METHODS: A systematic literature search of rs-fMRI methods applied as a pre-operative mapping tool was conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library electronic databases following PRISMA guidelines.
RESULTS: Results demonstrated that 50% (six out of twelve) of the studies comparing rs-fMRI and T-fMRI showed good concordance for both language and sensorimotor networks. In comparison to intraoperative mapping, 86% (six out of seven) studies found a good agreement to rs-fMRI. Finally, 87% (twenty out of twenty-three) studies agreed that rs-fMRI is a suitable and useful pre-operative mapping tool.
CONCLUSIONS: rs-fMRI is a promising technique for pre-operative mapping in assessing the functional brain areas. However, the agreement between rs-fMRI with other techniques, including T-fMRI and intraoperative maps, is not yet optimal. Studies to ascertain and improve the sophistication in pre-processing of rs-fMRI imaging data are needed.
METHODS: Knee image is first oversegmented to produce homogeneous superpixels. Then, a ranking model is developed to rank the superpixels according to their affinities to standard priors, wherein background superpixels would have lower ranking values. Finally, seed labels are generated on the background superpixel using Fuzzy C-Means method.
RESULTS: SAGE has achieved better interobserver DSCs of 0.94 ± 0.029 and 0.93 ± 0.035 in healthy and OA knee segmentation, respectively. Good segmentation performance has been reported in femoral (Healthy: 0.94 ± 0.036 and OA: 0.93 ± 0.034), tibial (Healthy: 0.91 ± 0.079 and OA: 0.88 ± 0.095) and patellar (Healthy: 0.88 ± 0.10 and OA: 0.84 ± 0.094) cartilage segmentation. Besides, SAGE has demonstrated greater mean readers' time of 80 ± 19 s and 80 ± 27 s in healthy and OA knee segmentation, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: SAGE enhances the efficiency of segmentation process and attains satisfactory segmentation performance compared to manual and random walks segmentation. Future works should validate SAGE on progressive image data cohort using OA biomarkers.
NEW METHOD: To overcome these limitations, we propose a new statistical model that smooths out the noise by exploiting the geometric structure of correlation matrices. The dynamic correlation matrix is modeled as a linear combination of symmetric positive-definite matrices combined with cosine series representation. The resulting smoothed dynamic correlation matrices are clustered into disjoint brain connectivity states using the k-means clustering algorithm.
RESULTS: The proposed model preserves the geometric structure of underlying physiological dynamic correlation, eliminates unwanted noise in connectivity and obtains more accurate state spaces. The difference in the estimated dynamic connectivity states between males and females is identified.
COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We demonstrate that the proposed statistical model has less rapid state changes caused by noise and improves the accuracy in identifying and discriminating different states.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose a new regression model on dynamically changing correlation matrices that provides better performance over existing windowed correlation and is more reliable for the modeling of dynamic connectivity.