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  1. Karimi E, Jaafar HZ, Aziz MA, Taheri S, AzadiGonbad R
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):3301-9.
    PMID: 24841662 DOI: 10.4238/2014.April.29.8
    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
  2. Valdiani A, Talei D, Javanmard A, Tan SG, Kadir MA, Maziah M
    Gene, 2014 Jun 1;542(2):156-67.
    PMID: 24680780 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.03.039
    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) is a self-pollinated medicinal herb with a wide range of pharmaceutical properties, facing a low diversity in Malaysia. Cross-pollination of AP accessions leads to considerable rates of heterosis in the agro-morphological characteristics and anticancer phytochemicals of this eminent medicinal herb. However, the poor crossability of the plant at the interpopulation or intraspecific levels is an obstacle from the evolutionary and breeding points of view as an average of 4.56% crossability was recorded for AP in this study. Hence, this research aimed to elicit the impact of parental genetic distances (GDs) on the rate of crossability of AP using seven accessions in 21 possible cross combinations. To this end, a set of 55 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a total of 13 agro-morphological markers were employed to test the hypothesis. Twenty-two out of the 55 RAPD primers amplified a total of 257 bands of which 107 bands were found to be polymorphic. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the RAPD markers revealed that the studied AP accessions were distributed to three distinct groups. Furthermore, it was noticed that even a minor increase in GD between two parents can cause a decline in their crossability. Unlike, the morphological-based GDs acted neutrally to crossability. This finding suggests that, despite the low genetic diversity among the Malaysian APs, a population prescreening using RAPD markers would be useful to enhance the rate of fruit set through selecting the genetically adjacent parents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics*
  3. Valdiani A, Javanmard A, Talei D, Tan SG, Nikzad S, Kadir MA, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Feb;40(2):1775-84.
    PMID: 23086278 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2231-6
    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a medicinal plant species introduced into Malaysia. To address the genetic structure and evolutionary connectedness of the Malaysian AP with the Indian AP, a DNA sequence analysis was conducted based on 24 microsatellite markers. Out of the 24 primer sets, seven novel microsatellite primers were designed and amplified intra-specifically according to the available Indian AP sequences at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), where 17 of them were amplified using the cross-species strategy by employing the primers belonging to Acanthus ilicifolius Linn (Acanthaceae) and Lumnitzera racemosa Wild (Combretaceae). The primers were then applied on the Malaysian AP accessions. Sixteen of the new microsatellite loci were amplified successfully. Analysis of these microsatellite sequences, revealed some significant differences between the Indian and Malaysian AP accessions in terms of the size and type of the repeat motifs. These findings depicted the cryptic feature of this species. Despite identifying several heterozygous alleles no polymorphism was observed in the detected loci of the selected accessions. This situation was in concordance with the presence of "fixed heterozygosity" phenomenon in the mentioned loci. Accordingly, this was fully consistent with the occurrence of the genetic bottleneck and founder effect within Malaysian AP population. Apart from the amplification of new microsatellites in this species, our observations could be in agreement with the risk of genetic depletion and consequently extinction of this precious herb in Malaysia. This issue should be taken into consideration in the future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
  4. Tnah LH, Lee CT, Lee SL, Ng KK, Ng CH, Hwang SS
    Am J Bot, 2011 May;98(5):e130-2.
    PMID: 21613180 DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000469
    Microsatellite markers of an important medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae), were developed for DNA profiling and genetic diversity studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
  5. Osman A, Jordan B, Lessard PA, Muhammad N, Haron MR, Riffin NM, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2003 Mar;131(3):1294-301.
    PMID: 12644679 DOI: 10.1104/pp.012492
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack. is a treelet that grows in the forests of Southeast Asia and is widely used throughout the region because of its reported medicinal properties. Widespread harvesting of wild-grown trees has led to rapid thinning of natural populations, causing a potential decrease in genetic diversity among E. longifolia. Suitable genetic markers would be very useful for propagation and breeding programs to support conservation of this species, although no such markers currently exist. To meet this need, we have applied a genome complexity reduction strategy to identify a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genomes of several E. longifolia accessions. We have found that the occurrence of these SNPs reflects the geographic origins of individual plants and can distinguish different natural populations. This work demonstrates the rapid development of molecular genetic markers in species for which little or no genomic sequence information is available. The SNP markers that we have developed in this study will also be useful for identifying genetic fingerprints that correlate with other properties of E. longifolia, such as high regenerability or the appearance of bioactive metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
  6. Abubakar BM, Salleh FM, Shamsir Omar MS, Wagiran A
    Pharm Biol, 2018 Dec;56(1):368-377.
    PMID: 30058427 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2018.1479869
    CONTEXT: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) commonly known as Tongkat Ali is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. The plant extracts (particularly roots) are widely used for the treatment of cough and fever besides having antimalarial, antidiabetic, anticancer and aphrodisiac activities.

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the extent of adulteration of E. longifolia herbal medicinal products (HMPs) using DNA barcoding validated by HPLC analysis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chloroplastic rbcL and nuclear ITS2 barcode regions were used in the present study. The sequences generated from E. longifolia HMPs were compared to sequences in the GenBank using MEGABLAST to verify their taxonomic identity. These results were verified by neighbor-joining tree analysis in which branches of unknown specimen are compared to the reference sequences established from this study and other retrieved from the GenBank. The HMPs were also analysed using HPLC analysis for the presence of eurycomanone bioactive marker.

    RESULTS: Identification using DNA barcoding revealed that 37% of the tested HMPs were authentic while 27% were adulterated with the ITS2 barcode region proven to be the ideal marker. The validation of the authenticity using HPLC analysis showed a situation in which a species which was identified as authentic was found not to contain the expected chemical compound.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcoding should be used as the first screening step for testing of HMPs raw materials. However, integration of DNA barcoding with HPLC analysis will help to provide detailed knowledge about the safety and efficacy of the HMPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics*
  7. Foong LC, Chai JY, Ho ASH, Yeo BPH, Lim YM, Tam SM
    Sci Rep, 2020 09 30;10(1):16123.
    PMID: 32999341 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72997-2
    Impatiens balsamina L. is a tropical ornamental and traditional medicinal herb rich in natural compounds, especially 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) which is a bioactive compound with tested anticancer activities. Characterization of key genes involved in the shikimate and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) pathways responsible for MNQ biosynthesis and their expression profiles in I. balsamina will facilitate adoption of genetic/metabolic engineering or synthetic biology approaches to further increase production for pre-commercialization. In this study, HPLC analysis showed that MNQ was present in significantly higher quantities in the capsule pericarps throughout three developmental stages (early-, mature- and postbreaker stages) whilst its immediate precursor, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) was mainly detected in mature leaves. Transcriptomes of I. balsamina derived from leaf, flower, and three capsule developmental stages were generated, totalling 59.643 Gb of raw reads that were assembled into 94,659 unigenes (595,828 transcripts). A total of 73.96% of unigenes were functionally annotated against seven public databases and 50,786 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Expression profiles of 20 selected genes from four major secondary metabolism pathways were studied and validated using qRT-PCR method. Majority of the DHNA pathway genes were found to be significantly upregulated in early stage capsule compared to flower and leaf, suggesting tissue-specific synthesis of MNQ. Correlation analysis identified 11 candidate unigenes related to three enzymes (NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glycosyltransferases and S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase) important in the final steps of MNQ biosynthesis based on genes expression profiles consistent with MNQ content. This study provides the first molecular insight into the dynamics of MNQ biosynthesis and accumulation across different tissues of I. balsamina and serves as a valuable resource to facilitate further manipulation to increase production of MNQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
  8. Valdiani A, Talei D, Tan SG, Abdul Kadir M, Maziah M, Rafii MY, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e87034.
    PMID: 24586262 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087034
    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA ) for all the andrographolides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plants, Medicinal/genetics
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