Schwannoma (neurilemoma) is a benign, slow-growing tumor of the nerve sheath. These tumors are rarely found in the female genitalia and to date only 1 case of clitoral schwannoma has been reported in a young girl. We report here the second case of schwannoma of the clitoris.
Cystic spinal or ancient schwannoma is a rare form of intradural tumour especially in the conus medullaris region. Due to its indolent behavior and benign course, the diagnosis of schwannoma is always a challenge and the imaging findings can be misleading. Our patient presented with chronic mild sciatica pain without any other neurological symptom. MRI of the spine showed intradural tumour located at the conus medullaris region with nerves compression and was reported as ependymoma. L3-L5 laminectomy and total excision of tumour was performed without any neurological complication. We concluded that ancient schwannoma of the conus medullaris is a rare benign tumour that can present with minimal non-specific neurological symptom that lead to misdiagnosis. Radical tumour excision is safe with an excellent outcome.
Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are quite rare, especially in the nasal vestibule. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening right-sided epistaxis and nasal blockage. Rigid nasoendoscopy showed a mobile, smooth, globular mass occupying the right nasal vestibule. The mass arose from the lateral nasal wall and impinged on the anterior part of the middle turbinate posteriorly. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a 3.8 × 1.7-cm enhancing mass in the right nostril. The mass obliterated the nasal cavity and caused mild deviation of the septum. The preoperative histopathologic examination showed positivity for vimentin and S-100 protein, suggesting a diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient underwent an intranasal laser-assisted excision biopsy. The histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and no recurrence was seen in the follow-up period.
Extracranial schwannomas in the head and neck region are rare neoplasms. The tumours often present as asymptomatic, slowly enlarging lateral neck masses and determination of the nerve origin is not often made until the time of surgery. Preoperative diagnosis maybe aided by imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, while open biopsy is no longer recommended. The accepted treatment for these tumors is surgical resection with preservation of the neural pathway. We report four cases of cervical schwannomas that we encountered at our center during four years of period. The clinical features, diagnosis and origin, management and pathological findings of these benign tumors are discussed.
Vagal nerve schwannoma is extremely rare. The majority of cases present with a slow growing neck swelling without neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard investigation to establish a pre-operative diagnosis. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with an extensive right vagal nerve schwannoma involving the right jugular foramen and parapharyngeal space. The tumour was resected via a transcervical approach. Complete excision of the tumour is the key to prevent recurrence.
Schwannoma in the head and neck region is very rare. The tumour occurring in the intraparotid facial nerve is even rarer. A patient presenting with a parotid swelling with facial nerve paralysis is not pathognomonic of a facial nerve schwannoma. However it may occur because enlargement of the parotid, by any kind of tumour especially a malignant one can cause facial nerve paralysis. We report a case of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma, in a patient who presented with parotid enlargement and facial nerve paralysis.
Facial nerve schwannomas are rare benign tumors. The tumor can arise anywhere along the course of the facial nerve. The most common presentation for this tumor is a slowly progressive facial nerve paralysis. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and tinnitus are later symptoms. The symptoms and signs depend on the site of tumor along the nerve. We report three cases of facial nerve schwannomas with different clinical presentations. Appropriate management of a facial nerve schwannoma should be based on the site and extent of the tumor and status of the nerve function.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is a common mesenchymal tumour arising in the gastrointestinal tract, but not frequently encountered in the rectum. Herein, we describe a case of a rectal GIST which mimicked histomorphological features of a schwannoma; thus, making intraoperative frozen section evaluation challenging. Although subsequent immunohistochemistry and molecular findings readily confirmed the diagnosis of a GIST, we wish to draw attention to three clues that will help the pathologist steer clear of this potential diagnostic pitfall. One, GISTs are relatively more common than schwannomas in the rectum. Two, schwannomas usually have very little mitoses. Three, rectal GISTs commonly exhibit nuclear palisades. We also discuss the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic functions of immunohistochemical and molecular investigations. As the surgical intent for rectal GISTs is for en-bloc excision with wide margins, we surmise that the intraoperative consult should include GIST as a possible differential diagnosis for rectal mesenchymal tumours. In view of the potential for neoadjuvant treatment with imatinib before surgical excision to preserve sphincter function, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended for establishing most effective treatment strategy in these rare complex cases.
A few series of parapharyngeal space tumours have been reported earlier but recently not many series have been published in English literature. It is rare for any medical center, let alone an individual surgeon, to develop sufficient experience in evaluating these tumours. We present our experience in the treatment of 41 cases of parapharyngeal tumours from January 1992 to December 2001. FNAC, ultrasound and CT scan of the presenting mass was done in most of the patients as the main pre-operative work-up. The strategic location and extension of the tumour may occasionally alter the surgical approach for tumour excision.
The authors present an interesting case under our follow-up who has had five different forms of tumours with different pathologies throughout his lifetime. He started off with hepatoma, followed by pleomorphic sarcoma of the thigh, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, meningioma and finally schwanoma. He is still alive to this date.