinese (15%) compared to the Malays (2.5%) and not detected in the Indians studied. The -alpha3.7 deletion was distributed equally in the three races. HbCS and -alpha4.2 was observed only in the Malays.
    CONCLUSION: The data obtained gives a better understanding of the interactions of the different alpha-thalassemia determinants in the different ethnic groups, thus enabling more rapid and specific confirmation of alpha-thalassemia in affected pregnancies where antenatal diagnosis is necessary.
    Study site: Antenatal clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
  16. Shang X, Peng Z, Ye Y, Asan, Zhang X, Chen Y, et al.
    EBioMedicine, 2017 Sep;23:150-159.
    PMID: 28865746 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.015
    Hemoglobinopathies are among the most common autosomal-recessive disorders worldwide. A comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) test would greatly facilitate screening and diagnosis of these disorders. An NGS panel targeting the coding regions of hemoglobin genes and four modifier genes was designed. We validated the assay by using 2522 subjects affected with hemoglobinopathies and applied it to carrier testing in a cohort of 10,111 couples who were also screened through traditional methods. In the clinical genotyping analysis of 1182 β-thalassemia subjects, we identified a group of additional variants that can be used for accurate diagnosis. In the molecular screening analysis of the 10,111 couples, we detected 4180 individuals in total who carried 4840 mutant alleles, and identified 186 couples at risk of having affected offspring. 12.1% of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified by our NGS assay, which were undetectable by traditional methods. Compared with the traditional methods, our assay identified an additional at-risk 35 couples. We describe a comprehensive NGS-based test that offers advantages over the traditional screening/molecular testing methods. To our knowledge, this is among the first large-scale population study to systematically evaluate the application of an NGS technique in carrier screening and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterozygote Detection
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