Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. See HQ, Chan JN, Ling SJ, Gan SC, Leong CO, Mai CW
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2018;21(1):217-221.
    PMID: 29935548 DOI: 10.18433/jpps29869
    Big data is anticipated to have large implications in clinical pharmacy, in view of its potential in enhancing precision medicine and to avoid medication error. However, it is equally debatable since such a powerful tool may also disrupt the need of pharmacist in healthcare industry. In this article, we commented the contribution of Big Data in various aspects of clinical pharmacy including advancing pharmaceutical care service, optimising drug supplies, managing clinical trials, and strengthening pharmacovigilance. The future direction of the usage of Big Data related to clinical pharmacy will be discussed. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  2. Jamshed SQ
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2014 Jun;22(3):234-5.
    PMID: 24825117 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12072
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/ethics*
    Pharm J, 1946 Oct 26;103(4330):265 passim.
    PMID: 21002932
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services*
  4. Tan CL, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Shafie AA, Aljadhey H, Gan VB
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2015 Apr-Jun;13(3):598.
    PMID: 26445622 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2015.03.598
    (i) To develop the Pharmacy Value-Added Services Questionnaire (PVASQ) using emerging themes generated from interviews. (ii) To establish reliability and validity of questionnaire instrument.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  5. Hui Meng Er, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Peter CK Pook
    Background: The widespread use of multiple choice questions (MCQ) in examinations is attributed to its logistical advantage and broad coverage of content within a short duration. The end-of-semester examinations for several modules in the pharmacy programme previously employed a combination of written examination tools including MCQ, short answer questions (SAQ) or essays for assessing learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Concerns regarding assessment fatigue and subjectivity in marking have led to a review of the assessment formats in the examinations. Various types of MCQ were consequently introduced as the only assessment tool. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of students in the examinations as a result of the change.

    Methodology: Analyses were carried out on the end-ofsemester examination results of two cohorts of students for each module, one based on a combination of MCQ, SAQ or essay and the other based on MCQ alone. The class means were compared, and t-test was used to determine the difference between the performances.

    Results: Although the difference in the mean scores of the two groups is statistically significant in 13 of the 20 modules, the difference is less than 5% in 10 modules.

    Conclusion: The findings provide evidence that wellconstructed MCQ can effectively assess cognitive skills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  6. Winit-Watjana W
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Dec;24(6):428-436.
    PMID: 27339891 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12281
    OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research.

    KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/trends*
  7. Ali Jadoo SA, Aljunid SM, Nur AM, Ahmed Z, Van Dort D
    Daru, 2015 Feb 10;23:14.
    PMID: 25889668 DOI: 10.1186/s40199-014-0075-4
    BACKGROUND: The service weight is among several issues and challenges in the implementation of case-mix in developing countries, including Malaysia. The aim of this study is to develop the Malaysian Diagnosis Related Group (MY-DRG) case-mix pharmacy service weight in University Kebangsaan Malaysia-Medical Center (UKMMC) by identifying the actual cost of pharmacy services by MY-DRG groups in the hospital.

    METHODS: All patients admitted to UKMMC in 2011 were recruited in this study. Combination of Step-down and Bottom-up costing methodology has been used in this study. The drug and supplies cost; the cost of staff; the overhead cost; and the equipment cost make up the four components of pharmacy. Direct costing approach has been employed to calculate Drugs and supplies cost from electronic-prescription system; and the inpatient pharmacy staff cost, while the overhead cost and the pharmacy equipments cost have been calculated indirectly from MY-DRG data base. The total pharmacy cost was obtained by summing the four pharmacy components' cost per each MY-DRG. The Pharmacy service weight of a MY-DRG was estimated by dividing the average pharmacy cost of the investigated MY-DRG on the average of a specified MY-DRG (which usually the average pharmacy cost of all MY-DRGs).

    RESULTS: Drugs and supplies were the main component (86.0%) of pharmacy cost compared o overhead cost centers (7.3%), staff cost (6.5%) and pharmacy equipments (0.2%) respectively. Out of 789 inpatient MY-DRGs case-mix groups, 450 (57.0%) groups were utilized by the UKMMC. Pharmacy service weight has been calculated for each of these 450 MY-DRGs groups. MY-DRG case-mix group of Lymphoma & Chronic Leukemia group with severity level three (C-4-11-III) has the highest pharmacy service weight of 11.8 equivalents to average pharmacy cost of RM 5383.90. While the MY-DRG case-mix group for Circumcision with severity level one (V-1-15-I) has the lowest pharmacy service weight of 0.04 equivalents to average pharmacy cost of RM 17.83.

    CONCLUSION: A mixed approach which is based partly on top-down and partly on bottom up costing methodology has been recruited to develop MY-DRG case-mix pharmacy service weight for 450 groups utilized by the UKMMC in 2011.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/economics*
  8. Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2012 Jun 18;76(5):93.
    PMID: 22761534 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe76593
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration
  9. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Malik S, Balkrishnan R
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 11 18;13(2):399.
    PMID: 27884658 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.10.019
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/standards
  10. Tiong JJ, Mai CW, Gan PW, Johnson J, Mak VS
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2016 Aug;24(4):302-5.
    PMID: 26777986 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12244
    This article serves as an update to the work by Shafie et al. (2012) which previously reviewed the benefits of policies separating prescribing and dispensing in various countries to advocate its implementation in Malaysia. This article seeks to strengthen the argument by highlighting not only the weaknesses of the Malaysian health care system from the historical, professional and economic viewpoints but also the shortcomings of both medical and pharmacy professions in the absence of separation of dispensing. It also provides a detailed insight into the ongoing initiatives taken to consolidate the role of pharmacists in the health care system in the advent of separation of dispensing. Under the two tier system in Malaysia at present, the separation of prescribing and dispensing is implemented only in government hospitals. The absence of this separation in the private practices has led to possible profit-oriented medical and pharmacy practices which hinder safe and cost-effective delivery of health services. The call for separation of dispensing has gained traction over the years despite various hurdles ranging from the formidable resistance from the medical fraternity to the public's scepticism towards the new policy. With historical testament and present evidence pointing towards the merits of a system in which doctors prescribe and pharmacists dispense, the implementation of this health care model is justified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/economics; Pharmaceutical Services/legislation & jurisprudence; Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  11. Loh BC, Wah KF, Teo CA, Khairuddin NM, Fairuz FB, Liew JE
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Jan-Mar;15(1):846.
    PMID: 28503218 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.01.846
    BACKGROUND: Value added services (VAS) are an innovative dispensing system created to provide an alternative means of collecting partial drug supply from our hospital. This in turn was projected to reduce the necessity for patient to visit pharmacy counter and thus reduce the burden of prescription handling.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of increased VAS uptake following promotional campaign towards patient waiting time and to explore factors that may affect patient waiting time at the Ambulatory Pharmacy, Queen Elizabeth Hospital.

    METHODS: A quasi experimental study design was conducted from September 2014 till June 2015 at the Ambulatory Pharmacy. During pre-intervention phase, baseline parameters were collected retrospectively. Then, VAS promotional campaign was carried out for six months and whilst this was done, the primary outcome of patient waiting time was measured by percentage of prescription served less than 30 minutes. A linear regression analysis was used to determine the impact of increased VAS uptake towards patient waiting time.

    RESULTS: An increased in percentage of VAS registration (20.9% vs 35.7%, p<0.001) was observed after the promotional campaign. The mean percentage of prescription served less than 30 minutes increased from 83.2% SD=15.9 to 90.3% SD=11.5, p=0.001. After controlling for covariates, it was found that patient waiting time was affected by number of pharmacy technicians (b=-0.0349, 95%CI-0.0548 : -0.0150, p=0.001), number of pharmacy counters (b=0.1125, 95%CI 0.0631 : 0.1620, p<0.001), number of prescriptions (b=0.0008, 95%CI 0.0004 : 0.0011, p<0.001), and number of refill prescriptions (b=0.0004, 95%CI 0.0002 : 0.0007, p<0.001). The increased in percentage of VAS registration was associated with reduction in number of refill prescription (b=-2.9838, 95%CI -4.2289 : -1.7388, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patient waiting time at the Ambulatory Pharmacy improved with the increased in VAS registration. The impact of increased VAS uptake on patient waiting time resulted from reduction in refill prescriptions. Patient waiting time is influenced by number of pharmacy technicians, number of pharmacy counters, number of prescriptions and number of refill prescriptions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  12. Chua GN, Yee LJ, Sim BA, Tan KH, Sin NK, Hassali MA, et al.
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2014 Aug;22(4):265-74.
    PMID: 25121161
    The aims of the study were to assess job satisfaction and organisational commitment among pharmacists working in the public sector and its influence on their likelihood to stay within the public workforce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/manpower; Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  13. Chanakit T, Low BY, Wongpoowarak P, Moolasarn S, Anderson C
    BMC Med Educ, 2015 Nov 19;15:205.
    PMID: 26585968 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-015-0473-4
    BACKGROUND: Pharmacy education and pharmacy practice are facing remarkable changes following new scientific discoveries, evolving patient needs and the requirements of advanced pharmacy competency for practices. Many countries are introducing or undertaking major transformations in pharmacy education. The Thai pharmacy curriculum has been changed from a 5-year BPharm and a 6-year PharmD to only a 6-year PharmD programme. Curriculum change processes usually involve stakeholders, including both internal and external educational institutions, at all levels. This study aims to understand the experiences and perceptions of stakeholders regarding the transition to an all-PharmD programme in Thailand.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Thailand with 130 stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, pharmacy experts, educators, health care providers, patients, students and parents) from August-October 2013. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Three main themes were derived from the findings: 1. influences on curriculum change (e.g., the needs of pharmacists to provide better patient care, the US-Thai consortium for the development of pharmacy education); 2. perceived benefits (e.g., improve pharmacy competencies from generalists to specialists, ready to work after graduation, providing a high quality of patient care); and 3. concerns (e.g., the higher costs of study for a longer period of time, the mismatch between the pharmacy graduates' competency and the job market's needs, insufficient preceptors and training sites, lack of practical experience of the faculty members and issues related to the separate licenses that are necessary due to the difference in the graduates' specialties).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to highlight the issues surrounding the transition to the 6-year PharmD programme in Thailand, which was initiated due to the need for higher levels of competency among the nation's pharmacists. The transition was influenced by many factors. Many participants perceived benefits from the new pharmacy curriculum. However, some participants were concerned about this transition. Although most of the respondents accepted the need to go forward to the 6-year PharmD programme, designing an effective curriculum, providing a sufficient number of qualified PharmD preceptors, determining certain competencies of pharmacists in different practices and monitoring the quality of pharmacy education still need to be addressed during this transitional stage of pharmacy education in Thailand.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/standards*; Pharmaceutical Services/trends
  14. Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Al-Haddad MS, Abduelkarem AR, Ibrahim MI, Palaian S, et al.
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2011 Dec;7(4):415-20.
    PMID: 21272536 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.10.003
    The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*; Pharmaceutical Services/trends
  15. Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Kow CS, Ghori MU, Babar ZU
    Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 2017 Oct;17(5):431-439.
    PMID: 28825502 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2017.1370376
    INTRODUCTION: Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services/economics; Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration*
  16. Loh CY, Tan YY, Rohani R, Weber JF, Bhore SJ
    J Young Pharm, 2013 Sep;5(3):95-7.
    PMID: 24396249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jyp.2013.07.001
    Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  17. Bhore SJ, Preveena J, Kandasamy KI
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):134-7.
    PMID: 23798890 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110545
    Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  18. Jamshed SQ, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Sharrad AK, Shafie AA, Babar ZU
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2015;6:359-66.
    PMID: 26028981 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S27762
    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.62.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  19. Babar ZU, Hassali MA, Shyong TL, Hin TK, Cien CS, Bin LS, et al.
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Apr;4(2):108-13.
    PMID: 22754263 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.96625
    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in Penang, Malaysia. To conduct this exploratory study, qualitative techniques were used. Consumers more than 19 years of age and could speak English, who had visited a pharmacy in the last 30 days, were included from the four major areas of Penang. Eighteen interviews were conducted until the point of saturation. The interviews were audio-taped and then transcribed verbatim for thematic content analysis. Many consumers correctly identified the major characteristics and properties of modern medicines; however, others raised doubts regarding the safety, quality and efficacy of "modern medicines". There were many misconceptions such as "all modern medicines can cause dependence", traditional medicines are completely "free of side-effects" and "Western medicines cure while Chinese medicines don't". Color was also considered a strong determinant of the safety and characteristics of a medicine. Regarding consumers' "medicine information seeking behavior", many consumers would seek information from doctors and pharmacists; however, there were others, who would look for books, or get it from the internet and friends. Of concern many consumers emphasized that while "self-searching for drug information" they would only look for side-effects. Misconceptions regarding medicine-taking behavior, medicine use and compliance were also identified. Though several consumers complied with the medicine-taking instructions, many reported that they would stop taking medicines, once they feel better. Though many consumers correctly identified the characteristics of "modern medicines", misconceptions regarding "medicine information sources and "medicine-taking behavior" were rampant. The situation demands corrective actions including community-oriented educational campaigns to improve "medicine use" in the society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
  20. Ming, Tsuey Lim
    There is a growing concern of unintended consequences of inappropriate medications disposal on the environment and public health. Objective: The aims of this study are to determine patients’ medications disposal methods and their awareness of the pharmacy medications take back program.
    Method: A cross sectional survey using a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire on information, medications disposal and views, awareness of medications take back program and reasons for their unwillingness to return the unused and unwanted medication to pharmacy or doctor. A convenient sample of 438 patients at Out Patient Pharmacy and Patient Registration areas in the hospital was collected and completed within three months.
    Results: Only 44.5% had ever received information about medications disposal and were significantly more likely to return to pharmacy or doctor (29.2% versus 6.0%, p < 0.001). There were significant differences between tertiary and nontertiary with regard to not returning to pharmacy or doctor (22.8% versus 42.0 %, p = 0.004). Some common medications disposal methods were throwing medications away with household garbage, 38.3% (n = 168), returning to pharmacy or doctor, 35.1% (n = 154) and flushing medications down the toilet or sink 11.0% (n = 48). About 50.2% (n = 220) knew about medications take back program and were significantly more willing to return the medication to the assigned location (34.7 % versus 20.1%, p < 0.001). The main reasons for unwillingness were availability of time, not convenient or a bother and out-of-vicinity location.
    Conclusion: There is a clear need to create public awareness about issues on safe medication disposal and medications take back program,
    Study site: Outpatient pharmacy, and patient registration area in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Services
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