Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Jiang DL, Gu XH, Li BJ, Zhu ZX, Qin H, Meng ZN, et al.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY), 2019 Apr;21(2):250-261.
    PMID: 30737627 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-019-09877-y
    Understanding the genetic mechanism of osmoregulation is important for the improvement of salt tolerance in tilapia. In our previous study, we have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) region located at 23.0 Mb of chrLG18 in a Nile tilapia line by QTL-seq. However, the conservation of these QTLs in other tilapia populations or species is not clear. In this study, we successfully investigated the QTLs associated with salt tolerance in a mass cross population from the GIFT line of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using a ddRAD-seq-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) and in a full-sib family from the Malaysia red tilapia strain (Oreochromis spp) using QTL-seq. Our study confirmed the major QTL interval that is located at nearly 23.0 Mb of chrLG18 in Nile tilapia and revealed a long QTL cluster across chrLG18 controlling for the salt-tolerant trait in both red tilapia and Nile tilapia. This is the first GWAS analysis on salt tolerance in tilapia. Our finding provides important insights into the genetic architecture of salinity tolerance in tilapia and supplies a basis for fine mapping QTLs, marker-assisted selection, and further detailed functional analysis of the underlying genes for salt tolerance in tilapia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation
  2. Kuek FWI, Aazani Mujahid, Lim Pt, Leaw Cp, Müller M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:915-931.
    Little is known about the diversity and roles of microbial communities in the South China Sea, especially the eastern
    region. This study aimed to expand our knowledge on the diversity of these communities in Malaysian waters, as well as
    their potential involvement in the breakdown or osmoregulation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Water samples
    were collected during local cruises (Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, and Semporna) from the SHIVA expedition and the diversity
    of bacterial communities were analysed through the isolation and identification of 176 strains of cultured bacteria. The
    bacteria were further screened for the existence of two key genes (dmdA, dddP) which were involved in competing,
    enzymatically-mediated DMSP degradation pathways. The composition of bacterial communities in the three areas varied
    and changes were mirrored in physico-chemical parameters. Riverine input was highest in Kuching, which was mirrored
    by dominance of potentially pathogenic Vibrio sp., whereas the Kota Kinabalu community was more indicative of an
    open ocean environment. Isolates obtained from Kota Kinabalu and Semporna showed that the communities in these
    areas have potential roles in bioremediation, nitrogen fixing and sulphate reduction. Bacteria isolated from Kuching
    displayed the highest abundance (44%) of both DMSP-degrading genes, while the bacterial community in Kota Kinabalu
    had the highest percentage (28%) of dmdA gene occurrence and the dddP gene responsible for DMS production was
    most abundant (33%) within the community in Semporna. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study looking at
    the diversity of culturable bacteria in coastal waters of East Malaysia and also their potential roles in the DMS(P) cycle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation
  3. Lim LS, Tan SY, Tuzan AD, Kawamura G, Mustafa S, Rahmah S, et al.
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2020 Aug;46(4):1621-1629.
    PMID: 32430644 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-020-00817-5
    Oxyeleotris marmorata is an ambush predator. It is known for slow growth rate and high market demand. Farming of O. marmorata still remains a challenge. In order to establish a proper feeding practice to stimulate growth, knowledge of its metabolic processes and cost should be examined. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the diel osmorespiration rhythms of O. marmorata in response to feeding challenge by using an osmorespirometry assay. The results have shown that oxygen consumption rate of the fed fish was approximately 3 times higher than that of the unfed fish in early evening to support specific dynamic action. Digestion and ingestion processes were likely to be completed within 18-20 h in parallel with the ammonia excretion noticeable in early morning. Under resting metabolism, metabolic oxygen consumption was influenced by diel phase, but no effect was noted in ammonia excretion. As a nocturnal species, O. marmorata exhibited standard aerobic metabolic mode under dark phase followed by light phase, with high oxygen consumption rate found in either fed or unfed fish. It can be confirmed that both the diel phase and feeding have a significant interactive impact on oxygen consumption rate, whereas ammonia metabolism is impacted by feeding state. High metabolic rate of O. marmorata supports the nocturnal foraging activity in this fish. This finding suggested that feeding of O. marmorata should be performed during nighttime and water renewal should be conducted during daytime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation/physiology
  4. Nadarajah K, Kumar IS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 01;20(15).
    PMID: 31374851 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20153766
    As a semi-aquatic plant, rice requires water for proper growth, development, and orientation of physiological processes. Stress is induced at the cellular and molecular level when rice is exposed to drought or periods of low water availability. Plants have existing defense mechanisms in planta that respond to stress. In this review we examine the role played by miRNAs in the regulation and control of drought stress in rice through a summary of molecular studies conducted on miRNAs with emphasis on their contribution to drought regulatory networks in comparison to other plant systems. The interaction between miRNAs, target genes, transcription factors and their respective roles in drought-induced stresses is elaborated. The cross talk involved in controlling drought stress responses through the up and down regulation of targets encoding regulatory and functional proteins is highlighted. The information contained herein can further be explored to identify targets for crop improvement in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation
  5. Freiria-Oliveira AH, Blanch GT, Pedrino GR, Cravo SL, Murphy D, Menani JV, et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2015 Nov 01;309(9):R1082-91.
    PMID: 26333788 DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00432.2014
    Noradrenergic A2 neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) have been suggested to contribute to body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lesions of A2 neurons of the commissural NTS (cNTS) on the c-Fos expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, arterial pressure, water intake, and urinary excretion in rats with plasma hyperosmolality produced by intragastric 2 M NaCl (2 ml/rat). Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) received an injection of anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-saporin (12.6 ng/60 nl; cNTS/A2-lesion, n = 28) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (12.6 ng/60 nl; sham, n = 24) into the cNTS. The cNTS/A2 lesions increased the number of neurons expressing c-Fos in the magnocellular PVN in rats treated with hypertonic NaCl (90 ± 13, vs. sham: 47 ± 20; n = 4), without changing the number of neurons expressing c-Fos in the parvocellular PVN or in the SON. Contrary to sham rats, intragastric 2 M NaCl also increased arterial pressure in cNTS/A2-lesioned rats (16 ± 3, vs. sham: 2 ± 2 mmHg 60 min after the intragastric load; n = 9), an effect blocked by the pretreatment with the vasopressin antagonist Manning compound (0 ± 3 mmHg; n = 10). In addition, cNTS/A2 lesions enhanced hyperosmolality-induced water intake (10.5 ± 1.4, vs. sham: 7.7 ± 0.8 ml/60 min; n = 8-10), without changing renal responses to hyperosmolality. The results suggest that inhibitory mechanisms dependent on cNTS/A2 neurons reduce water intake and vasopressin-dependent pressor response to an acute increase in plasma osmolality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation/physiology
  6. Greenwood MP, Greenwood M, Romanova EV, Mecawi AS, Paterson A, Sarenac O, et al.
    Neurobiol Aging, 2018 05;65:178-191.
    PMID: 29494864 DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.01.008
    Elderly people exhibit a diminished capacity to cope with osmotic challenges such as dehydration. We have undertaken a detailed molecular analysis of arginine vasopressin (AVP) biosynthetic processes in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus and secretory activity in the posterior pituitary of adult (3 months) and aged (18 months) rats, to provide a comprehensive analysis of age-associated changes to the AVP system. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, we identified differences in pituitary peptides, including AVP, in adult and aged rats under both basal and dehydrated states. In the SON, increased Avp gene transcription, coincided with reduced Avp promoter methylation in aged rats. Based on transcriptome data, we have previously characterized a number of novel dehydration-induced regulatory factors involved in the response of the SON to osmotic cues. We found that some of these increase in expression with age, while dehydration-induced expression of these genes in the SON was attenuated in aged rats. In summary, we show that aging alters the rat AVP system at the genome, transcriptome, and peptidome levels. These alterations however did not affect circulating levels of AVP in basal or dehydrated states.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation/physiology*
  7. Tsai JW, Liew HJ, Jhang JJ, Hung SH, Meng PJ, Leu MY, et al.
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2018 Apr;44(2):489-502.
    PMID: 29192359 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-017-0448-y
    The mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) naturally inhabits freshwater (FW; 1-3‰) and seawater (SW; 28-33‰) ponds in constructed wetland. To explore the physiological status and molecular mechanisms for salinity adaptation of the mosquitofish, cytoprotective responses and osmoregulation were examined. In the field study, activation of protein quality control (PQC) mechanism through upregulation of the abundance of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was found in the mosquitofish gills from SW pond compared to the individuals of FW pond. The levels of aggregated proteins in mosquitofish gills had no significant difference between FW and SW ponds. Furthermore, the osmoregulatory responses revealed that the body fluid osmolality and muscle water contents of the mosquitofish from two ponds were maintained within a physiological range while branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) expression was higher in the individuals from SW than FW ponds. Subsequently, to further clarify whether the cellular stress responses and osmoregulation were mainly induced by hypertonicity, a laboratory salinity acclimation experiment was conducted. The results from the laboratory experiment were similar to the field study. Branchial PQC as well as NKA responses were induced by SW acclimation compared to FW-acclimated individuals. Taken together, induction of gill PQC and NKA responses implied that SW represents an osmotic stress for mosquitofish. Activation of PQC was suggested to provide an osmoprotection to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. Moreover, an increase in branchial NKA responses for osmoregulatory adjustment was required for the physiological homeostasis of body fluid osmolality and muscle water content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation*
  8. Greenwood MP, Mecawi AS, Hoe SZ, Mustafa MR, Johnson KR, Al-Mahmoud GA, et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2015 Apr 01;308(7):R559-68.
    PMID: 25632023 DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00444.2014
    Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation
  9. Konopacka A, Qiu J, Yao ST, Greenwood MP, Greenwood M, Lancaster T, et al.
    J Neurosci, 2015 Apr 01;35(13):5144-55.
    PMID: 25834041 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4121-14.2015
    The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) was thought to be kidney specific. Here we show expression in the brain hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS), wherein upregulation follows osmotic stress. The HNS controls osmotic stability through the synthesis and release of the neuropeptide hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP travels through the bloodstream to the kidney, where it promotes water conservation. Knockdown of HNS NKCC2 elicited profound effects on fluid balance following ingestion of a high-salt solution-rats produced significantly more urine, concomitant with increases in fluid intake and plasma osmolality. Since NKCC2 is the molecular target of the loop diuretics bumetanide and furosemide, we asked about their effects on HNS function following disturbed water balance. Dehydration-evoked GABA-mediated excitation of AVP neurons was reversed by bumetanide, and furosemide blocked AVP release, both in vivo and in hypothalamic explants. Thus, NKCC2-dependent brain mechanisms that regulate osmotic stability are disrupted by loop diuretics in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osmoregulation/physiology*
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