Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Harun SN, Wainwright C, Klein K, Hennig S
    Paediatr Respir Rev, 2016 Sep;20:55-66.
    PMID: 27259460 DOI: 10.1016/j.prrv.2016.03.002
    A systematic review was performed (i) to describe the reported overall rate of progression of CF lung disease quantified as FEV1%predicted decline with age, (ii) to summarise identified influencing risk factors and (iii) to review methods used to analyse CF lung disease progression data. A search of publications providing FEV1%predicted values over age was conducted in PUBMED and EMBASE. Baseline and rate of FEV1%predicted decline were summarised overall and by identified risk factors. Thirty-nine studies were included and reported variable linear rates of lung function decline in patients with CF. The overall weighted mean FEV1%predicted over age was graphically summarised and showed a nonlinear, time-variant decline of lung function. Compared to their peers, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and pancreatic insufficiency were most commonly associated with lower baseline and more rapid FEV1%predicted declines respectively. Considering nonlinear models and drop-out in lung disease progression, analysis is lacking and more studies are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  2. Fauzi MA, Fadilah SA, Bahariah K
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):66-7.
    PMID: 17682575 MyJurnal
    Multiple lung cavitations and endobronchial nodules are rare presentations of newly diagnosed and recurrent Hodgkin's disease. The clinical and radiological features can be confused with pulmonary tuberculosis, which can be difficult to exclude in endemic areas. However, the presence of endobronchial nodules point, towards Hodgkin's disease. Differential diagnosis is aided by the fact that these lesions usually respond promptly to specific therapy. We present a case of an adolescent male who had constitutional and pulmonary symptoms associated with pulmonary cavities and endobronchial nodules subsequently confirmed to be Hodgkin's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  3. Albadr MAA, Tiun S, Ayob M, Al-Dhief FT, Omar K, Hamzah FA
    PLoS One, 2020;15(12):e0242899.
    PMID: 33320858 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242899
    The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is an ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is an effective method for detecting lung illnesses, including COVID-19. However, the CT scan is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, this work focus on detecting COVID-19 using chest X-ray images because it is widely available, faster, and cheaper than CT scan. Many machine learning approaches such as Deep Learning, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine; have used X-ray for detecting the COVID-19. Although the performance of those approaches is acceptable in terms of accuracy, however, they require high computational time and more memory space. Therefore, this work employs an Optimised Genetic Algorithm-Extreme Learning Machine (OGA-ELM) with three selection criteria (i.e., random, K-tournament, and roulette wheel) to detect COVID-19 using X-ray images. The most crucial strength factors of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) are: (i) high capability of the ELM in avoiding overfitting; (ii) its usability on binary and multi-type classifiers; and (iii) ELM could work as a kernel-based support vector machine with a structure of a neural network. These advantages make the ELM efficient in achieving an excellent learning performance. ELMs have successfully been applied in many domains, including medical domains such as breast cancer detection, pathological brain detection, and ductal carcinoma in situ detection, but not yet tested on detecting COVID-19. Hence, this work aims to identify the effectiveness of employing OGA-ELM in detecting COVID-19 using chest X-ray images. In order to reduce the dimensionality of a histogram oriented gradient features, we use principal component analysis. The performance of OGA-ELM is evaluated on a benchmark dataset containing 188 chest X-ray images with two classes: a healthy and a COVID-19 infected. The experimental result shows that the OGA-ELM achieves 100.00% accuracy with fast computation time. This demonstrates that OGA-ELM is an efficient method for COVID-19 detecting using chest X-ray images.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  4. Phoon WO, Ong CN, Foo SC, Plueksawan W
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1984 Apr;13(2 Suppl):408-16.
    PMID: 6497345
    This study was conducted on 506 firemen in Singapore. Interviews, pulmonary function tests and audiometry were conducted. With regard to pulmonary function, the results showed that forced vital capacity (FVC) increased up to the age of 25-30 years for both Chinese and Malays. Both FVC and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) increased with standing height over the whole age range studied. The mean values of FVC and FEV1.0 were higher in Chinese. It was also found that the FEV1 of the subjects in the study showed a greater decline in rate with age than other workers studied by the authors previously. The hearing threshold of 83 fire fighters showed a prominent upward shift of 6-8 KHz at ages 20-30. This upward shift was more pronounced in the right ear. The implications of the findings are discussed and a comparison with results of other similar studies in other countries is made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  5. Thakur AK, Chellappan DK, Dua K, Mehta M, Satija S, Singh I
    Expert Opin Ther Pat, 2020 May;30(5):375-387.
    PMID: 32178542 DOI: 10.1080/13543776.2020.1741547
    Introduction: Pulmonary route is one of the preferred routes for the administration of therapeutically active agents for systemic as well as localized delivery. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, and tuberculosis are the major chronic diseases associated with the pulmonary system. Knowledge about the affecting factors, namely, the etiology, pathophysiology, and the various barriers (mechanical, chemical, immunological, and behavioral) in pulmonary drug delivery is essential to develop an effective drug delivery system. Formulation strategies and mechanisms of particle deposition in the lungs also play an important role in designing a suitable delivery system.Areas covered: In the present paper, various drug delivery strategies, viz. nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, powders, and microemulsions have been discussed systematically, from a patent perspective.Expert opinion: Patent publications on formulation strategies have been instrumental in the evolution of new techniques and technologies for safe and effective treatment of pulmonary diseases. New delivery systems are required to be simple/reproducible/scalable/cost-effective scale for manufacturing ability and should be safe/effective/stable/controllable for meeting quality and regulatory compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  6. Nabi FG, Sundaraj K, Lam CK, Palaniappan R
    J Asthma, 2020 04;57(4):353-365.
    PMID: 30810448 DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2019.1576193
    Objective: This study aimed to statistically analyze the behavior of time-frequency features in digital recordings of wheeze sounds obtained from patients with various levels of asthma severity (mild, moderate, and severe), and this analysis was based on the auscultation location and/or breath phase. Method: Segmented and validated wheeze sounds were collected from the trachea and lower lung base (LLB) of 55 asthmatic patients during tidal breathing maneuvers and grouped into nine different datasets. The quartile frequencies F25, F50, F75, F90 and F99, mean frequency (MF) and average power (AP) were computed as features, and a univariate statistical analysis was then performed to analyze the behavior of the time-frequency features. Results: All features generally showed statistical significance in most of the datasets for all severity levels [χ2 = 6.021-71.65, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  7. Jong WL, Ung NM, Vannyat A, Rosenfeld AB, Wong JHD
    Phys Med, 2017 Oct;42:39-46.
    PMID: 29173919 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.08.011
    Challenges in treating lung tumours are related to the respiratory-induced tumour motion and the accuracy of dose calculation in charged particle disequilibrium condition. The dosimetric characteristics near the interface of lung and Perspex media in a moving phantom during respiratory-gated and non-gated radiotherapy were investigated using Gafchromic EBT2 and the MOSkin detector. The MOSkin detectors showed good agreement with the EBT2 films during static and gated radiotherapy. In static radiotherapy, the penumbral widths were found to be 3.66mm and 7.22mm in Perspex and lung media, respectively. In non-gated (moving) radiotherapy with 40mm respiratory amplitude, dose smearing effect was observed and the penumbral widths were increased to 28.81mm and 26.40mm, respectively. This has been reduced to 6.85mm and 9.81mm, respectively, in gated radiotherapy with 25% gating window. There were still some dose discrepancies as compared to static radiotherapy due to the residual motion. This should be taken into account in the margin generation for the target tumour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  8. Lourdesamy Anthony AI, Muthukumaru U
    Respirology, 2014 Nov;19(8):1178-82.
    PMID: 25183304 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12375
    We evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week oral treatment with azithromycin in adult patients with bronchiectasis. The objectives were to demonstrate that this treatment reduces sputum volume, improves quality of life and to assess the lengths of effects after cessation of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  9. Anantham D, Ong SJ, Chuah KL, Fook-Chong S, Hsu A, Eng P
    Respirology, 2007 May;12(3):355-60.
    PMID: 17539838
    The aim of this study is to better understand the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with sarcoidosis in Singapore and to ascertain if ethnic differences exist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  10. Kardia E, Yusoff NM, Zakaria Z, Yahaya B
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 2014 Feb;27(1):30-4.
    PMID: 23409833 DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2012.1020
    Cell-based therapy has great potential to treat patients with lung diseases. The administration of cells into an injured lung is one method of repairing and replacing lost lung tissue. However, different types of delivery have been studied and compared, and none of the techniques resulted in engraftment of a high number of cells into the targeted organ. In this in vitro study, a novel method of cell delivery was introduced to investigate the possibility of delivering aerosolized skin-derived fibroblasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  11. Rawi NA, Jalaludin J, Chua PC
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:248178.
    PMID: 25984527 DOI: 10.1155/2015/248178
    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  12. Jamil PASM, Karuppiah K, Rasdi I, How V, Tamrin SBM, Mani KKC, et al.
    Ann Glob Health, 2020 07 28;86(1):84.
    PMID: 32775216 DOI: 10.5334/aogh.2895
    Background: Apart from being exposed to various hazards, there are several other factors that contribute to the deterioration of traffic police health.

    Objectives: A cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the association of occupational, socio-demographic, and lifestyle factors with lung functions in traffic policemen in Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Johor Bahru (JB).

    Methods: A spirometer was used to measure lung function of subjects, whereas a self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain their information on background data, lifestyle, and occupational factors. The statistical test used was Spearman rho's test and chi-square test; then, the factors were further tested using Logistic regressions.

    Findings: 134 male subjects were selected as respondents in this study with 83% response rate. Among all the factors tested, age (FVC: χ = 8.42(3), p = 0.04), (FEV: χ = 8.26(3), p = 0.04), rank (FVC: χ = 8.52(3), p = 0.04), (FEV: χ = 8.05(3), p = 0.04), duration of services (FVC: χ = 11.0(1), p = 0.04), (FEV: χ = 6.53(1), p = 0.01), and average working hours (with the Measured FVC (litre), r = -3.97, p < 0.001; Measured FEV1 (litre), r = -3.70, p < 0.001; Predicted FVC, r = -0.49, p < 0.001; Predicted FEV1, r = -0.47, p < 0.001; and %Ratio FEV1/FV, r = -0.47, p < 0.001) were significantly related to lung function among traffic police.

    Conclusions: Occupational factors play a crucial role, and hence, the authorities should take action in generating flexible working hours and the duration of services accordingly. The data from this study can help by serving as a reference to the top management of traffic police officers to develop occupational safety and health guideline for police officers to comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, Act 514 1994).

    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  13. Kardia E, Ch'ng ES, Yahaya BH
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 02;12(2):e995-e1007.
    PMID: 28105760 DOI: 10.1002/term.2421
    Aerosol-based cell therapy has emerged as a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for treating lung diseases. The goal of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of aerosol-based airway epithelial cell (AEC) delivery in the setting of acute lung injury induced by tracheal brushing in rabbit. Twenty-four hours following injury, exogenous rabbit AECs were labelled with bromodeoxyuridine and aerosolized using the MicroSprayer® Aerosolizer into the injured airway. Histopathological assessments of the injury in the trachea and lungs were quantitatively scored (1 and 5 days after cell delivery). The aerosol-based AEC delivery appeared to be a safe procedure, as cellular rejection and complications in the liver and spleen were not detected. Airway injury initiated by tracheal brushing resulted in disruption of the tracheal epithelium as well as morphological damage in the lungs that is consistent with acute lung injury. Lung injury scores were reduced following 5 days after AEC delivery (AEC-treated, 0.25  ±  0.06 vs. untreated, 0.53  ±  0.05, P  lungs, following acute insults. These findings suggest that aerosol-based AEC delivery can be a valuable tool for future therapy to treat acute lung injury. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  14. Jesse FFA, Chung ELT, Abba Y, Muniandy KV, Tan AHAR, Maslamany D, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Feb;51(2):289-295.
    PMID: 30088124 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1683-7
    Pneumonic pasteurellosis is an economically important infectious disease in the small ruminant industry which causes sudden death and loss for farmers. Nonetheless, this disease is still a common sight in sheep and goats in Malaysia, probably due to the unpopular usage of pasteurellosis vaccine or inappropriate vaccination practices. The aim of this study was designed to classify the severity of pneumonia via the establishment of auscultation scoring method and to quantify the acute phase proteins and heat shock proteins responses from vaccinated and non-vaccinated goats. Goat farms, consist of vaccinated and non-vaccinated farms, were selected in this study: where 15 clinically normal healthy goats and 9 pneumonic goats were selected from vaccinated farms whereas 15 clinically normal healthy goats and 31 pneumonic goats from non-vaccinated farms were selected for this study. Crackle lung sounds were not detected in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated normal goats. However, vaccinated pneumonic goats showed mild crackle lung sound while non-vaccinated pneumonic goats exhibited moderate crackle lung sound. There were significant increases (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  15. Capitanio S, Nordin AJ, Noraini AR, Rossetti C
    Eur Respir Rev, 2016 Sep;25(141):247-58.
    PMID: 27581824 DOI: 10.1183/16000617.0051-2016
    Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is an established diagnostic modality that has become an essential imaging tool in oncological practice. However, thanks to its noninvasive nature and its capability to provide physiological information, the main applications of this technique have significantly expanded.(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for PET scanning and demonstrates metabolic activity in various tissues. Since activated inflammatory cells, like malignant cells, predominantly metabolise glucose as a source of energy and increase expression of glucose transporters when activated, FDG-PET/CT can be successfully used to detect and monitor a variety of lung diseases, such as infections and several inflammatory conditions.The added value of FDG-PET/CT as a molecular imaging technique relies on its capability to identify disease in very early stages, long before the appearance of structural changes detectable by conventional imaging. Furthermore, by detecting the active phase of infectious or inflammatory processes, disease progression and treatment efficacy can be monitored.This review will focus on the clinical use of FDG-PET/CT in nonmalignant pulmonary diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  16. Azizi BH, Henry RL
    Pediatr Pulmonol, 1990;9(1):24-9.
    PMID: 2388776
    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology*
  17. Wu CL, Hsu WH, Chiang CD, Kao CH, Hung DZ, King SL, et al.
    J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 1997;35(3):241-8.
    PMID: 9140317 DOI: 10.3109/15563659709001207
    BACKGROUND: Taking Sauropus androgynus, a Malaysian food, to reduce weight began as a fad in Taiwan in 1994. Some advocates of this fad developed pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this study is to report the lung injury in patients taking Sauropus androgynus.

    METHODS: From July 1995 to November 1995, we investigated 104 nonsmoking patients (one male and 103 females) with chest roentgenography, pulmonary function, test, and Technetium 99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (Tc-99m DTPA) radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy.

    RESULTS: Among the 90 patients receiving Tc-99m DTPA inhalation lung scan, 46 (51.1%) patients had increased clearance of Tc-99m DTPA from lung and 20 (22.2%) patients had inhomogeneous deposition of the submicronic radioaerosol. Eighteen (18/100) patients had obstructive ventilatory impairment in pulmonary function test. Analyzing the results, we found that the patients with respiratory symptoms (n = 42) took more vegetables (p = 0.016), had increased clearance of Tc-99m DTPA (p = 0.010) and had lower FEV1 (p = 0.001), FEV1/FVC (p < 0.001), FEF25-75 (p = 0.001), VC (p = 0.002) and DLCO (p = 0.009) than the patients without respiratory symptoms (n = 62). FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced in patients with severe impairment of alveolar permeability. The cumulative dosage and duration of exposure were significantly associated with the reduction of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC.

    CONCLUSION: The lung injury after taking Sauropus androgynus involves alveoli and/or small airways and is manifest as obstructive ventilatory impairment with inhomogeneous aerosol distribution and increased lung epithelial permeability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  18. Townend J, Minelli C, Mortimer K, Obaseki DO, Al Ghobain M, Cherkaski H, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2017 06;49(6).
    PMID: 28572124 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01880-2016
    Poverty is strongly associated with mortality from COPD, but little is known of its relation to airflow obstruction.In a cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥40 years from 12 sites (N=9255), participating in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study, poverty was evaluated using a wealth score (0-10) based on household assets. Obstruction, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) after administration of 200 μg salbutamol, and prevalence of FEV1/FVC
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/physiopathology
  19. Subramaniyan V, Fuloria S, Gupta G, Kumar DH, Sekar M, Sathasivam KV, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2022 Jan 05;351:109735.
    PMID: 34742684 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109735
    Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell surface transmembrane receptor that mediates the tyrosine signaling pathway to carry the extracellular messages inside the cell and thereby alter the function of nucleus. This leads to the generation of various protein products to up or downregulate the cellular function. It is encoded by cell erythroblastosis virus oncogene B1, so called C-erb B1/ERBB2/HER-2 gene that acts as a proto-oncogene. It belongs to the HER-2 receptor-family in breast cancer and responds best with anti-Herceptin therapy (anti-tyrosine kinase monoclonal antibody). HER-2 positive breast cancer patient exhibits worse prognosis without Herceptin therapy. Similar incidence and prognosis are reported in other epithelial neoplasms like EGFR + lung non-small cell carcinoma and glioblastoma (grade IV brain glial tumor). Present study highlights the role and connectivity of EGF with various cancers via signaling pathways, cell surface receptors mechanism, macromolecules, mitochondrial genes and neoplasm. Present study describes the EGFR associated gene expression profiling (in breast cancer and NSCLC), relation between mitrochondrial genes and carcinoma, and several in vitro and in vivo models to screen the synergistic effect of various combination treatments. According to this study, although clinical studies including targeted treatments, immunotherapies, radiotherapy, TKi-EGFR combined targeted therapy have been carried out to investigate the synergism of combination therapy; however still there is a gap to apply the scenarios of experimental and clinical studies for further developments. This review will give an idea about the transition from experimental to most advanced clinical studies with different combination drug strategies to treat cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/physiopathology*
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