Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 162 in total

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  1. Lim SY, Tan AH
    Parkinsonism Relat. Disord., 2018 Jan;46 Suppl 1:S47-S52.
    PMID: 28793970 DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.07.029
    BACKGROUND: Conventional outcome measures (COMs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) refer to rating scales, questionnaires, patient diaries and clinically-based tests that do not require specialized equipment.

    METHODS: It is timely at this juncture - as clinicians and researchers begin to grapple with the "invasion" of digital technologies - to review the strengths and weaknesses of these outcome measures.

    RESULTS: This paper discusses advances (including an enhanced understanding of PD itself, and the development of clinimetrics as a field) that have led to improvements in the COMs used in PD; their strengths and limitations; and factors to consider when selecting and using a measuring instrument.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is envisaged that in the future, a combination of COMs and technology-based objective measures will be utilized, with different methods having their own strengths and weaknesses. Judgement is required on the part of the clinician and researcher in terms of which instrument(s) are appropriate to use, depending on the particular clinical or research setting or question.

    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  2. Mohd Amran, Mohd Radzi, Zai Peng, Goh, Hashim, Hizam
    MyJurnal
    This paper presents a voltage flicker estimation based on a pair of inter-harmonics analysis method. The proposed algorithm is able to estimate flicker frequency and amplitude changes of a voltage waveform. The correlation of the pair of inter-harmonics, flicker frequency, and amplitude changes are presented and their formulas highlighted. .Experimental results indicate the amplitude of pair of inter-harmonics can detect the voltage flicker. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with the measurement results obtained by using the Fluke power analyzer (Pst).
  3. Haron NH, Taib NA, Yip CH
    ANZ J Surg, 2008 Nov;78(11):943-4.
    PMID: 18959689 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04709.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  4. Santos J, Palumbo F, Molsen-David E, Willke RJ, Binder L, Drummond M, et al.
    Value Health, 2017 12;20(10):1227-1242.
    PMID: 29241881 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2017.10.018
    As the leading health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) professional society, ISPOR has a responsibility to establish a uniform, harmonized international code for ethical conduct. ISPOR has updated its 2008 Code of Ethics to reflect the current research environment. This code addresses what is acceptable and unacceptable in research, from inception to the dissemination of its results. There are nine chapters: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Ethical Principles respect, beneficence and justice with reference to a non-exhaustive compilation of international, regional, and country-specific guidelines and standards; 3 - Scope HEOR definitions and how HEOR and the Code relate to other research fields; 4 - Research Design Considerations primary and secondary data related issues, e.g., participant recruitment, population and research setting, sample size/site selection, incentive/honorarium, administration databases, registration of retrospective observational studies and modeling studies; 5 - Data Considerations privacy and data protection, combining, verification and transparency of research data, scientific misconduct, etc.; 6 - Sponsorship and Relationships with Others (roles of researchers, sponsors, key opinion leaders and advisory board members, research participants and institutional review boards (IRBs) / independent ethics committees (IECs) approval and responsibilities); 7 - Patient Centricity and Patient Engagement new addition, with explanation and guidance; 8 - Publication and Dissemination; and 9 - Conclusion and Limitations.
  5. Mohandas, K., Nur Farhana, M.Y., Vikram, M., Sundaresan, A.N., Potturi Gowri, S., Mahendran, J.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(1):80-84.
    MyJurnal
    Trophic ulcers have emerged as one of the major complications following diabetes mellitus (DM) and Hansen’s diseases (HD). In this case series, the study attempted total contact plaster boot using a readily available plaster of Paris to treat trophic ulcer for 10 subjects. A total of five subjects with DM and five subjects with HD were included based on the study criteria. Pre and post test measure of wound measurement size following total contact plaster boot were taken as an outcome measure. All ten subjects showed decrease in size of wound following fifteen days of treatment. No adverse effects were associated with this type of treatment. Subjects with trophic ulcer may benefit from the application of total contact plaster boot.
  6. Rodrigues IA, Sprinkhuizen SM, Barthelmes D, Blumenkranz M, Cheung G, Haller J, et al.
    Am. J. Ophthalmol., 2016 08;168:1-12.
    PMID: 27131774 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.04.012
    PURPOSE: To define a minimum set of outcome measures for tracking, comparing, and improving macular degeneration care.

    DESIGN: Recommendations from a working group of international experts in macular degeneration outcomes registry development and patient advocates, facilitated by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM).

    METHODS: Modified Delphi technique, supported by structured teleconferences, followed by online surveys to drive consensus decisions. Potential outcomes were identified through literature review of outcomes collected in existing registries and reported in major clinical trials. Outcomes were refined by the working group and selected based on impact on patients, relationship to good clinical care, and feasibility of measurement in routine clinical practice.

    RESULTS: Standardized measurement of the following outcomes is recommended: visual functioning and quality of life (distance visual acuity, mobility and independence, emotional well-being, reading and accessing information); number of treatments; complications of treatment; and disease control. Proposed data collection sources include administrative data, clinical data during routine clinical visits, and patient-reported sources annually. Recording the following clinical characteristics is recommended to enable risk adjustment: age; sex; ethnicity; smoking status; baseline visual acuity in both eyes; type of macular degeneration; presence of geographic atrophy, subretinal fibrosis, or pigment epithelial detachment; previous macular degeneration treatment; ocular comorbidities.

    CONCLUSIONS: The recommended minimum outcomes and pragmatic reporting standards should enable standardized, meaningful assessments and comparisons of macular degeneration treatment outcomes. Adoption could accelerate global improvements in standardized data gathering and reporting of patient-centered outcomes. This can facilitate informed decisions by patients and health care providers, plus allow long-term monitoring of aggregate data, ultimately improving understanding of disease progression and treatment responses.

  7. Lua PL, Wan Putri Elena WD
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):4-14.
    PMID: 22977369 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of studies on the effectiveness nutrition education interventions used by college students. Electronic databases such as Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar were explored for articles that involved nutrition education interventions for college students and that were published between 1990 and 2011. Fourteen studies, which involved a total of 1668 college students as respondents, were identified and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were 3 major forms of nutrition education interventions: web-based education, lectures, and supplement provisions. Dietary intake measures were used in almost all studies and were primarily collected with food records, recall, food frequency questionnaires, and dietary habit questionnaires. The outcome measures varied among the studies, with indicators such as consumption of food, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, physical activity, and quality of life. Methodological issues were also identified. In general, college students experienced significant changes in their dietary habits after the interventions were employed. The highlighted methodological issues should be considered to improve the quality of similar research in future.
  8. Loh, S.Y.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):31-34.
    MyJurnal
    In a clinical controlled trial involving repeated measures of continuous outcomes such as quality of life, distress, pain, activity level at baseline and after treatment, the possibilities of analyzing these outcomes can be numerous with quite varied findings. This paper examined four methods of statistical analysis using data from an outcome study of a clinical controlled trial to contrast the statistical power on those with baseline adjustment. In this study, data from a CCT with women with breast cancer were utilized. The experiment (n=67) and control (n=74) were about equal ratio. Four method of analysis were utilized, two using ANOVA for repeated measures and two using ANCOVA. The multivariate between subjects of the combined dependents variables and the univariate between subjects test were examined to make a judgement of the statistical power of each method. The results showed that ANCOVA has the highest statistical power. ANOVA using raw data is the least power and is the worst method with no evidence of an intervention effect even when the treatment by time interaction is statistically significant. In conclusion, ANOVA using raw data is the worst method with the least power whilst ANCOVA using baseline as covariate has the highest statistical power to detect a treatment effect other than method. The second best method as shown in this study was in using change scores of the repeated measures.
  9. Khoo, S.W., Khoo, S.M., Yeong, Y.K., Towil, B.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(2):29-32.
    MyJurnal
    According to recently reported outcome studies, functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair are reasonable and comparable to open or mini-open techniques. We report the functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of 10 consecutive patients. The average age was 53.9(range 46-59) years. There was a significant improvement of the function of the shoulder when the preoperative scores were compared with those at the time of at least six months follow-up (range of 6 months to 18 months). With the UCLA rating scale, the average total score increased from preoperative 9.8 (range, 6-15) to postoperative 32.6 (range,23-35). With the use of ASES shoulder index, the average total score improved from 14.6 range, 1.6-35) to 92.3 (range,66.6 to 100). We concluded that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a treatment method in selective patients with symptomatic rotator cuff pathology to alleviate shoulder pain and improve function.
  10. Lua, G.W., Moy, F.M., Atiya, A.S.
    MyJurnal
    A cross sectional survey on the assessment of coronary heart disease risks was conducted on a group of security guards in a public university. The objectives were to assess the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among the security staff and to provide advice on CHD prevention and practice of a healthy lifestyle. A face»t0»face questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. The main outcome measure was the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score estimates. The handings showed that 61 participants ( 5 3 .0%) have very high CHD risk factors, while the rest, 38.3% and 8.7% have moderate and low CHD risk factors respectively. With increasing age, there is an increase in total risk score among the target groups. The percentage increases almost 2-fold between the 21-30 and the 31-40 age groups. Majority of the security staff had high CHD risk factors and more efforts and preventive measures must be taken to overcome this situation. Personalised advice was given to participants based on their CHD risks estimates.
  11. Andrew BN, Guan NC, Jaafar NRN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(8):877-887.
    PMID: 28322161 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170317162603
    BACKGROUND: One of the goals of cancer treatment is symptoms management especially at the end stage. The common symptoms in cancer include pain, fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. The available treatment options for symptom management are limited. Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant, may be of benefit for these patients. In this report, we review the use of methylphenidate for symptoms control in cancer patients.

    METHOD: Electronic literature search on PubMed was conducted using the following keywords: methylphenidate, cancer, carcinoma, oncology, oncological and tumour. We identified forty two relevant studies and publications on the use of methylphenidate in cancer patients to be included in this review.

    RESULTS: Methylphenidate was found to have some evidence in reducing opioid-induced sedation, improving cognitive symptoms and reduction of fatigue in cancer patients. Nevertheless, the results were inconsistent due to variations in the study populations, study design and outcome measures, among others. There was minimal evidence on its use in treating depression. Otherwise, methylphenidate was generally well-tolerated by patients.

    CONCLUSION: This review potentially supports the use of methylphenidate for opioid-induced sedation, cognitive decline and fatigue in cancer patients. Further placebo-controlled trials would help in strengthening the evidence for this treatment.

  12. Chang SS, Tong QJ, Beh ZY, Quek KH, Ang BH
    Korean J Anesthesiol, 2018 Aug;71(4):289-295.
    PMID: 29843506 DOI: 10.4097/kja.d.18.00025
    BACKGROUND: The ideal emergency cricothyroidotomy technique remains a topic of ongoing debate. This study aimed to compare the cannula-to-Melker technique with the scalpel-bougie technique and determine whether yearly training in cricothyroidotomy techniques is sufficient for skill retention.

    METHODS: We conducted an observational crossover bench study to compare the cannula-to-Melker with the scalpel-bougie technique in a porcine tracheal model. Twenty-eight anesthetists participated. The primary outcome was time taken for device insertion. Secondary outcomes were first-pass success rate, incidence of tracheal trauma, and technique preference. We also compared the data on outcome measures with the data obtained in a similar workshop a year ago.

    RESULTS: The scalpel-bougie technique was significantly faster than the cannula-to-Melker technique for cricothyroidotomy (median time of 45.2 s vs. 101.3 s; P = 0.001). Both techniques had 100% success rate within two attempts; there were no significant differences in the first-pass success rates and incidence of tracheal wall trauma (P > 0.999 and P = 0.727, respectively) between them. The relative risks of inflicting tracheal wall trauma after a failed cricothyroidotomy attempt were 6.9 (95% CI 1.5-31.1), 2.3 (95% CI 0.3-20.7) and 3.0 (95% CI 0.3-25.9) for the scalpel-bougie, cannula-cricothyroidotomy, and Melker-Seldinger airway, respectively. The insertion time and incidence of tracheal wall trauma were lower when the present data were compared with data from a similar workshop conducted the previous year.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of a scalpel-bougie technique for cricothyroidotomy by anesthetists and advocates a yearly training program for skill retention.

  13. Azami G, Lam SK, Shariff-Ghazali S, Said SM, Aazami S, Mozafari M, et al.
    Arch Iran Med, 2018 Aug 01;21(8):356-361.
    PMID: 30113857
    BACKGROUND: The theory if self-efficacy is the central concept of social cognitive theory with emphasis on the constructs of efficacy expectation, outcome expectation. Efficacy expectation is defined as the person's confidence to carry out a specific behavior. Outcome expectation is beliefs that carrying out a specific behavior will lead to a specific outcome. While the benefit of measuring outcome expectations has been established, there has been no large scale within the Iranian context. The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability-validity of the Persian version of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES).

    METHODS: This study was conducted among 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a self-administered instrument measuring outcome expectation. We used a methodological study design to assess the validity and reliability of the translated Persian version of the instrument.

    RESULTS: The findings of the present study support the uni-dimensionality of the Persian version of the instrument. The 10 items of the scale account for 73.54% of the total variance and the un-rotated factor loadings ranged from 0.66 to 0.93. Moreover, this study offers support for convergent validity and internal consistency of the scale.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated good convergent validity, factor structure and internal consistency in a sample of 160 Iranian adults with T2DM. Therefore, the Persian version of the scale is a valid and reliable instrument and can be used in research and clinical settings.

  14. Pszczolkowski S, Law ZK, Gallagher RG, Meng D, Swienton DJ, Morgan PS, et al.
    Comput. Biol. Med., 2019 Mar;106:126-139.
    PMID: 30711800 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.01.022
    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. Segmentation of haematoma and perihaematoma oedema on medical images provides quantitative outcome measures for clinical trials and may provide important markers of prognosis in people with SICH.

    METHODS: We take advantage of improved contrast seen on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with acute and early subacute SICH and introduce an automated algorithm for haematoma and oedema segmentation from these images. To our knowledge, there is no previously proposed segmentation technique for SICH that utilises MR images directly. The method is based on shape and intensity analysis for haematoma segmentation and voxel-wise dynamic thresholding of hyper-intensities for oedema segmentation.

    RESULTS: Using Dice scores to measure segmentation overlaps between labellings yielded by the proposed algorithm and five different expert raters on 18 patients, we observe that our technique achieves overlap scores that are very similar to those obtained by pairwise expert rater comparison. A further comparison between the proposed method and a state-of-the-art Deep Learning segmentation on a separate set of 32 manually annotated subjects confirms the proposed method can achieve comparable results with very mild computational burden and in a completely training-free and unsupervised way.

    CONCLUSION: Our technique can be a computationally light and effective way to automatically delineate haematoma and oedema extent directly from MR images. Thus, with increasing use of MR images clinically after intracerebral haemorrhage this technique has the potential to inform clinical practice in the future.

  15. Chuah SK, Lim CS, Liang CM, Lu HI, Wu KL, Changchien CS, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:8549187.
    PMID: 30881999 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8549187
    Over the past few decades, there was an encouraging breakthrough in bridging the gap between advancements in the evolution of diagnosis and treatment towards a better outcome in achalasia. The purpose of this review is to provide updated knowledge on how the current evidence has bridged the gap between advancements in the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia. The advent of high-resolution manometry and standardization based on the Chicago classification has increased early recognition of the disease. These 3 clinical subtypes of achalasia can predict the outcomes of patients, and the introduction of POEM has revolutionized the choice of treatment. Previous evidence has shown that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and anterior fundoplication were considered the most durable treatments for achalasia. Based on the current evidence, POEM has been evolving as a promising strategy and is effective against all 3 types of achalasia, but the efficacy of POEM is based on short- and medium-term outcome studies from a limited number of centers. Types I and II achalasia respond well to POEM, LHM, and PD, while most studies have shown that type III achalasia responds better to POEM than to LHM and PD. In general, among the 3 subtypes of achalasia, type II achalasia has the most favorable outcomes after medical or surgical therapies. The long-term efficacy of POEM is still unknown. The novel ENDOFLIP measures the changes in intraoperative esophagogastric junction dispensability, which enables a quantitative assessment of luminal patency and sphincter distension; however, this technology is in its infancy with little data to date supporting its intraoperative use. In the future, identifying immunomodulatory drugs and the advent of stem cell therapeutic treatments, including theoretically transplanting neuronal stem cells, may achieve a functional cure. In summary, it is important to identify the clinical subtype of achalasia to initiate target therapy for these patients.
  16. Engkasan J, Ahmad-Fauzi A, Sabirin S, Chai CC, Abdul-Malek IZ, Liguori S, et al.
    PMID: 30961345 DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.19.05792-7
    BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) serves as a framework for defining and categorising health and functioning. ICF could be used to classify research outcomes in a systematic manner.

    AIM: To classify the primary outcomes used in Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs) into the ICF domains of functioning; to describe the differences in primary outcomes in reviews related to rehabilitation intervention and non-rehabilitation intervention; and to describe the trend of outcome selections according year of publication.

    DESIGN: Methodological paper.

    SETTING: Not applicable.

    POPULATION: Adult stroke population.

    METHODS: We analysed the primary outcomes used in the CSRs published by the Cochrane Stroke Review Group up to December 2017. The primary outcomes were extracted and classified into the ICF domains of functioning (body functions, body structures and activity and participation).

    RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-four papers with 216 primary outcomes were included in this analysis. Less than half (102/216, 47.2%) of the outcomes could be classified into the ICF domains of functioning. For the outcomes that could be classified into the ICF domains, the majority (72/102, 70.5%) were in the activity and participation domain, followed by body functions (26/102, 25.5%) and body structures (4/102, 4.0%). Of the outcomes that could not be classified into the ICF domains (n=114), death (81/114, 71.1%) and recurrent stroke (21/114,18.4%) formed the majority of the outcome. There were 75 CSRs on rehabilitation related interventions; the majority of the outcomes (75/97, 77.3%) used in rehabilitation related CSRs could be classified into the ICF framework with more than half (49/75, 65.3%) in the activity and participation domain.

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the primary outcomes selected by the Cochrane Stroke Review Group in their CSRs could not be classified into the ICF domains of functioning. Death and recurrence of vascular events remains the major outcome of interest. In rehabilitation related interventions, activity and participation domain is the functioning domain most commonly used.

    CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: The systematic use of patients-centred ICF-based outcomes in CSRs could help the application of evidence in clinical decision making.

  17. Hatah E, Braund R, Tordoff J, Duffull SB
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2014 Jan;77(1):102-15.
    PMID: 23594037 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12140
    The aim was to examine the impact of fee-for-service pharmacist-led medication review on patient outcomes and quantify this according to the type of review undertaken, e.g. adherence support and clinical medication review.
  18. Yew BS, Ong WC, Chow WC, Lui HF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Aug;62(3):201-5.
    PMID: 18246907
    This retrospective study evaluated patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Singapore General Hospital for variceal bleeding in the year 2004. Improvement in outcome of variceal bleeding has been reported in the West. There is no regional data on this condition. This study aims to determine the characteristics and outcome of variceal bleeding in a tertiary hospital in Southeast Asia. Twenty-two patients were eligible. The main aetiologies of liver cirrhosis were chronic hepatitis B (38%) and alcohol (33%). Child's A, B and C were 29%, 48% and 24% respectively. Nineteen patients (86%) had bleeding oesophageal varices (band ligation performed). The remaining three patients (14%) had bleeding gastric varices (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection performed). Detailed description of certain endoscopic findings was absent in up to 18 patients (82%). All patients received antibiotics and vasoactive drug. In-hospital mortality and rebleeding were 9% and 18% respectively. We conclude that the relatively low in-hospital mortality and rebleeding rates in our series are most probably due to the smaller proportion of patients with severe liver dysfunction and management which adhered to recommendations. Documentation of endoscopic findings needs to be improved to facilitate the continuation of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  19. Gendeh BS, Salina H, Selladurai B, Jegan T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Aug;62(3):234-7.
    PMID: 18246914 MyJurnal
    Craniofacial resection is commonly performed in the surgical resection of sinonasal tumours involving anterior skull base. It entails a bicoronal scalp flap with lateral rhinotomy or an extended lateral rhinotomy to expose the anterior skull base. Transfacial approach is necessary in the resection of the nasal part of the tumour. The choice of surgical approach is based heavily on the surgeon's experience and training. The results of endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection for sinonasal tumours performed in our center in eight patients from 1998 to 2005 were reviewed. There were seven males and one female with age ranging from 18 to 62 years (mean 42.4 years). There was each a case of mature teratoma, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, inverted papilloma and two cases of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. The mean follow up duration for these eight patients post surgery was 21.4 months. Out of eight patients, five underwent surgery with no adverse complications. The complications encountered were a cerebrospinal leak and a postoperative transient V and VI cranial nerve palsy. One patient with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma died of lung metastasis at 11 months post-surgery. The endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection is a highly useful surgical technique to avoid the unsightly facial scar of the lateral rhinotomy or the Weber-Ferguson incision, postoperative paranasal sinuses infection and avoidance of tracheostomy in selected cases. We found that this approach has lower morbidity rate in selected cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
  20. Chan CY, Kwan MK, Saravanan S, Saw LB, Deepak AS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):33-5.
    PMID: 17682567 MyJurnal
    Assessment of the curve flexibility is a crucial step in a surgeon's pre-operative planning for scoliosis surgery. Many techniques have been described. These include traction films, supine side bending films, push prone techniques, traction under general anaesthesia as well as fulcrum bending film. In this study, we studied the pre- and immediate post-operative radiographs of twenty eight adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who were corrected using pedicle screw systems between January 2004 and August 2006. There were twenty two females and six male patients. The mean age of the patients were 17.5 years with a range of 12 to 38 years. Skeletal maturity of the patients was assessed by Risser's score. The majority was Risser 4 (15 cases, 53.6%). Based on King and Moe's classification, the most common curve was type 3 curve (15 cases, 53.6%). Among the twenty eight patients, twenty three patients underwent only posterior correction, while 5 patients underwent additional anterior release surgery. The mean pre-operative Cobb's angle for the posterior surgery group was 65.5 +/- 13.9 degrees and the mean post-operative Cobb's angle was 32.9 +/- 12.6 degrees. There was no difference between the mean correction estimated by fulcrum bending films (Fulcrum Flexibility) and the post- operative Correction Rate figures (44.2% vs. 49.9%). The mean Fulcrum Bending Correction Index (FBCI) in this group of patients is 112.8%. In the group of patients who underwent additional anterior release, their curves were noted to be larger and less flexible with the mean pre-operative Cobb's angle and Fulcrum Flexibility of 90.4 degrees +/- 9.3 degrees and 23.4% respectively. The Fulcrum Bending Correction Index (FBCI) for this group of patients was significantly higher than the posterior surgery group: i.e. 164.0% vs 112.8%. Thus, anterior release does help to improve the correction significantly. The fulcrum bending films give good pre-operative estimation of the amount of correction to be expected post-operatively. The fulcrum bending films can help to identify the curve types which might require anterior release in order to improve the scoliosis correction. Using the Fulcrum Bending Correction Index (FBCI) will also enable surgeons to quantify more accurately the amount of correction achieved by taking into account the inherent flexibility of the spine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Outcome Assessment (Health Care)*
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