Left-truncated and censored survival data are commonly encountered in medical studies. However, traditional inferential methods that heavily rely on normality assumptions often fail when lifetimes of observations in a study are both truncated and censored. Thus, it is important to develop alternative inferential procedures that ease the assumptions of normality and unconventionally relies on the distribution of data in hand. In this research, a three parameter log-normal parametric survival model was extended to incorporate left-truncated and right censored medical data with covariates. Following that, bootstrap inferential procedures using non-parametric and parametric bootstrap samples were applied to the parameters of this model. The performance of the parameter estimates was assessed at various combinations of truncation and censoring levels via a simulation study. The recommended bootstrap intervals were applied to a lung cancer survival data.
The management of pulmonary metastasis from breast carcinoma is challenging and often consists of palliation of symptoms. Surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis is considered inappropriate in view of the disseminated nature of the disease and limited life expectancy. It can however be a worthwhile option if imaging, including bone scans rule out metastatic disease in other part of the body. We report a patient with pulmonary metastasis from breast carcinoma who was successfully treated with pulmonary wedge resection of the metastatic lesion.
A 65 year old male smoker was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of upper lobe of the right lung complicated with Horner's syndrome and gradually increasing leucocytosis. Alhough the inflammatory biomarker level in serum was low, there was no definite way to determine the cause of the leucocytosis (whether infection or hematologic paraneoplastic syndrome). After empirical antibiotic therapy, his fever subsided but the leucocytosis persisted. It was difficult for us to take a decision regarding the priority of the treatment of infection or the lung cancer. Only after the first cycle chemotherapy, did the leucocytosis rapidly drop down. Normal serum procalcitonin level and quick response to chemotherapy indicated that leucocytosis was a manifestation of paraneoplastic syndrome. Treating the underlying cancer is the first step.
Three cases of progressive dyspnoea in young female adults due to pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis are reported. The underlying primary neoplasm was gastric carcinoma in all 3 cases. The diagnosis was not suspected in 2 patients because of their young age.
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence.
Polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully developed via electrospinning process for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The SEM analysis of nanofibrous scaffolds with different contents of GO (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7wt.%) indicated that the minimum diameter of nanofibers was found to be 85nm for PEO/CS/GO 0.5% nanofibers. The π-π stacking interaction between DOX and GO with fine pores of nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited higher drug loading (98%) and controlled release of the DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO nanofibers. The results of DOX release from nanofibrous scaffolds at pH5.3 and 7.4 indicated strong pH dependence. The hydrogen bonding interaction between GO and DOX could be unstable under acidic conditions which resulted in faster drug release rate in pH5.3. The cell viability results indicated that DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO/DOX nanofibrous scaffold could be used as an alternative source of DOX compared with free DOX to avoid the side effects of free DOX. Thus, the prepared nanofibrous scaffold offers as a novel formulation for treatment of lung cancer.
Lung cancer remains to be one of the most common and serious types of cancer worldwide. While treatment is available, the survival rate of this cancer is still critically low due to late stage diagnosis and high frequency of drug resistance, thus highlighting the pressing need for a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis. Studies in the past years have evidenced that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical players in the regulation of various biological functions, including apoptosis, which is a process frequently evaded in cancer progression. Recently, miRNAs were demonstrated to possess proapoptotic or antiapoptotic abilities through the targeting of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review examines the involvement of miRNAs in the apoptotic process of lung cancer and will also touch on the promising evidence supporting the role of miRNAs in regulating sensitivity to anticancer treatment.
We present a rare case of a multifocal sclerosing haemangioma of the lung in a 49-year-old lady. A left pneumonectomy with complete excision of the tumour seems to be the curative treatment. The recent literature on this unusual presentation is reviewed.