Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 132 in total

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  1. Suleiman AB
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1987 Apr;16(2):238-9.
    PMID: 3688799
    Haematuria is always a significant finding that requires proper evaluation, and investigations may need to be initiated based on an adequate history. A careful urine microscopy of the urine using phase contrast microscopy is essential, and may predict the source of the haematuria based on red cell morphology, and point the direction that appropriate investigation should take. Infection tumours, obstruction; and calculi account for most cases of gross haematuria in adults. In paediatric patients, the causes of gross haematuria are readily apparent in half of the cases, but further investigations are necessary in the other half. All cases of haematuria require prompt evaluation and appropriate investigations to ensure correct and early treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/complications; Kidney Diseases/diagnosis
  2. Mukherjee AP, Yuen TK
    Med J Aust, 1971 Jan 30;1(5):257-60.
    PMID: 5545973
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/epidemiology*; Kidney Diseases/pathology
  3. Al-Joudi FS, Wahab NA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):495-501.
    PMID: 15779582 MyJurnal
    The albumin globulin ratio (A/G ratio) is meant to represent the ratio of alterations in serum proteins, since, in liver disease, globulins (G) rise following serum albumin (SA) decrease. pathophysiological value, its' use has been limited. Alternatively, we have developed an index, the globulin compensation index (GCI) to measure the changes in serum globulins when albumin is decreased. The index is calculated as follows: G - 25 / 35 - SA. The GCI has been tested using retrospective patients' data from the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Analysis of the data shows that the GCI may be of potential value in showing the actual serum protein status, especially in cases where globulins are decreased along with albumin. Furthermore, globulin rise in cases with reduced albumin was found in 72.3% of cases of hepatic diseases, whereas this finding occurred in up to 32.3% of cases of non-hepatic, systemic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/blood
  4. Karmila AB, Yap YC, Appadurai M, Oh L, Fazarina M, Abd Ghani F, et al.
    Fetal Pediatr Pathol, 2021 Apr;40(2):113-120.
    PMID: 31707902 DOI: 10.1080/15513815.2019.1686788
    Introduction: Denys-Drash Syndrome (DDS) consists of a triad of pseudohermaphroditism, Wilms'tumor and nephropathy. This condition may manifest as a complete triad or in an incomplete form; with either one or a combination of the above features. The characteristic glomerular abnormality in DDS is diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS).Case report: We report two cases of DDS with focal membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Both of our cases were males with ambiguous genitalia. They had a similar heterozygous germline mutation in exon 9 of WT1, c.1180C>T, p.R394W; a known mutation hotspot for DDS. Case 1 had nephropathy at the age of 4 years and Case 2 at 2.5 years with different rates of progression to end-stage renal failure. Conclusion: Our findings, in combination with other reports, illustrate the clinicopathological heterogeneity of DDS. There are no universal recommendations for optimal management of patients with DDS due to the inability to accurately predict affected individuals' progress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases*
  5. Chong E, Poh KK, Lu Q, Zhang JJ, Tan N, Hou XM, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2015 Dec 15;201:237-42.
    PMID: 26301645 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.07.108
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sodium bicarbonate (SOB) therapies may prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, the efficacy of using combination over individual therapies was not established, and there was no large randomised study comparing abbreviated SOB therapy with conventional sustained saline pre-hydration with oral NAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases
  6. Sinnathuray TA
    Med J Malaya, 1971 Jun;25(4):253-6.
    PMID: 4261295
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases*; Kidney Diseases, Cystic/complications
  7. Al-Shamasneh AR, Jalab HA, Palaiahnakote S, Obaidellah UH, Ibrahim RW, El-Melegy MT
    Entropy (Basel), 2018 May 05;20(5).
    PMID: 33265434 DOI: 10.3390/e20050344
    Kidney image enhancement is challenging due to the unpredictable quality of MRI images, as well as the nature of kidney diseases. The focus of this work is on kidney images enhancement by proposing a new Local Fractional Entropy (LFE)-based model. The proposed model estimates the probability of pixels that represent edges based on the entropy of the neighboring pixels, which results in local fractional entropy. When there is a small change in the intensity values (indicating the presence of edge in the image), the local fractional entropy gives fine image details. Similarly, when no change in intensity values is present (indicating smooth texture), the LFE does not provide fine details, based on the fact that there is no edge information. Tests were conducted on a large dataset of different, poor-quality kidney images to show that the proposed model is useful and effective. A comparative study with the classical methods, coupled with the latest enhancement methods, shows that the proposed model outperforms the existing methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases
  8. Lim TO, Goh A, Lim YN, Morad Z
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2008 Dec;13(8):745-52.
    PMID: 19154324 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2008.01044.x
    We review renal registry data from the Asia-Pacific region with an emphasis on their uses in health care and in dialysis care in particular. The review aims to demonstrate the information value of registry data. While renal registry provides a useful data resource for epidemiological research, there are severe methodological limitations in its application for analytical or therapeutic research. However, it is the use of renal registry data for public health and health-care management purposes that registry really comes into its own, and it is primarily for these that governments have invested in national patient and disease registries. We apply data from several renal registries in the Asia-Pacific region to illustrate its wide application for planning dialysis services, for evaluating dialysis practices and health outcomes, with a view to improving the quality of dialysis care. In the course of preparing the review, we have found that the quality and accessibility of renal registry data were highly variable across the region. Given the value of renal registry, every country in the Asia-Pacific region should establish one or should ensure that their current registries are better resourced and developed. Greater data sharing and collaboration among registries in the region could help advance the nephrology to serve our patients better.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/economics; Kidney Diseases/ethnology; Kidney Diseases/mortality; Kidney Diseases/therapy*
  9. Md Alif AK
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Jun;34(4):383-6.
    PMID: 7219268
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/diagnosis
  10. Boo NY, Mahmud MN, Samad SA
    Acta Paediatr Scand, 1991 6 1;80(6-7):735-7.
    PMID: 1867096
    One of the babies in a pair of xiphaomphalopagus conjoined twins developed oliguria, transient rise in serum creatinine and persistent nephrogram on the sixth day of life following injection of radiocontrast medium for computerised axial tomography scanning of the urinary system. The other twin was spared but developed hypertension and "dialysed" the oliguric twin. The renal profiles of both neonates subsequently remained normal until they reached adequate weight for surgical separation at a later date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*
  11. Tey WK, Kuang YC, Ooi MP, Khoo JJ
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2018 Mar;155:109-120.
    PMID: 29512490 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.12.004
    Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses. This study proposes an automated quantification system for measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system extracts and segments the renal tissue structures based on colour information and structural assumptions of the tissue structures. The regions in the biopsy representing the interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area and quantified as a percentage of the total area of the biopsy sample. A ground truth image dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated a good correlation in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy samples is a scarring tissue structure that may be visually quantified by pathologists as an indicator to the presence and extent of chronic kidney disease. The standard method of quantification by visual evaluation presents reproducibility issues in the diagnoses due to the uncertainties in human judgement.

    METHODS: An automated quantification system for accurately measuring the amount of interstitial fibrosis in renal biopsy images is presented as a consistent basis of comparison among pathologists. The system identifies the renal tissue structures through knowledge-based rules employing colour space transformations and structural features extraction from the images. In particular, the renal glomerulus identification is based on a multiscale textural feature analysis and a support vector machine. The regions in the biopsy representing interstitial fibrosis are deduced through the elimination of non-interstitial fibrosis structures from the biopsy area. The experiments conducted evaluate the system in terms of quantification accuracy, intra- and inter-observer variability in visual quantification by pathologists, and the effect introduced by the automated quantification system on the pathologists' diagnosis.

    RESULTS: A 40-image ground truth dataset has been manually prepared by consulting an experienced pathologist for the validation of the segmentation algorithms. The results from experiments involving experienced pathologists have demonstrated an average error of 9 percentage points in quantification result between the automated system and the pathologists' visual evaluation. Experiments investigating the variability in pathologists involving samples from 70 kidney patients also proved the automated quantification error rate to be on par with the average intra-observer variability in pathologists' quantification.

    CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of the proposed quantification system has been validated with the ground truth dataset and compared against the pathologists' quantification results. It has been shown that the correlation between different pathologists' estimation of interstitial fibrosis area has significantly improved, demonstrating the effectiveness of the quantification system as a diagnostic aide.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/pathology
  12. Sabanayagam C, Lim SC, Wong TY, Lee J, Shankar A, Tai ES
    Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2010 Aug;25(8):2564-70.
    PMID: 20185856 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfq084
    There is substantial heterogeneity in literature regarding the epidemiology for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different Asian populations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/ethnology*; Kidney Diseases/epidemiology*; Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
  13. Lim YN, Lim TO, Lee DG, Wong HS, Ong LM, Shaariah W, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:5-8.
    PMID: 19230240
    The Malaysian National Renal Registry was set up in 1992 to collect data for patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). We present here the report of the Malaysian dialysis registry. The objectives of this papar are: (1) To examine the overall provision of dialysis treatment in Malaysia and its trend from 1980 to 2006. (2) To assess the treatment rate according to the states in the country. (3) To describe the method, location and funding of dialysis. (4) To characterise the patients accepted for dialysis treatment. (5) To analyze the outcomes of the dialysis treatment. Data on patients receiving dialysis treatment were collected at initiation of dialysis, at the time of any significant outcome, as well as yearly. The number of dialysis patients increased from 59 in 1980 to almost 15,000 in 2006. The dialysis acceptance rate increased from 3 per million population in 1980 to 116 per million population in 2006, and the prevalence rate from 4 to 550 per million population over the same period. The economically advantaged states of Malaysia had much higher dialysis treatment rates compared to the less economically advanced states. Eighty to 90% of new dialysis patients were accepted into centre haemodialysis (HD), and the rest into the chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme. The government provided about half of the funding for dialysis treatment. Patients older than 55 years accounted for the largest proportion of new patients on dialysis since the 1990s. Diabetes mellitus has been the main cause of ESRD and accounted for more than 50% of new ESRD since 2002. Annual death rate averaged about 10% on HD and 15% on CAPD. The unadjusted 5-year patient survival on both HD and CAPD was about 80%. Fifty percent of dialysis patients reported very good median QoL index score. About 70% of dialysis patients were about to work full or part time. There has been a very rapid growth of dialysis provision in Malaysia particularly in the older age groups. ESRD caused by diabetes mellitus, despite being a preventable and treatable cause of ESRD--has increased and accounted for more than 50% of incident dialysis patients. Death and survival rates on dialysis are comparable to those from other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/mortality; Kidney Diseases/epidemiology; Kidney Diseases/therapy*
  14. Yap HK, Quek CM, Shen Q, Joshi V, Chia KS
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2005 Jan;34(1):3-7.
    PMID: 15726213
    INTRODUCTION: This article reviews published literature on the usefulness of population-based urinary screening in the Asian paediatric population.

    METHODS: Articles were found in the Medline database using the key words "paediatrics", "urine screening", "proteinuria", "haematuria" and "population". The Asian countries which had carried out population-based urinary screening of the paediatric population included Taiwan, Japan and Korea. One study was found on urinary screening in a select population in Malaysia. Preliminary results of the urinary screening of school children in Singapore are presented and compared with the results found in the above-mentioned countries.

    RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of children found to have urinary abnormalities ranged from less than 0.1% of the population screened to almost 50% of a select cohort referred from the screening programmes for the evaluation of urinary abnormalities. In the pilot Singapore school screening programme, the prevalence of clinically significant proteinuria was 1.25 per 1000 children screened. Multivariate analysis showed that low body weight was associated with a 1.8-fold greater risk for proteinuria. The major cause of haematuria and proteinuria in those studies where renal biopsies were performed was glomerulonephritis. The Taiwanese experience also showed a reduction in the incidence of end-stage renal failure diagnosed in children after the onset of urine screening.

    CONCLUSION: These studies showed that urinary screening programmes in school children allow the early detection of disease. The cost-benefit ratio for specific populations should be determined before the implementation of such programmes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/diagnosis; Kidney Diseases/epidemiology; Kidney Diseases/prevention & control*
  15. Segasothy M, Kong BCT, Kamal A, Murad Z, Suleiman AB
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Dec;38(4):315-9.
    PMID: 6599990
    A prospective study was performed on patients admitted to the medical and renal wards of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Over a period of 14 months from 1 January 1982, 12 new cases of analgesic nephropathy (AN) were documented. Contrary to the experience in the West and in Australia, AN in Malaysia tends to have a male preponderance and occurs even in the younger age groups. The common analgesics abused are paracetamol, Chap Kaki Tiga and Chap Harimau. The main reasons for analgesic abuse are headache and arthritis. In addition to radiological features of renal papillary necrosis patients have the other manifestations of the disease such as peptic ulceration, anaemia, neuro-psychiatric disorders and ischaemic heart disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*; Kidney Diseases/epidemiology; Kidney Diseases/radiography
  16. Ang AH, Lambeth JT, Soo YS, Ong SC
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Sep;25(1):8-16.
    PMID: 4249503
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases/radiography*; Kidney Diseases, Cystic/radiography
  17. Zenab B. Hamad Mohamed, Hamad Abdulsalam Hamad Alfaris, Nor Zamila Abdullah, Norra Harun, Naznin Muhammad, Roslina Abdul Rahim
    MyJurnal
    Previous studies have proven the existence of a complex association
    between progressive kidney damage and hypercholesterolemia. Most studies focused on
    the impact of chronic high blood cholesterol levels on the kidney. Information on the
    early effect of hypercholesterolemia on the kidney is still lacking. The aim of this study
    was therefore to determine early effect of high cholesterol diet on the kidney in an
    animal model. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases
  18. Zenab B. Hamad Mohamed, Hamad Abdulsalam Hamad Alfarisi, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Naznin Muhammad, Roslan Abdul Rahim
    MyJurnal
    Although there is a growing insight into the causes and mechanisms of
    kidney diseases, preventive and therapeutic measures are still few. The aim of this study
    was therefore to determine the renoprotective effect of tualang honey against high
    cholesterol diet induced acute kidney disease in an animal model. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Diseases
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