Inverted papillomas (IPs), although histologically benign, are aggressive lesions that may recur after excision. They usually present as unilateral firm, bulky, red and vascular masses. The objective of this case series is to discuss the surgical treatment options for IPs and to review the literature with a special emphasis on our experience with endoscopic medial maxillectomy. A retrospective review of the data of patients with IP treated by endoscopic medial maxillectomy was performed. This report describes the surgical experience with five patients with IP arising from various sites on the lateral nasal wall. Data points collected included age, sex, location(s) and histopathological diagnosis (benign IP vs IP with dysplasia or carcinoma). The surgical treatment strategy, need for adjunct approaches, complications, recurrence rates and length of follow-up were determined. The average age was 51.2 years (range, 35-62 years), with four males and one female. All cases were managed with endoscopic medial maxillectomy as the primary surgical modality. Adjunctive approaches included endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) in two patients who presented with epiphora post-operatively. Intra-operative frozen section was performed in all cases to ensure complete tumor removal. No intra-operative complications were encountered. No recurrences were noted in these patients, with a mean follow-up period of 23 months.
Intranasal haemangioma is quite rare. This tumor may be confused with other intranasal vascular tumor such as juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), glomus tumors as well as other tumor such as angiosarcoma and leiomyoma. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is the most common vascular tumor encountered in nasal cavity. A definitive histology diagnosis pre-operatively is difficult to be obtained as the biopsy may lead into severe uncontrolled bleeding. The final diagnosis very much depends on histology after the tumor excision. Complete surgical resection of the tumor is the standard approach. In this report we describe our surgical management in approaching intranasal haemangioma endoscopically and this pathology can be considered as one of differential diagnosis for unilateral nasal mass.
Chronic subdural hematoma as a complication of lumbar drain placement for the management of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak has not been previously documented in the literature. We describe such a case in a 69-year-old man who presented with right nasal obstruction secondary to an inverted papilloma involving the paranasal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, which included a medial maxillectomy. Surgery was complicated by a small CSF leak, which was repaired intraoperatively. Five days later, the patient experienced CSF rhinorrhea, and a lumbar drain was inserted. He developed overdrainage symptoms but was well when he was discharged. However, 22 days later he returned with right hemiparesis. Computed tomography of the brain showed a left frontoparietal subdural hematoma with a mass effect. The neurosurgical team performed an emergency drainage procedure, and the patient experienced a complete neurologic recovery. We discuss the pitfalls of lumbar drainage, the possible pathophysiology of overdrainage, and the lessons learned from this case.
Craniofacial resection is commonly performed in the surgical resection of sinonasal tumours involving anterior skull base. It entails a bicoronal scalp flap with lateral rhinotomy or an extended lateral rhinotomy to expose the anterior skull base. Transfacial approach is necessary in the resection of the nasal part of the tumour. The choice of surgical approach is based heavily on the surgeon's experience and training. The results of endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection for sinonasal tumours performed in our center in eight patients from 1998 to 2005 were reviewed. There were seven males and one female with age ranging from 18 to 62 years (mean 42.4 years). There was each a case of mature teratoma, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, inverted papilloma and two cases of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. The mean follow up duration for these eight patients post surgery was 21.4 months. Out of eight patients, five underwent surgery with no adverse complications. The complications encountered were a cerebrospinal leak and a postoperative transient V and VI cranial nerve palsy. One patient with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma died of lung metastasis at 11 months post-surgery. The endoscopic-assisted craniofacial resection is a highly useful surgical technique to avoid the unsightly facial scar of the lateral rhinotomy or the Weber-Ferguson incision, postoperative paranasal sinuses infection and avoidance of tracheostomy in selected cases. We found that this approach has lower morbidity rate in selected cases.
Hemangiopericytoma is a very rare angiogenic tumor. In the nasal cavity, it can be considered malignant. It occurs in various parts of the body but those in the nasal cavity account for only 5% of total cases. Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide involving the nose and paranasal sinuses. Due to its rarity a proper line of management has not been established to tackle this tumour. This article highlights two cases of hemangiopericytoma (HPC), one in an adult and the other in a child, presenting as an intranasal mass.
We studied nine cases of SNUCs presented to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia from 1999 to 2003. There were 8 males and 1 female with ages ranging from 24 to 78 years (mean 46.5y). The racial distribution consisted of 5 Chinese (55.5%), 3 Malays (33.3%) and 1 Indian (11.1%). Three patients were Kadish B (33.3%) and six were Kadish C (66.6%) by classification. In our series 2 years survival was 26.3% and median survival time was 14.2 months.
Nonchromaffin paragangliomas are unusual tumours arising from widely distributed paraganglionic tissues probably of neural crest origin. In the head and neck region they are usually seen as carotid body or jugulotympanic tumours. Other rarely reported sites in the head and neck region are the orbit, nose and larynx. This report deals with a case of sinonasal paraganglioma which was initially treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty two years later the tumour recurred and showed a rapid growth due to malignant transformation which we believe is late effect of radiotherapy. The clinical features, histopathology and role of radiotherapy in sinonasal paragangliomas together with a review of the medical literature have been discussed.
The term tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion is used to describe an unusual fibrosclerosing disorder that behaves in a malignant way clinically but is histologically benign. Lesions in the head and neck are believed to be part of the broader fibrosclerosing syndrome which include pseudotumour of the orbit, Reidel's thyroiditis, sclerosing cholangitis and mediastinal fibrosis. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult and relies heavily on histopathology. Steroid therapy is suggested as the first line of management, while surgery or radiation therapy is reserved for failures.
The frustration and disappointment in managing advanced cancers of the nose and paranasal sinuses are well known. We report a case of a successful treatment of such a tumour in a 37-year-old soldier, using a combination of therapy including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Each mode of treatment is discussed.
We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child. It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).