Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 197 in total

  1. Lim SY, Tan AH
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2018 Jan;46 Suppl 1:S47-S52.
    PMID: 28793970 DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.07.029
    BACKGROUND: Conventional outcome measures (COMs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) refer to rating scales, questionnaires, patient diaries and clinically-based tests that do not require specialized equipment.

    METHODS: It is timely at this juncture - as clinicians and researchers begin to grapple with the "invasion" of digital technologies - to review the strengths and weaknesses of these outcome measures.

    RESULTS: This paper discusses advances (including an enhanced understanding of PD itself, and the development of clinimetrics as a field) that have led to improvements in the COMs used in PD; their strengths and limitations; and factors to consider when selecting and using a measuring instrument.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is envisaged that in the future, a combination of COMs and technology-based objective measures will be utilized, with different methods having their own strengths and weaknesses. Judgement is required on the part of the clinician and researcher in terms of which instrument(s) are appropriate to use, depending on the particular clinical or research setting or question.

    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  2. Mohd Amran, Mohd Radzi, Zai Peng, Goh, Hashim, Hizam
    This paper presents a voltage flicker estimation based on a pair of inter-harmonics analysis method. The proposed algorithm is able to estimate flicker frequency and amplitude changes of a voltage waveform. The correlation of the pair of inter-harmonics, flicker frequency, and amplitude changes are presented and their formulas highlighted. .Experimental results indicate the amplitude of pair of inter-harmonics can detect the voltage flicker. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with the measurement results obtained by using the Fluke power analyzer (Pst).
  3. Dongsheng Li, Wenfei Xi
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2119-2124.
    The DEM construction of high and steep slope has great importance to slope disaster monitoring. The conventional method used to construct high and steep slope DEM model requires larger field surveying workload. First of all, the high and steep slope image was obtained through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform; Then the SIFT algorithm is used to extract the feature points which are going to be matched accurately by using RANSAC algorithm. Finally, stereo pair splicing method is used to generate orthogonal images and construct DEM model. After comparing the DEM model with actual slope measurement result collected by total station finding, it is shown that elevation error between the DEM model constructed by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and actual measurement is minimal and its efficiency is proven.
  4. Haron NH, Taib NA, Yip CH
    ANZ J Surg, 2008 Nov;78(11):943-4.
    PMID: 18959689 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04709.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  5. Santos J, Palumbo F, Molsen-David E, Willke RJ, Binder L, Drummond M, et al.
    Value Health, 2017 12;20(10):1227-1242.
    PMID: 29241881 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2017.10.018
    As the leading health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) professional society, ISPOR has a responsibility to establish a uniform, harmonized international code for ethical conduct. ISPOR has updated its 2008 Code of Ethics to reflect the current research environment. This code addresses what is acceptable and unacceptable in research, from inception to the dissemination of its results. There are nine chapters: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Ethical Principles respect, beneficence and justice with reference to a non-exhaustive compilation of international, regional, and country-specific guidelines and standards; 3 - Scope HEOR definitions and how HEOR and the Code relate to other research fields; 4 - Research Design Considerations primary and secondary data related issues, e.g., participant recruitment, population and research setting, sample size/site selection, incentive/honorarium, administration databases, registration of retrospective observational studies and modeling studies; 5 - Data Considerations privacy and data protection, combining, verification and transparency of research data, scientific misconduct, etc.; 6 - Sponsorship and Relationships with Others (roles of researchers, sponsors, key opinion leaders and advisory board members, research participants and institutional review boards (IRBs) / independent ethics committees (IECs) approval and responsibilities); 7 - Patient Centricity and Patient Engagement new addition, with explanation and guidance; 8 - Publication and Dissemination; and 9 - Conclusion and Limitations.
  6. Mohandas, K., Nur Farhana, M.Y., Vikram, M., Sundaresan, A.N., Potturi Gowri, S., Mahendran, J.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):80-84.
    Trophic ulcers have emerged as one of the major complications following diabetes mellitus (DM) and Hansen’s diseases (HD). In this case series, the study attempted total contact plaster boot using a readily available plaster of Paris to treat trophic ulcer for 10 subjects. A total of five subjects with DM and five subjects with HD were included based on the study criteria. Pre and post test measure of wound measurement size following total contact plaster boot were taken as an outcome measure. All ten subjects showed decrease in size of wound following fifteen days of treatment. No adverse effects were associated with this type of treatment. Subjects with trophic ulcer may benefit from the application of total contact plaster boot.
  7. Rodrigues IA, Sprinkhuizen SM, Barthelmes D, Blumenkranz M, Cheung G, Haller J, et al.
    Am J Ophthalmol, 2016 08;168:1-12.
    PMID: 27131774 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.04.012
    PURPOSE: To define a minimum set of outcome measures for tracking, comparing, and improving macular degeneration care.

    DESIGN: Recommendations from a working group of international experts in macular degeneration outcomes registry development and patient advocates, facilitated by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM).

    METHODS: Modified Delphi technique, supported by structured teleconferences, followed by online surveys to drive consensus decisions. Potential outcomes were identified through literature review of outcomes collected in existing registries and reported in major clinical trials. Outcomes were refined by the working group and selected based on impact on patients, relationship to good clinical care, and feasibility of measurement in routine clinical practice.

    RESULTS: Standardized measurement of the following outcomes is recommended: visual functioning and quality of life (distance visual acuity, mobility and independence, emotional well-being, reading and accessing information); number of treatments; complications of treatment; and disease control. Proposed data collection sources include administrative data, clinical data during routine clinical visits, and patient-reported sources annually. Recording the following clinical characteristics is recommended to enable risk adjustment: age; sex; ethnicity; smoking status; baseline visual acuity in both eyes; type of macular degeneration; presence of geographic atrophy, subretinal fibrosis, or pigment epithelial detachment; previous macular degeneration treatment; ocular comorbidities.

    CONCLUSIONS: The recommended minimum outcomes and pragmatic reporting standards should enable standardized, meaningful assessments and comparisons of macular degeneration treatment outcomes. Adoption could accelerate global improvements in standardized data gathering and reporting of patient-centered outcomes. This can facilitate informed decisions by patients and health care providers, plus allow long-term monitoring of aggregate data, ultimately improving understanding of disease progression and treatment responses.

  8. Lua, G.W., Moy, F.M., Atiya, A.S.
    A cross sectional survey on the assessment of coronary heart disease risks was conducted on a group of security guards in a public university. The objectives were to assess the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among the security staff and to provide advice on CHD prevention and practice of a healthy lifestyle. A face»t0»face questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. The main outcome measure was the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score estimates. The handings showed that 61 participants ( 5 3 .0%) have very high CHD risk factors, while the rest, 38.3% and 8.7% have moderate and low CHD risk factors respectively. With increasing age, there is an increase in total risk score among the target groups. The percentage increases almost 2-fold between the 21-30 and the 31-40 age groups. Majority of the security staff had high CHD risk factors and more efforts and preventive measures must be taken to overcome this situation. Personalised advice was given to participants based on their CHD risks estimates.
  9. Lua PL, Talib NS
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2012;13(1):55-68.
    Objectives: This review aims to compile and evaluate all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of auricular acupuncture (AA) treatment in drug addiction population with emphasis on the length of treatment course, needle-points, outcome measures, reported side-effects and overall outcomes.
    Methods: Science Direct, Medline and EBSCOhost databases were searched. From the year 1990 until 2010, only full-length English articles incorporating RCTs related to AA studies (needle-based only) in drug addiction such as heroin, morphine, methamphetamine and cocaine were included. Studies involving the usage of various methods of electroacupuncture and investigations relating to cigarette-smoking or alcohol addiction were excluded.
    Results: Eight RCTs met all inclusion criteria comprising of 1,594 respondents (age = 19 - 46 years; male = 57% - 76%). Most were involved in cocaine addiction. Overall, trials were designed with brief periods of treatment course and utilised three to five standard National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) points (Sympathetic, Lung, Liver, Kidney and Shen men), but inconsistent sham points. All trials included urine toxicology test as the main outcome measure while data on side-effects incidence was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, four of the RCTs reported positive outcomes although at this point, AA’s effectiveness and safety could not be substantially confirmed. For the future, high-quality RCTs of AA are urgently required to provide a clearer understanding on the usefulness of this complementary therapy in drug addiction treatment.
  10. Loh, S.Y.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):31-34.
    In a clinical controlled trial involving repeated measures of continuous outcomes such as quality of life, distress, pain, activity level at baseline and after treatment, the possibilities of analyzing these outcomes can be numerous with quite varied findings. This paper examined four methods of statistical analysis using data from an outcome study of a clinical controlled trial to contrast the statistical power on those with baseline adjustment. In this study, data from a CCT with women with breast cancer were utilized. The experiment (n=67) and control (n=74) were about equal ratio. Four method of analysis were utilized, two using ANOVA for repeated measures and two using ANCOVA. The multivariate between subjects of the combined dependents variables and the univariate between subjects test were examined to make a judgement of the statistical power of each method. The results showed that ANCOVA has the highest statistical power. ANOVA using raw data is the least power and is the worst method with no evidence of an intervention effect even when the treatment by time interaction is statistically significant. In conclusion, ANOVA using raw data is the worst method with the least power whilst ANCOVA using baseline as covariate has the highest statistical power to detect a treatment effect other than method. The second best method as shown in this study was in using change scores of the repeated measures.
  11. Khoo, S.W., Khoo, S.M., Yeong, Y.K., Towil, B.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(2):29-32.
    According to recently reported outcome studies, functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair are reasonable and comparable to open or mini-open techniques. We report the functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of 10 consecutive patients. The average age was 53.9(range 46-59) years. There was a significant improvement of the function of the shoulder when the preoperative scores were compared with those at the time of at least six months follow-up (range of 6 months to 18 months). With the UCLA rating scale, the average total score increased from preoperative 9.8 (range, 6-15) to postoperative 32.6 (range,23-35). With the use of ASES shoulder index, the average total score improved from 14.6 range, 1.6-35) to 92.3 (range,66.6 to 100). We concluded that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a treatment method in selective patients with symptomatic rotator cuff pathology to alleviate shoulder pain and improve function.
  12. Chang SS, Tong QJ, Beh ZY, Quek KH, Ang BH
    Korean J Anesthesiol, 2018 Aug;71(4):289-295.
    PMID: 29843506 DOI: 10.4097/kja.d.18.00025
    BACKGROUND: The ideal emergency cricothyroidotomy technique remains a topic of ongoing debate. This study aimed to compare the cannula-to-Melker technique with the scalpel-bougie technique and determine whether yearly training in cricothyroidotomy techniques is sufficient for skill retention.

    METHODS: We conducted an observational crossover bench study to compare the cannula-to-Melker with the scalpel-bougie technique in a porcine tracheal model. Twenty-eight anesthetists participated. The primary outcome was time taken for device insertion. Secondary outcomes were first-pass success rate, incidence of tracheal trauma, and technique preference. We also compared the data on outcome measures with the data obtained in a similar workshop a year ago.

    RESULTS: The scalpel-bougie technique was significantly faster than the cannula-to-Melker technique for cricothyroidotomy (median time of 45.2 s vs. 101.3 s; P = 0.001). Both techniques had 100% success rate within two attempts; there were no significant differences in the first-pass success rates and incidence of tracheal wall trauma (P > 0.999 and P = 0.727, respectively) between them. The relative risks of inflicting tracheal wall trauma after a failed cricothyroidotomy attempt were 6.9 (95% CI 1.5-31.1), 2.3 (95% CI 0.3-20.7) and 3.0 (95% CI 0.3-25.9) for the scalpel-bougie, cannula-cricothyroidotomy, and Melker-Seldinger airway, respectively. The insertion time and incidence of tracheal wall trauma were lower when the present data were compared with data from a similar workshop conducted the previous year.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of a scalpel-bougie technique for cricothyroidotomy by anesthetists and advocates a yearly training program for skill retention.

  13. Nik Rosmawati N, Wan Manan W, Noor Izani N, Nik Nurain N, Razlina A
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2119-2128.
    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a newly developed food safety education to improve the handwashing
    practices of food handlers in school canteens. A community-based intervention study was carried out over a 2-year period.
    Sixteen out of 98 primary schools were randomly selected and assigned into intervention and control groups using a
    simple random sampling method. The study population included food handlers who worked in the canteens of the school
    selected. The Food Safety Education Programme (FSEP) for the intervention group was developed based on the theory of
    planned behaviour. The main outcome measures used were handwashing practices from the observations carried out at
    baseline, 6-weeks (Post1) and 12-weeks (Post2) after the intervention. Out of 79 food handlers who participated in this
    study, 33 (41.8%) were in the intervention group and 46 (58.2%) were in the control group. Prior to FSEP, handwashing
    was not commonly practiced following critical events and the majority did not perform correctly. The time-effect of the
    mixed design analysis of variance showed a significant increase (p=0.004) in the mean percentage of the total observed
    handwashing practices from 29% at the baseline to 50.8% at Post1 (p=0.004). However, the intervention-effect of mixed
    design ANOVA did not show any significant difference in the handwashing practices (p=0.210). The FSEP was effective in
    improving the handwashing practices of the food handlers in the selected primary school canteens.
  14. Lua PL, Wan Putri Elena WD
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):4-14.
    PMID: 22977369 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future.
  15. Hatah E, Braund R, Tordoff J, Duffull SB
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2014 Jan;77(1):102-15.
    PMID: 23594037 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12140
    The aim was to examine the impact of fee-for-service pharmacist-led medication review on patient outcomes and quantify this according to the type of review undertaken, e.g. adherence support and clinical medication review.
  16. Suthahar A, Gurpreet K, Ambigga D, Maniam T, Dhachayani S, Fuad I, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Jul;50(7):720-3.
    PMID: 19644630
    The aim of this paper was to determine the sociodemographic and cancer characteristics of patients with cancer at a tertiary care centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  17. Gendeh BS, Salina H, Selladurai B, Jegan T
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Aug;62(3):234-7.
    PMID: 18246914 MyJurnal
    Craniofacial resection is commonly performed in the surgical resection of sinonasal tumours involving anterior skull base. It entails a bicoronal scalp flap with lateral rhinotomy or an extended lateral rhinotomy to expose the anterior skull base. Transfacial approach is necessary in the resection of the nasal part of the tumour. The choice of surgical approach is based heavily on the surgeon's experience and training. The results of endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection for sinonasal tumours performed in our center in eight patients from 1998 to 2005 were reviewed. There were seven males and one female with age ranging from 18 to 62 years (mean 42.4 years). There was each a case of mature teratoma, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, inverted papilloma and two cases of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. The mean follow up duration for these eight patients post surgery was 21.4 months. Out of eight patients, five underwent surgery with no adverse complications. The complications encountered were a cerebrospinal leak and a postoperative transient V and VI cranial nerve palsy. One patient with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma died of lung metastasis at 11 months post-surgery. The endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection is a highly useful surgical technique to avoid the unsightly facial scar of the lateral rhinotomy or the Weber-Ferguson incision, postoperative paranasal sinuses infection and avoidance of tracheostomy in selected cases. We found that this approach has lower morbidity rate in selected cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
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