Land exploitation for mining sector may leave a series of environmental impacts on our ecosystem if not appropriately managed. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate the various environmental aspects due to abandoned metal mining including former iron ore, bauxite, and tin mining lands in view of its hydrogeochemical behavior. Mine-impacted waters and sediments were ascertained from former mining ponds, mine tailings, and impacted streams for interpretation of aqueous and sediment geochemistry, major and trace elements, hydrochemical facies, chemical weathering rate and CO2 consumption, and water quality classification. Results indicated that the environmental impact of the long-abandoned iron ore mine was still evident with some high concentration of metals and acidic pH. Higher concentrations of Fe and Mn in water were noticeable in some areas while other trace elements (Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, and Cu) were found below the recommended guideline values. Sediment quality reflected the trend of water quality variables mainly associated with metal(loid) elements, resulting in potential ecological risk, classified as having low to moderate risk. There were variations in terms of hydrochemical facies of the waters suggesting the influence of minerals in water. The chemical weathering rate suggests that contribution of carbonate mineral weathering was more important (up to 60%) than silicate weathering. The resulting CO2 consumption by mineral weathering was estimated to be in the range of 1.7-9.8 × 107 mol/year (former bauxite and tin mining areas can act as temporary sinks for CO2). Water quality classifications according to several chemical indices (Kelly's ratio, sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium absorption ratio, and permeability index) were also discussed in regards to mine water reuse for irrigation purpose. The findings suggest that a holistic approach that integrates all important hydrogeochemical aspects is essential for a thorough evaluation of the implication of medium- to long-term mining exploitation on its surrounding ecosystems. This would be beneficial in light of restoration potential of degraded mining land so as for future mitigation strategies in the mining sector.
In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.
Phytoremediation is a biological remediation technique known for low-cost technology and environmentally friendly approach, which employs plants to extract, stabilise, and transform various compounds, such as potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in the soil or water. Recent developments in utilising chelating agents soil remediation have led to a renewed interest in chelate-induced phytoremediation. This review article summarises the roles of various chelating agents and the mechanisms of chelate-induced phytoremediation. This paper also discusses the recent findings on the impacts of chelating agents on PTEs uptake and plant growth and development in phytoremediation. It was found that the chelating agents have increased the rate of metal absorption and translocation up to 45% from roots to the aboveground plant parts during PTEs phytoremediation. Besides, it was also explored that the plants may experience some phytotoxicity after adding chelating agents to the soil. However, due to the leaching potential of synthetic chelating agents, the use of organic chelants have been explored to be used in PTEs phytoremediation. Finally, this paper also presents comprehensive insights on the significance of using chelating agents through SWOT analysis to discuss the advantages and limitations of chelate-induced phytoremediation.
In coastal waters, particulate metals constitute a substantial fraction of the total metals; however, the prevalent water quality criteria are primarily based on dissolved metals, seemingly neglecting the contribution of particulate metals. Here we developed a method to quantify the toxicity risk of particulate metals, and proposed a way to calculate modifying factors (MFs) for setting site-specific criteria in turbid waters. Specifically, we used a side-by-side experimental design to study copper (Cu) bioaccumulation and toxicity in an estuarine clam, Potamocorbula laevis, under the exposure to "dissolved only" and "dissolved + particulate" 65Cu. A toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model (TK-TD) was used to quantify the processes of Cu uptake, ingestion, assimilation, egestion, and elimination, and to relate mortality risk to tissue Cu. We find that particulate Cu contributes 40-67% of the Cu bioaccumulation when the suspended particulate matter (SPM) ranges from 12 to 229 mg L-1. The Cu-bearing SPM also increases the sensitivity of organisms to internalized Cu by decreasing the internal threshold concentration (CIT) from 141 to 76.8 μg g-1. MFs were derived based on the TK-TD model to consider the contribution of particulate Cu (in the studied SPM range) for increasing Cu bioaccumulation (MF = 1.3-2.2) and toxicity (MF = 2.3-3.9). Water quality criteria derived from dissolved metal exposure need to be lowered by dividing by an MF to provide adequate protection. Overall, the method we developed provides a scientifically sound framework to manage the risks of metals in turbid waters.
The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.
Concentrations of trace metals in the South China Sea (SCS) were determined off the coast of Terengganu during the months of May and November 2007. The concentrations of dissolved and particulate metals were in the range of 0.019-0.194 μg/L and 50-365 μg/g, respectively, for cadmium (Cd), 0.05-0.45 μg/L and 38-3,570 μg/g for chromium (Cr), 0.05-3.54 μg/L and 21-1,947 μg/g for manganese (Mn), and 0.03-0.49 μg/L and 2-56,982 μg/g for lead (Pb). The order of mean log K D found was Cd > Cr > Pb > Mn. The study suggests that the primary sources of these metals are discharges from the rivers which drain into the SCS, in particular the Dungun River, which flows in close proximity to agricultural areas and petrochemical industries. During the northeast monsoon, levels of particulate metals in the bottom water samples near the shore were found to be much higher than during the dry season, the probable result of re-suspension of the metals from the bottom sediments.
Forty-three sediment samples were collected from the beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia to identify the enrichment of partially leached trace metals (PLTMs) from six different tourist beaches. The samples were analyzed for PLTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. The concentration pattern suggest that the southern side of the study area is enriched with Fe (1821-6097 μg g(-1)), Mn (11.57-90.22 μg g(-1)), Cr (51.50-311 μg g(-1)), Ni (18-51 μg g(-1)), Pb (8.81-84.05 μg g(-1)), Sr (25.95-140.49 μg g(-1)) and Zn (12.46-35.04 μg g(-1)). Compared to the eco-toxicological values, Cr>Effects range low (ERL), Lowest effect level (LEL), Severe effect level (SEL); Cu>Unpolluted sediments, ERL, LEL; Pb>Unpolluted sediments and Ni>ERL and LEL. Comparative results with other regions indicate that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn are higher, indicating an external input rather than natural process.
This paper determines the controlling factors that influence the metals' behavior water-sediment interaction facies and distribution of elemental content ((75)As, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (52)Cr, (60)Ni, and (208)Pb) in water and sediment samples in order to assess the metal pollution status in the Langat River. A total of 90 water and sediment samples were collected simultaneously in triplicate at 30 sampling stations. Selected metals were analyzed using ICP-MS, and the metals' concentration varied among stations. Metal concentrations of water ranged between 0.08-24.71 μg/L for As, <0.01-0.53 μg/L for Cd, 0.06-6.22 μg/L for Co, 0.32-4.67 μg/L for Cr, 0.80-24.72 μg/L for Ni, and <0.005-6.99 μg/L for Pb. Meanwhile, for sediment, it ranged between 4.47-30.04 mg/kg for As, 0.02-0.18 mg/kg for Cd, 0.87-4.66 mg/kg for Co, 4.31-29.04 mg/kg for Cr, 2.33-8.25 mg/kg for Ni and 5.57-55.71 mg/kg for Pb. The average concentration of studied metals in the water was lower than the Malaysian National Standard for Drinking Water Quality proposed by the Ministry of Health. The average concentration for As in sediment was exceeding ISQG standards as proposed by the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines. Statistical analyses revealed that certain metals (As, Co, Ni, and Pb) were generally influenced by pH and conductivity. These results are important when making crucial decisions in determining potential hazardous levels of these metals toward humans.
A baseline study was carried out to assess the metal concentrations and microbial contamination at selected Lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia. Sixteen surface water samples were collected at specific Lakes in the environs of major settlement areas and recreational centers in Miri City. The Physico-chemical parameters [pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)], metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were analysed. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni have been found to be above the permissible limits of drinking water quality standards. The metals data have also been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index. Higher values of E. coli indicate microbial contamination in the Lake waters.
Surface sediments along the south of Caspian Sea were collected to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals. The result ranged (μg/g, Fe% dw): Pb(13.06-33.48); Ni(18.01-69.63); Cd(0.62-1.5); Zn(30.11-87.88); Cu(5.86-26.37) and Fe(1.8-4%) respectively. Cadmium showed higher EF when compared to other sites. Geoaccumulation Index value for Cd in most stations was classified as moderately contaminated and moderately to strongly contaminated, as well as the average of I(geo) of Cd (1.77 ± 0.35) suggested that surface sediments of Caspian coast were moderately polluted by this metal. The result of the Pearson correlation showed that there were significant positive associations between Ni, Cd and Zn (r = 0.44-0.76; p < 0.01).
The aim of this work was to evaluate two different digestion methods for the determination of the total concentration of metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in shrimp sludge compost. The compost made from shrimp aquaculture sludge co-composted with organic materials (peat, crushed bark and manure) was used as an organic growing medium for crop. Open system digestion and microwave assisted digestion procedures were employed in sample preparation. Various combinations and volumes of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids were evaluated for the efficiency of both methods. A certified reference material (CRM 146) was used in the comparison of these two digestion methods. The results revealed a good agreement between both procedures and the certified valued. The best recoveries were found in the range between 95% and 99% for microwave assisted digestion with a mixture of 2 ml of HF, 6 ml of HNO(3) and 2 ml of HCl. This procedure was recommended as the method for digestion the compost herein based on the recovery analysis and time taken.
Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda), water and sediments from 12 circum-neutral lakes between Sudbury and North Bay in Ontario, Canada were sampled in August 1998 and analyzed for 10 metals including Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Co, Mo, V, Ba and Ti. Statistical analyses showed that concentrations of the metals in H. azteca, water and sediment differed significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) among lakes (except for Zn and Pb in H. azteca and Mo in water). There was a trend of declining metal concentration, especially for Cu, Ni and Co (in water, Hyalella and sediment), with distance from the smelters indicating the reduced impact of atmospheric pollution. Metal concentrations of lakes (water) in the Sudbury area were found to be lower compared to data from the 1970s and 1980s indicating an improvement in water quality. Metal concentrations in field-collected amphipods compared favorably with those measured in the laboratory in animals exposed to deep-water sediments, provided metal concentrations were not extremely low (e.g., Pb) and that water chemistry differences (e.g., pH) were taken into account for some metals (especially Cd). In general bioaccumulation of metals in H. azteca was predicted better from surface water than from sediment total metal.
Exposure to toxic metals and excessive amount of trace elements is a risk factor of cognitive decline. Continuous monitoring of these elements by the use of metabolically inactive tissues such as fingernails may help in taking preventive measures to delay the cognitive decline process. In this study, the cognitive function of 54 elderlies (60-72 years old) from FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, was evaluated using the Malay version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in fingernail were detected using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that (92.6 %) our population was cognitively impaired based on the MoCA with mean score of 18.07 ± 5.11. The mean level of elements in fingernails for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 16.68 ± 3.52, 4.26 ± 0.91, 4.81 ± 1.16, 1.00 ± 0.23, 1.83 ± 0.47, and 40.86 ± 10.81 μg/g, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between MoCA with age (r = -0.543, p
The research study was carried out to evaluate trace metals (Pb, Cd, Se, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, and Ag) concentrations in groundwater of Lorong Serai 4, Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Additionally, the research study focused on determining non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks, sources of the contaminants, and effective remediation methods. The results show that the concentration levels of Pb, Cd, Se, Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Ag are lower than their corresponding permissible limits, while Fe, Mn, and As concentrations exceed their acceptable limit. The hazard index of the groundwater in the area exceeded the acceptable limit, showing the rate of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects associated with the water. The findings also indicate that the lifetime cancer risk is high compared to the maximum limits of lifetime cancer risk from the drinking water (10-6 to 10-4). The groundwater geochemical data of the area are used in establishing the source of Fe, Mn, and As metal ions. Evaluation of Fe2+/Fe3+ and S2-/SO42- redox couples and thermodynamic modelling indicates that the groundwater of the area is in redox disequilibrium. The groundwater samples contain aqueous iron sulphate, which is supersaturated, ferrous carbonate and aluminium sulphate that are saturated. The main state of redox disequilibrium is governed by mineral precipitation and dissolution. Aqueous arsenic and manganese are possibly derived from the dissolution of pyrite (arsenopyrite) and amorphous oxide-hydroxides, respectively. The high concentration of iron in the shallow groundwater in the area is primarily the result of silicate rock weathering of ferroan igneous and metamorphic minerals with a minor contribution from the oxidation of iron sulphides. Magnetite coated with graphene oxide (Fe3O4-GO) nanoparticles (NPs) was synthesized and characterized, and the adsorption preliminary experiments were carried out; and the Fe3O4-GO NPs show enhanced removal (Fe > As > Mn) capacity over graphene oxide (GO).
A study had been carried out to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the muscle and fins of four elasmobranchs species namely spot-tail sharks, milk sharks, whitespotted bamboo sharks and whitespotted guitarfish from Pulau Kambing LKIM Fishery Complex, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Zinc level was found to have the highest concentration whereas Cd had the lowest concentration in both organs. By comparing both organs, metals concentrations in fins of all elasmobranchs species were higher than muscle. Result obtained was compared with the guidelines set by Malaysian Food Regulation and the provisional tolerable weekly intake was also determined. Current study recommends that the muscle of whitespotted bamboo shark from Kuala Terengganu Waters is likely not to be consumed due to it exceeded the allowable consumption guideline. Finding of this paper is very useful as it provides the baseline data on the pollution status of elasmobranchs in Kuala Terengganu Waters.
Increasing toxic metal content in aquatic products has become a universal burden due to the risks to aquatic organisms and human health associated with the consumption of these products. In this study, toxic metal distribution and accumulation in the organs of fish and bivalve species of economic and culinary importance from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River are examined, and the corresponding health risks are also investigated. In general, the viscera and gill show higher concentration of metals than other tissues. The order of the accumulation sequence of metals in muscle tissue of fish and bivalve is Zn > Cu > Mn > Cr > As > Hg > Pb > Cd and Mn > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg respectively. Maximum accumulation of Mn (507.50 μg g-1) and Pb (0.51 μg g-1) in the gill tissues indicates the major uptake of these metals from the water column. According to the Hazard Index (HI) calculations (based on USEPA), the analyzed metals will not cause any harmful health effects to individuals for both normal and habitual fish consumers, except for Hg and As in habitual consumers, if these species are consumed at a larger amount. Compared to the Chinese Food Health Criterion and other international standards (WHO/FAO), metal concentrations in the edible muscle tissues of the studied species are lesser than the acceptable levels and found to be fit for human consumption.
Brunei Bay is a unique ecosystem which offers a vast biodiversity. This study was carried out to define the source of metals in the surface sediment of Brunei Bay to ensure the bay's health. The secondary data were analysed using chemometrics analysis to verify the possible factors that influence metals distribution in Brunei Bay sediment. Samples were collected several times during 2013 to 2014 using Ponar grab at 16 stations within the bay. Samples were then dried, pre-treated, digested and analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) in the laboratory. Overall, the mean concentration of metal, sediment pH and clay fraction were significantly changed during different sampling periods, as the changes were presumed affected by seasonal changes. The Pearson correlation has pointed that metals were dominantly derived by natural input; however, the total organic carbon was proven to be derived by anthropogenic sources. Moreover, the principal component analysis has verified that the distribution of metals in the bay's sediment was dominantly influenced by natural processes. However, the utilization and manipulation of marine resources are slightly affecting the bay's ecosystem which may deteriorate the ecosystem health soon.
In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+).