Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Al-Taiar A, Hammoud MS, Cuiqing L, Lee JK, Lui KM, Nakwan N, et al.
    Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed., 2013 May;98(3):F249-55.
    PMID: 22942104 DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-301767
    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal deaths in Asia but data remain scarce. We aimed to investigate the causative organisms and antibiotic resistance in neonatal care units in China, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  2. Lau EM, Lee JK, Suriwongpaisal P, Saw SM, Das De S, Khir A, et al.
    Osteoporos Int, 2001;12(3):239-43.
    PMID: 11315243 DOI: 10.1007/s001980170135
    The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) is the first multicenter study to document and compare the incidence of hip fracture in four Asian countries. Hosital discharge data for the year 1997 were obtained for the Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand (Chiang Mai). The number of patients who were 50 years of age and older and who were discharged with a diagnosis of hip fracture (ICD9 820) was enumerated. The age-specific incidence rates were deduced and were directly adjusted to the US white population in 1989. The age-adjusted rates for men and women (per 100,000) are as follows: Hong Kong, 180 and 459; Singapore, 164 and 442; Malaysia, 88 and 218; Thailand, 114 and 289; compared with US White rates of 187 in men and 535 in women, published in 1989. We conclude that there is moderate variation in the incidence of hip fracture among Asian countries. The rates were highest in urbanized countries. With rapid economic development in Asia, hip fracture will prove to be a major public health challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  3. Leung R, Ho P
    Thorax, 1994 Dec;49(12):1205-10.
    PMID: 7878553
    Whilst many recent reports have suggested a rise in the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Western countries, little is known about the epidemiology of these common conditions in south-east Asia. This study compared the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease amongst secondary school students in three south-east Asian populations--Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu in Malaysia, and San Bu in China--and investigated the associations with atopy and family history.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  4. Goh SE, Ong SB, Subramaniam M
    Br J Psychiatry, 1993 Feb;162:276-7.
    PMID: 8435714
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  5. Agarwal G, Pradeep PV, Aggarwal V, Yip CH, Cheung PS
    World J Surg, 2007 May;31(5):1031-40.
    PMID: 17387549
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  6. Choi BC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2004 Nov 19;4:989-1006.
    PMID: 15578123
    This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts), self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries) and senior's health (developed countries). Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women''s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  7. Leung N
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  8. Kelly AM, Keijzers G, Klim S, Graham CA, Craig S, Kuan WS, et al.
    Emerg Med Australas, 2015 Jun;27(3):187-91.
    PMID: 25940885 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12397
    Shortness of breath is a common reason for ED attendance. This international study aims to describe the epidemiology of dyspnoea presenting to EDs in the South East Asia-Pacific region, to compare disease patterns across regions, to understand how conditions are investigated and treated, and to assess quality of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  9. Leung R, Ho P, Lam CW, Lai CK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1997 May;99(5):594-9.
    PMID: 9155823
    BACKGROUND: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma and allergic disease in children, but such a relationship has not been confirmed in Chinese populations.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of allergen sensitization and family history of atopy on asthma and allergic disease in Chinese schoolchildren from three southeast Asian populations.

    METHODS: Written questionnaires on respiratory and allergic symptoms were completed by parents of children of secondary-school age (age range 12 to 18 years) in Hong Kong (n = 1062), Kota Kinabalu in eastern Malaysia (n = 409), and San Bu in southern China (n = 737). A subsample of school-children underwent skin prick testing to common inhalant allergens (Hong Kong 471 children, Kota Kinabalu 321, San Bu 647).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in schoolchildren was highest in Hong Kong, intermediate in Kota Kinabalu, and lowest in San Bu. However, the overall rate of atopic sensitization was similar in the three populations (49% to 63%). House dust mite and cockroach were the two most common allergens causing sensitization and these gave rise to more than 95% of the positive skin test results in all three populations. By regression analysis, mite allergy was associated with rhinitis and asthma in all three populations, and a family history of asthma, rhinitis, or eczema was strongly associated with respective symptoms in the subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, atopic status, and family history of allergic disease, the place of residence remained a significant independent factor for asthma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.57 for Kota Kinabalu, 0.15 for San Bu, p < 0.001), rhinitis (OR = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.59 for Kota Kinabalu, 0.15 for San Bu, p < 0.001), or eczema (OR = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.35 for Kota Kinabalu, 1.01 for San Bu, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Sensitization to indoor allergens was a significant risk factor for asthma and allergic disease, and familial clustering of disease was common in the region. However, the marked difference in disease prevalence in the three southeast Asian populations of Chinese schoolchildren cannot be explained by atopic sensitization and family history alone, and the place of residence was an independent risk factor for asthma and allergies, which suggests an important environmental role in disease pathogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  10. Kelly AM, Keijzers G, Klim S, Graham CA, Craig S, Kuan WS, et al.
    Acad Emerg Med, 2017 Mar;24(3):328-336.
    PMID: 27743490 DOI: 10.1111/acem.13118
    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the epidemiology of dyspnea presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the Asia-Pacific region, to understand how it is investigated and treated and its outcome.

    METHODS: Prospective interrupted time series cohort study conducted at three time points in EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia of adult patients presenting to the ED with dyspnea as a main symptom. Data were collected over three 72-hour periods and included demographics, comorbidities, mode of arrival, usual medications, prehospital treatment, initial assessment, ED investigations, treatment in the ED, ED diagnosis, disposition from ED, in-hospital outcome, and final hospital diagnosis. The primary outcomes of interest are the epidemiology, investigation, treatment, and outcome of patients presenting to ED with dyspnea.

    RESULTS: A total of 3,044 patients were studied. Patients with dyspnea made up 5.2% (3,105/60,059, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.0% to 5.4%) of ED presentations, 11.4% of ward admissions (1,956/17,184, 95% CI = 10.9% to 11.9%), and 19.9% of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (104/523, 95% CI = 16.7% to 23.5%). The most common diagnoses were lower respiratory tract infection (20.2%), heart failure (14.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.6%), and asthma (12.7%). Hospital ward admission was required for 64% of patients (95% CI = 62% to 66%) with 3.3% (95% CI = 2.8% to 4.1%) requiring ICU admission. In-hospital mortality was 6% (95% CI = 5.0% to 7.2%).

    CONCLUSION: Dyspnea is a common symptom in ED patients contributing substantially to ED, hospital, and ICU workload. It is also associated with significant mortality. There are a wide variety of causes however chronic disease accounts for a large proportion.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  11. Lim LL, Lau ESH, Ozaki R, Chung H, Fu AWC, Chan W, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2020 10;17(10):e1003367.
    PMID: 33007052 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003367
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes outcomes are influenced by host factors, settings, and care processes. We examined the association of data-driven integrated care assisted by information and communications technology (ICT) with clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes in public and private healthcare settings.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: The web-based Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) platform provides a protocol to guide data collection for issuing a personalized JADE report including risk categories (1-4, low-high), 5-year probabilities of cardiovascular-renal events, and trends and targets of 4 risk factors with tailored decision support. The JADE program is a prospective cohort study implemented in a naturalistic environment where patients underwent nurse-led structured evaluation (blood/urine/eye/feet) in public and private outpatient clinics and diabetes centers in Hong Kong. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 16,624 Han Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in 2007-2015. In the public setting, the non-JADE group (n = 3,587) underwent structured evaluation for risk factors and complications only, while the JADE (n = 9,601) group received a JADE report with group empowerment by nurses. In a community-based, nurse-led, university-affiliated diabetes center (UDC), the JADE-Personalized (JADE-P) group (n = 3,436) received a JADE report, personalized empowerment, and annual telephone reminder for reevaluation and engagement. The primary composite outcome was time to the first occurrence of cardiovascular-renal diseases, all-site cancer, and/or death, based on hospitalization data censored on 30 June 2017. During 94,311 person-years of follow-up in 2007-2017, 7,779 primary events occurred. Compared with the JADE group (136.22 cases per 1,000 patient-years [95% CI 132.35-140.18]), the non-JADE group had higher (145.32 [95% CI 138.68-152.20]; P = 0.020) while the JADE-P group had lower event rates (70.94 [95% CI 67.12-74.91]; P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the primary composite outcome were 1.22 (95% CI 1.15-1.30) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.66-0.75), respectively, independent of risk profiles, education levels, drug usage, self-care, and comorbidities at baseline. We reported consistent results in propensity-score-matched analyses and after accounting for loss to follow-up. Potential limitations include its nonrandomized design that precludes causal inference, residual confounding, and participation bias.

    CONCLUSIONS: ICT-assisted integrated care was associated with a reduction in clinical events, including death in type 2 diabetes in public and private healthcare settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  12. Hung KK, Lin AK, Cheng CK, Chan EY, Graham CA
    Postgrad Med J, 2015 Mar;91(1073):127-31.
    PMID: 25673799 DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2014-133126
    Malaria remains a significant cause of travel-related mortality and morbidity. Asians are known to have higher risks because they are less careful in pre-travel health preparations. This study reports on a cohort of travellers to malaria-prone regions examined in a previous study, which explored general levels of pre-travel health preparation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  13. Unniachan S, Bash LD, Khovidhunkit W, Sri RZ, Vicaldo E, Recto C, et al.
    Int J Clin Pract, 2014 Aug;68(8):1010-9.
    PMID: 24666791 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.12407
    Guidelines emphasise the importance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals for cardiovascular risk reduction. Given the importance of association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) normal levels and cardiovascular risk, there is an additional need to further evaluate diverse dyslipidaemic populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  14. Thompson PJ, Salvi S, Lin J, Cho YJ, Eng P, Abdul Manap R, et al.
    Respirology, 2013 Aug;18(6):957-67.
    PMID: 23730953 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12137
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients' insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey.
    METHODS: Asthma patients (≥12 years) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand were surveyed. Patients answered 53 questions exploring general health, diagnosis/history, symptoms, exacerbations, patient burden, disease management, medications/treatments and patient's attitudes. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were used to assess asthma control. The survey was conducted by random digit telephone dialling (Australia, China and Hong Kong) or by random face-to-face interviews (India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand).
    RESULTS: There were 80 761 households screened. Data from 3630 patients were collected. Wide disparity existed between objective measures of control and patient perception. Reported exacerbations during the previous year ranged from 19% (Hong Kong) to 67% (India). Reported unscheduled urgent/emergency visits to a doctor's office/hospital/clinic in the previous year ranged from 15% (Hong Kong) to 46% (Taiwan). Patients who reported having controlled asthma in the previous month ranged from 27% (South Korea) to 84% (Taiwan). Substantial functional and emotional limitations due to asthma were identified by 13% (South Korea) to 78% (India) of patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: Asthma has a profound impact on patients' well-being despite the availability of effective treatments and evidence-based management guidelines. Substantial differences across the surveyed countries exist, suggesting unmet, country-specific cultural and educational needs. A large proportion of asthma patients overestimate their level of control.
    Study site: random digit telephone dialling or by random face-to-face interviews at pre-selected locations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  15. Xiang YT, Dickerson F, Kreyenbuhl J, Ungvari GS, Wang CY, Si TM, et al.
    Int Psychogeriatr, 2012 Jun;24(6):1002-8.
    PMID: 22300452 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610211002791
    This study examined the use of low doses of antipsychotic medications (300 mg/day CPZeq or less) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  16. Katelaris CH, Lai CK, Rhee CS, Lee SH, Yun WD, Lim-Varona L, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2011 Sep-Oct;25 Suppl 1:S3-15.
    PMID: 22185687 DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2011.25.3674
    The Allergies in Asia-Pacific Survey describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) across Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The Allergies in Asia-Pacific Survey was undertaken to further clarify the prevalence of physician-diagnosed nasal allergies (NAs), impact on quality-of-life (QOL), existing treatment paradigms and gaps, and NA medications currently used in treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  17. Sungkanuparph S, Oyomopito R, Sirivichayakul S, Sirisanthana T, Li PC, Kantipong P, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2011 Apr 15;52(8):1053-7.
    PMID: 21460324 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir107
    Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  18. Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al.
    Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2009 May;24(5):1598-603.
    PMID: 19096083 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn684
    The impact of dialysis modality on the rates and types of infectious complications has not been well studied. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  19. Tan S, Fung D, Hung SF, Rey J
    Australas Psychiatry, 2008 Jun;16(3):204-9.
    PMID: 18568628 DOI: 10.1080/10398560701874283
    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
  20. WHO Western Pacific Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 2006;30(4):430-3.
    PMID: 17330383
    The World Health Organization Western Pacific Region Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme examined about 8,700 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from 15 countries for resistance to antibiotics in 2005. High to very high rates of resistance to penicillins and quinolones persisted in most centres. Increasing numbers of gonococci with decreased susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins were found in several countries. There were infrequent instances of spectinomycin resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hong Kong/epidemiology
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