Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Mohamed AH, Noorhisham NA, Yahaya N, Mohamad S, Kamaruzzaman S, Osman H, et al.
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2023;53(4):906-927.
    PMID: 34693833 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2021.1992262
    Despite organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) benefits in controlling vector-borne diseases and noxious insects, the bioaccumulation and persistence in the soil system may metamorphose into new substances which could pose a serious threat to the ecosystems and human health. The generally low levels of OPPs residues and often the complexity of the soil matrix are the issues that researcher must deal with. Thus, it is essential to isolate and preconcentrate the OPPs from the matrix to reduce interference effects to obtain a reliable detection. Researchers have reported sample preparation techniques as a promising approach to improve analytical measurement of merits including recovery, precision, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. Under the selected conditions, limits of detection range between 0.001 and 143 ng/mL, and extraction recovery range between 5 and 154% were obtained. This review evaluates the challenges and opportunities, emphasizes the prospects of sampling techniques and various (micro)extraction coupled with chromatographic methods in different soil samples. Based on the finding, the extraction efficiency depended largely on the interaction between OPPs and extraction media. The fate, migration, toxicity impact, sampling procedure, and storage which influenced the sample preparation were comprehensively discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis
  2. Wan Ibrahim WA, Farhani H, Sanagi MM, Aboul-Enein HY
    J Chromatogr A, 2010 Jul 23;1217(30):4890-7.
    PMID: 20561627 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.05.050
    A new sol-gel hybrid coating, polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6 (PDMS-2OHMe18C6) was prepared in-house for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The three compositions produced were assessed for its extraction efficiency towards three selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) based on peak area extracted obtained from gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All three compositions showed superior extraction efficiencies compared to commercial 100 microm PDMS fiber. The composition showing best extraction performance was used to obtain optimized SPME conditions: 75 degrees C extraction temperature, 10 min extraction time, 120 rpm stirring rate, desorption time 5 min, desorption temperature 250 degrees C and 1.5% (w/v) of NaCl salt addition. The method detection limits (S/N=3) of the OPPs with the new sol-gel hybrid material ranged from 4.5 to 4.8 ng g(-1), which is well below the maximum residue limit set by Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Commission. Percentage recovery of OPPs from strawberry, green apple and grape samples with the new hybrid sol-gel SPME material ranged from 65 to 125% with good precision of the method (%RSD) ranging from 0.3 to 7.4%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  3. Kin CM, Huat TG
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2009 Sep;47(8):694-9.
    PMID: 19772747
    A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  4. Raharjo Y, Sanagi MM, Ibrahim WA, Naim AA, Aboul-Enein HY
    J Sep Sci, 2009 Feb;32(4):623-9.
    PMID: 19165835 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.200800566
    A liquid-phase microextraction coupled with LC method has been developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (methidation, quinalphos and profenofos) in drinking water samples. In this method, a small amount (3 microL) of isooctane as the acceptor phase was introduced continually to fill-up the channel of a 1.5 cm polypropylene hollow fiber using a microsyringe while the hollow fiber was immersed in an aqueous donor solution. A portion of the acceptor phase (ca. 0.4 microL) was first introduced into the hollow fiber and additional amounts (ca. 0.2 microL) of the acceptor phase were introduced to replenish at intervals of 3 min until set end of extraction (40 min). After extraction, the acceptor phase was withdrawn and transferred into a 2 mL vial for a drying step prior to injection into a LC system. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were studied including the organic solvent, length of fiber, volume of acceptor and donor phase, stirring rate, extraction time, and effect of salting out. The proposed method provided good enrichment factors of up to 189.50, with RSD ranging from 0.10 to 0.29%, analyte recoveries of over 79.80% and good linearity ranging from 10.0 to 1.25 mg/L. The LOD ranged from 2.86 to 82.66 microg/L. This method was applied successfully to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in selected drinking water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  5. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy A, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Umar K, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Jun;39(12):2276-83.
    PMID: 27095506 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600155
    A sensitive and selective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon in three different food commodities (milk, apples, and drinking water) employing solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment. Pesticide extraction from different sample matrices was carried out on Chromabond C18 cartridges using 3.0 mL of methanol and 3.0 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane/acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) as the eluting solvent. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.1-50 μg/L for chlorpyrifos, and 0.05-50 μg/L for both malathion and diazinon pesticides. Good repeatability and recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.54-86.73% for three pesticides under the optimized experimental conditions. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 μg/L, and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L for all three pesticides. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of three targeted pesticides in milk, apples, and drinking water samples each in triplicate. No pesticide was found in apple and milk samples, but chlorpyrifos was found in one drinking water sample below the quantification level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  6. Veloo KV, Ibrahim NAS
    J Sep Sci, 2020 Aug;43(15):3027-3035.
    PMID: 32386268 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201901237
    A new sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane was prepared as sorbent for solid-phase extraction. The extraction efficiency of the prepared sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane was assessed by using three selected organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, and malathion. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for detection of organophosphorus pesticides. Several vital parameters were optimized to identify the best extraction conditions. Under the optimum extraction conditions, solid-phase extraction-methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane method showed good linearity range (0.05-1 μg/mL) with coefficient of determination more than 0.995. The limits of detection obtained were in the range of 0.01-0.07 μg/mL and limits of quantification ranging from 0.03 to 0.21 μg/mL. The limits of detection obtained for the developed method were 2.3-6.5× lower than the limits of detection of commercial octadecyl silica sorbent. Real samples analysis was carried out by applying the developed method on red apple and purple grape samples. The developed method exhibited good recoveries (88.33-120.7%) with low relative standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 3.3% compared to commercial octadecyl silica sorbent, which showed acceptable recoveries (70.3-100.2%) and relative standard deviations (6.3-8.8%). The solid-phase extraction-methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane method is presented as an alternative extraction method for determination of organophosphorus pesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  7. Wan Ibrahim WA, Veloo KV, Sanagi MM
    J Chromatogr A, 2012 Mar 16;1229:55-62.
    PMID: 22326188 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.01.022
    A novel sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was produced and applied as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE). Five selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the synthesized sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several important SPE parameters were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS as SPE sorbent showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-1 μg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD 2.1-3.1%, n=5), low limits of detection at S/N=3 (0.5-0.9 pg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (1-3 pg mL(-1), S/N=10). The performance of the MTMOS-TEOS SPE was compared to commercial C18 Supelclean SPE since C18 SPE is widely used for OPPs. The MTMOS-TEOS SPE method LOD was 500-600 × lower than the LOD of commercial C18 SPE. The LOD achieved with the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent allowed the detection of these OPPs in drinking water well below the level set by European Union (EU) at 0.1 μg L(-1) of each pesticides. The developed MTMOS-TEOS SPE method was successfully applied to real sample analysis of the selected OPPs from several water samples and its application extended to the analysis of several fruits samples. Excellent recoveries and RSDs of the OPPs were obtained from the various water samples (recoveries: 97-111%, RSDs 0.4-2.8%, n=3) and fruit samples (recoveries: 96-111%), RSDs 1-4%, n=5) using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent. Recoveries and RSDs of OPPs from river water samples and fruit samples using C18 Supelclean SPE sorbent were 91-97%, RSD 0.9-2.6, n=3 and 86-96%, RSD 3-8%, n=5, respectively). The novel sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent demonstrate the potential as an alternative inexpensive extraction sorbent for OPPs with higher sensitivity for the OPPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  8. Azlan NSM, Wee SY, Ismail NAH, Nasir HM, Aris AZ
    Environ Toxicol Chem, 2020 10;39(10):1908-1917.
    PMID: 32621623 DOI: 10.1002/etc.4813
    The organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) commonly used in agricultural practices can pose a risk of potential exposure to humans via food consumption. We describe an analytical method for solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (SPE-HPLC-DAD) for the detection of OPPs (quinalphos, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos) in rice grains. The isolation of targeted residues was initiated with double extraction before SPE-HPLC-DAD, crucially reducing matrix interferences and detecting a wide range of multiple residues in rice grains. Coefficients of 0.9968 to 0.9991 showed a strong linearity, with limits of detection and quantification ranging from 0.36 to 0.68 µg/kg and from 1.20 to 2.28 µg/kg, respectively. High recoveries (80.4-110.3%) were observed at 3 spiking levels (50, 100, and 200 µg/kg), indicating good accuracy. The relative standard deviations of all residues (0.19-8.66%) validated the method precision. Sample analysis of 10 rice grain types (n = 30) available in the Asian market revealed that quinalphos, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos at concentrations of 1.08, 1.11, and 1.79 µg/kg, respectively, remained far below the maximum residue limits (0.01-0.5 mg/kg). However, regular monitoring is necessary to confirm that multiresidue occurrence remains below permissible limits while controlling pests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1908-1917. © 2020 SETAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
  9. Zainuddin AH, Wee SY, Aris AZ
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Nov;42(11):3703-3715.
    PMID: 32488800 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00604-4
    The application of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) increased gradually because of the rise in global food demand that triggered the agriculture sector to increase the production, leading to OPP residues in the surface water. This study elucidated the presence of OPPs and estimated its ecological risk in the riverine ecosystem of the urbanised Linggi River, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The OPP concentration in surface water was determined using solid-phase extraction method and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. Further, the ecological risk was estimated by using the risk quotient (RQ) method. The three OPPs, i.e. chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and quinalphos were detected with mean concentrations of 0.0275 µg/L, 0.0328 µg/L, and 0.0362 µg/L, respectively. The OPPs were at high risk (in general and worst cases) under acute exposure. The estimated risk of diazinon was observed as medium for general (RQm = 0.5857) and high for worst cases (RQex = 4.4678). Notably, the estimated risk for chlorpyrifos was high for both general and worst cases (RQm = 1.9643 and RQex = 11.5643) towards the aquatic ecosystem of the Linggi River. Chronic risk of quinalphos remains unknown because of the absence of toxicity endpoints. This study presented clear knowledge regarding OPP contamination and possible risk for aquatic ecosystems. Hence, OPPs should be listed as one of the main priority contaminants in pesticide mitigation management in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis*
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