Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

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  1. Alabid AH, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2013 Dec;7(12):2912-6.
    PMID: 24551673 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6198.3789
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia, a South East Asian country, legally permits general medical practitioners in private clinics to dispense medicines. This possibly can dilute the pharmacist role in the provision of healthcare and pharmaceutical care and deprive patients to benefit from these services.
    OBJECTIVE: This study explored, assessed and compared the current status of medicines labeling, patient's counseling, and symptomatic diagnosis by general practitioners and community pharmacists.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study used trained Simulated Patients (SP), who participated in a scenario of common cold symptoms at private clinics and community pharmacies. SPs explored medication labeling, patients counseling and symptomatic diagnosis undertaken by general practitioners and community pharmacists. Later, study authors assessed and compared these practices. The study was conducted during June 2011 in Penang, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The study used descriptive statistics and Fisher-exact test to analyze data. Regarding patients counseling standard, among 100 visits by simulated patients, 64 (64%) from community pharmacists provided information about the medicine name, its indication, dosage and route of administration versus 17 (42.5%) general practitioners during 40 visits (p=0.024). Concerning adherence to labeling standard, for instance, only in one pharmacy visit, (1%) the pharmacist wrote the name of the patient on the medication label versus in 32 (80%) of doctors' visits, the doctors adhered to this labeling standard (p<0.001). In all doctors' visits (n=40, 100%), SPs were asked about symptoms, whereas in 87 (87%) CPs' visits, pharmacists fulfilled this counseling standard (p=0.02).
    CONCLUSION: Although pharmacists showed less compliance to medicine labeling and symptomatic diagnosis compared to doctors, their counseling of patients was better. Separation will definitely contribute to more concentration of each provider on his/her roles and improve and direct the experiences and skills towards being more patient oriented.
    KEYWORDS: Common cold; Community pharmacists; Dispensing doctors; Dispensing separation; General medical practitioners; Malaysia; Medicine labelling; Patient’s counselling; Simulated patients
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies*
  2. HORNE DE
    Pharm J, 1946 Oct 26;103(4330):265 passim.
    PMID: 21002932
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies*
  3. Hui Meng Er, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Peter CK Pook
    MyJurnal
    Background: The widespread use of multiple choice questions (MCQ) in examinations is attributed to its logistical advantage and broad coverage of content within a short duration. The end-of-semester examinations for several modules in the pharmacy programme previously employed a combination of written examination tools including MCQ, short answer questions (SAQ) or essays for assessing learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Concerns regarding assessment fatigue and subjectivity in marking have led to a review of the assessment formats in the examinations. Various types of MCQ were consequently introduced as the only assessment tool. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of students in the examinations as a result of the change.

    Methodology: Analyses were carried out on the end-ofsemester examination results of two cohorts of students for each module, one based on a combination of MCQ, SAQ or essay and the other based on MCQ alone. The class means were compared, and t-test was used to determine the difference between the performances.

    Results: Although the difference in the mean scores of the two groups is statistically significant in 13 of the 20 modules, the difference is less than 5% in 10 modules.

    Conclusion: The findings provide evidence that wellconstructed MCQ can effectively assess cognitive skills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  4. Nurolaini, K., Sultana, S.M., Wai See, W.
    Medicine & Health, 2016;11(2):139-150.
    MyJurnal
    Medication wastage poses a financial burden on the nation’s economy, as well as, environmental implications associated with wastage disposal. This study was conducted in a public hospital in Brunei and aimed to measure the extent of medication wastage and its disposal. This cross-sectional study used a self-designed questionnaire for patients attending outpatient pharmacy at the Suri Seri Begawan (SSB) hospital in which 253 patients participated over a period of two weeks. Exclusion criteria were: i) patients below 18 yrs, ii) patients visiting the Accident and Emergency Department and iii) patients admitted to the hospital. Majority of the participants were reported to have unused medication at home (75.1%, n=189). Nearly half (54.2%) had unused medicines and this was due to improvements in their medical conditions. Most of the participants (70.8%) were not given necessary advice on how to dispose their medicines in a proper manner. Majority disposed their unused medicines in the household garbage (70%), despite 50.2% (n=189) knowing that disposing of medicines in the garbage can cause detrimental effects on the environment. It was found that 47.7% of the participants would return their unused medicines back to the pharmacy, but in practice, only 18.6% did such. There was no significant association between knowing detrimental effects of medicine on
    the environment and returning their medicines to the pharmacy (p=0.065). Results showed that medication wastage exists in SSB hospital and patients’ knowledge and
    practices on its proper disposal was relatively poor. Health policy makers should be informed to implement wastage reduction strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  5. Fernandez-Llimos F, Pharmacy Practice 2018 peer reviewers
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2019 03 21;17(1):1502.
    PMID: 31015883 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2019.1.1502
    Selecting peer reviewers is a crucial stage of the editorial process that ensures the quality of scholarly publications. An alternative to selecting peer reviewers from data bases created with expressions of interest of volunteers consists in systematically searching PubMed for similar articles and inviting their authors to act as peer reviewers. Although this process might identify more appropriate peers, it also can increase the time of the editorial process. In 2018, Pharmacy Practice had to invite 4.70 (SE=0.33) potential reviewers per one accepting. The time from the first reviewer invitation to the last reviewer report received was 61 days (SE=2.1). These figures confirm the existence of a peer review crisis which is significantly increasing the publication delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  6. Dewi EK, Dahlui M, Chalidyanto D, Rochmah TN
    PMID: 31203686 DOI: 10.1080/14737167.2019.1633308
    Background: A good drug inventory planning system is important for an efficient budgeting, procurement, and cost control of drugs. When stagnant drugs in the inventory are too much, wastage due to expired and spoiled drugs could occur. These will not only cause loss of income but could also jeopardize healthcare service delivery. Research design and methods: This study aimed to determine the most efficient and effective management of stagnant and shortage drugs by comparing three pharmacy logistic methods; the economic order quantity (EOQ), minimum-maximum stock level (MMSL), and the traditional consumption of drug inventory, at RA Basoeni Hospital, Mojokerto. Drug inventory was analyzed to calculate the opportunity loss, opportunity cost, and proportions of both stagnant and shortage drugs. Results: We found that EOQ and MMSL performed best for control of stagnant drugs and shortage drugs, respectively. Both methods had proved as effective pharmacy logistic planning. In addition, EOQ produced the lowest opportunity cost for stagnant drugs besides the lowest opportunity loss for shortage drugs. Conclusion: The study concluded that EOQ is the most effective and efficient method to manage stagnant and shortage drugs at hospital pharmacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  7. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI, Baber ZU
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2012 Jun;20(3):183-90.
    PMID: 22554161 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00178.x
    The study evaluated the compliance of community pharmacies with legal requirements as laid down by the drug regulatory framework in Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies/legislation & jurisprudence*
  8. Akram W, Hussein MS, Ahmad S, Mamat MN, Ismail NE
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Oct;23(5):499-503.
    PMID: 26594115 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.01.011
    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.
    Study site: community pharmacies, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  9. Loh BC, Wah KF, Teo CA, Khairuddin NM, Fairuz FB, Liew JE
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Jan-Mar;15(1):846.
    PMID: 28503218 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.01.846
    BACKGROUND: Value added services (VAS) are an innovative dispensing system created to provide an alternative means of collecting partial drug supply from our hospital. This in turn was projected to reduce the necessity for patient to visit pharmacy counter and thus reduce the burden of prescription handling.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of increased VAS uptake following promotional campaign towards patient waiting time and to explore factors that may affect patient waiting time at the Ambulatory Pharmacy, Queen Elizabeth Hospital.

    METHODS: A quasi experimental study design was conducted from September 2014 till June 2015 at the Ambulatory Pharmacy. During pre-intervention phase, baseline parameters were collected retrospectively. Then, VAS promotional campaign was carried out for six months and whilst this was done, the primary outcome of patient waiting time was measured by percentage of prescription served less than 30 minutes. A linear regression analysis was used to determine the impact of increased VAS uptake towards patient waiting time.

    RESULTS: An increased in percentage of VAS registration (20.9% vs 35.7%, p<0.001) was observed after the promotional campaign. The mean percentage of prescription served less than 30 minutes increased from 83.2% SD=15.9 to 90.3% SD=11.5, p=0.001. After controlling for covariates, it was found that patient waiting time was affected by number of pharmacy technicians (b=-0.0349, 95%CI-0.0548 : -0.0150, p=0.001), number of pharmacy counters (b=0.1125, 95%CI 0.0631 : 0.1620, p<0.001), number of prescriptions (b=0.0008, 95%CI 0.0004 : 0.0011, p<0.001), and number of refill prescriptions (b=0.0004, 95%CI 0.0002 : 0.0007, p<0.001). The increased in percentage of VAS registration was associated with reduction in number of refill prescription (b=-2.9838, 95%CI -4.2289 : -1.7388, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patient waiting time at the Ambulatory Pharmacy improved with the increased in VAS registration. The impact of increased VAS uptake on patient waiting time resulted from reduction in refill prescriptions. Patient waiting time is influenced by number of pharmacy technicians, number of pharmacy counters, number of prescriptions and number of refill prescriptions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  10. Usir E, Lua PL, Majeed AB
    J Pharm Pract, 2012 Jun;25(3):374-80.
    PMID: 22551563 DOI: 10.1177/0897190012442218
    This study aimed to determine the availability and usage of printed and electronic references and Patient Medication Record in community pharmacy. It was conducted for over 3 months from 15 January to 30 April 2007. Ninety-three pharmacies participated. Structured questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacies. Six weeks later a reminder was sent to all non responders, who were given another six weeks to return the completed questionnaire. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test of independence. Almost all the pharmacies (96.8%) have at least Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) while 78.5% have at least MIMS ANNUAL in their stores. Only about a third (31.2%) of the pharmacies were equipped with online facilities of which the majority referred to medical websites (88.9%) with only a minority (11.1%) referring to electronic journals. More than half (59.1%) of the pharmacists kept Patient Medication Record profiles with 49.1% storing it in paper, 41.8% electronically and 9.1% in both printed and electronic versions. In general, prevalence and usage of electronic references in community pharmacies were rather low. Efforts should be increased to encourage wider usage of electronic references and Patient Medication Records in community pharmacies to facilitate pharmaceutical care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies/trends; Pharmacies/utilization*
  11. Loh CY, Tan YY, Rohani R, Weber JF, Bhore SJ
    J Young Pharm, 2013 Sep;5(3):95-7.
    PMID: 24396249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jyp.2013.07.001
    Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  12. Bhore SJ, Preveena J, Kandasamy KI
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):134-7.
    PMID: 23798890 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110545
    Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  13. Babar ZU, Hassali MA, Shyong TL, Hin TK, Cien CS, Bin LS, et al.
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Apr;4(2):108-13.
    PMID: 22754263 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.96625
    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in Penang, Malaysia. To conduct this exploratory study, qualitative techniques were used. Consumers more than 19 years of age and could speak English, who had visited a pharmacy in the last 30 days, were included from the four major areas of Penang. Eighteen interviews were conducted until the point of saturation. The interviews were audio-taped and then transcribed verbatim for thematic content analysis. Many consumers correctly identified the major characteristics and properties of modern medicines; however, others raised doubts regarding the safety, quality and efficacy of "modern medicines". There were many misconceptions such as "all modern medicines can cause dependence", traditional medicines are completely "free of side-effects" and "Western medicines cure while Chinese medicines don't". Color was also considered a strong determinant of the safety and characteristics of a medicine. Regarding consumers' "medicine information seeking behavior", many consumers would seek information from doctors and pharmacists; however, there were others, who would look for books, or get it from the internet and friends. Of concern many consumers emphasized that while "self-searching for drug information" they would only look for side-effects. Misconceptions regarding medicine-taking behavior, medicine use and compliance were also identified. Though several consumers complied with the medicine-taking instructions, many reported that they would stop taking medicines, once they feel better. Though many consumers correctly identified the characteristics of "modern medicines", misconceptions regarding "medicine information sources and "medicine-taking behavior" were rampant. The situation demands corrective actions including community-oriented educational campaigns to improve "medicine use" in the society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  14. Jamshed SQ, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Sharrad AK, Shafie AA, Babar ZU
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2015;6:359-66.
    PMID: 26028981 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S27762
    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.62.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  15. Maimunah, W., Kwong, CS, Siti Rozana, M.S., Shahariah, A.
    MyJurnal
    Objective : This scientific writing is meant for describing the problems faced by pharmacy staffs during heavy flood situations in Johore and the actions to be taken for solving these problems.
    Methodology : This finding is in accordance to the observations, experiences and interview of staffs (through questionnaires), who are involved directly and indirectly in preparations of emergency during flood. Efficiency of pharmaceutical services provided during flood is evaluated.
    Result : Several problems were identified when providing pharmaceutical services, such as purchasing and supplying of items, pre-packing, preparing drug charts, visit to relief centers, post-flood health campaign, and doctors from NGOs prescibing medicines out of MOH drug formulary. During the period of flood, usage of drug and non-drug items increases drastically resulting in the current stock in store were not sufficient to compensate for the high demand. Moreover, inaccessibility of certain roads in districts such as Segamat and Kota Tinggi, aggravated and worsen the problems of obtaining goods from suppliers. Workload of pharmacy staffs increased especially in activities such as pre-packing and preparing drug charts due to shortage of manpower.
    Conclusion : Even though workload increased drastically during flood, pharmaceutical services provided by the state pharmacy are still able to maintain good quality services to cater for the need of healthcare professionals and patients. Throughout the flood period, all the difficulties and hurdles faced by us had been solved; due to the cooperation from other agencies. Besides, by writing this article, a disaster preparedness guideline is produced for the purpose of improving management of future disasters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  16. Qais Alefan, Haniki Nik Mohamad, M., Awaisu, A., Tariq A. Razak, Jamalludin A. Rahman
    MyJurnal
    Institutions of higher learning are working hard to provide effective, high quality educational programs. Meanwhile, potential students are also looking at “quality” as a metric to help make their decisions about which college to join. Mechanisms to evaluate the quality of higher education offered in universities are already available. This study aimed to determine students’ attitudes and opinions regarding the pharmacy curriculum at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). A survey instrument was administered to all final year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students. Forty students (93%) completed and returned the survey. The majority of students (75%) expressed their satisfaction regarding the curriculum in general. Most students (74%) were also satisfied with the courses offered by the department of pharmacy practice. However, students were not satisfied with certain issues such as overlapping of some pharmacy practice courses, and the inclusion of the Malaysian language course in the BPharm curriculum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  17. Ming, Tsuey Lim
    MyJurnal
    There is a growing concern of unintended consequences of inappropriate medications disposal on the environment and public health. Objective: The aims of this study are to determine patients’ medications disposal methods and their awareness of the pharmacy medications take back program.
    Method: A cross sectional survey using a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire on information, medications disposal and views, awareness of medications take back program and reasons for their unwillingness to return the unused and unwanted medication to pharmacy or doctor. A convenient sample of 438 patients at Out Patient Pharmacy and Patient Registration areas in the hospital was collected and completed within three months.
    Results: Only 44.5% had ever received information about medications disposal and were significantly more likely to return to pharmacy or doctor (29.2% versus 6.0%, p < 0.001). There were significant differences between tertiary and nontertiary with regard to not returning to pharmacy or doctor (22.8% versus 42.0 %, p = 0.004). Some common medications disposal methods were throwing medications away with household garbage, 38.3% (n = 168), returning to pharmacy or doctor, 35.1% (n = 154) and flushing medications down the toilet or sink 11.0% (n = 48). About 50.2% (n = 220) knew about medications take back program and were significantly more willing to return the medication to the assigned location (34.7 % versus 20.1%, p < 0.001). The main reasons for unwillingness were availability of time, not convenient or a bother and out-of-vicinity location.
    Conclusion: There is a clear need to create public awareness about issues on safe medication disposal and medications take back program,
    Study site: Outpatient pharmacy, and patient registration area in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  18. Kho BP, Hassali MA, Lim CJ, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Apr-Jun;15(2):933.
    PMID: 28690697 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.02.933
    BACKGROUND: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia), and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation.

    RESULTS: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers' knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced.

    CONCLUSION: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists to realise and maximise their potentials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  19. Subramaniam K, Low WY, Chinna K, Chin KF, Krishnaswamy S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Aug;24(4):64-73.
    PMID: 28951691 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.4.8
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among Malaysian adults.
    METHOD: The Malay version of the DEBQ instrument was administered to 398 outpatients (269 women and 129 men) at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to study the construct validity of the instrument. Composite reliability coefficient, Raykov's rho, was used to determine the internal consistency.
    RESULTS: The proposed three-factor structure for the DEBQ instrument was appropriate, although three items (Items 21, 14 and 27) showed problematic loadings with inappropriate model fit and were removed. The modified version had an appropriate model fit χ(2)/df = 2.129, TLI = 0.908, CFI = 0.918, RMSEA = 0.053 (90%CI = 0.048-0.058), close-fit P-value = 0.136 and satisfactory internal consistency of 0.914 for emotional eating scale, 0.819 for external eating scale and 0.856 for restrained eating scale.
    DISCUSSION: The Malay version of the DEBQ is a valid instrument to study eating behaviour traits among Malaysian adults. Further research is warranted to determine if Items 14 and 27 are appropriate for the Malaysian population.
    Study site: Pharmacy, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
  20. Saw PS, Nissen L, Freeman C, Wong PS, Mak V
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 Jul-Sep;15(3):971.
    PMID: 28943979 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.03.971
    BACKGROUND: Private general practitioners in Malaysia largely operates as solo practices - prescribing and supplying medications to patients directly from their clinics, thus posing risk of medication-related problems to consumers. A pharmacy practice reform that integrates pharmacists into primary healthcare clinics can be a potential initiative to promote quality use of medication. This model of care is a novel approach in Malaysia and research in the local context is required, especially from the perspectives of pharmacists.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore pharmacists' views in integrating pharmacists into private GP clinics in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit community and hospital pharmacists from urban areas in Malaysia to participate either in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. A total of 2 focus groups and 4 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using NVivo 10.
    RESULTS: Four major themes were identified: (1) Limited potential to expand pharmacists' roles, (2) Concerns about non-pharmacists dispensing medicines in private GP clinics, (3) Lack of trust from consumers and private GPs, (4) Cost implications. Participants felt that there was a limited role for pharmacists in private GP clinics. This was because the medication supply role is currently undertaken in private GP clinics without the need of pharmacists. The perceived lack of trust from consumers and private GPs towards pharmacists arises from the belief that healthcare is the GPs' responsibility. This suggests that there is a need for increased public and GP awareness towards the capabilities of pharmacists' in medication management. Participants were concerned about an increase in cost to private GP visits if pharmacists were to be integrated. Nevertheless, some participants perceived the integration as a means to reduce medical costs through improved quality use of medicines.
    CONCLUSION: Findings from the study provided a better understanding to help ascertain pharmacists' views on their readiness and acceptance in a potential new model of practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacies
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