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  1. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology*
  2. Selvakumar M, Srivastava P, Pawar HS, Francis NK, Das B, Sathishkumar G, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Feb 17;8(6):4086-100.
    PMID: 26799576 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b11723
    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are futile in many clinical applications due to infection problems. In this work, we fabricated GBR with an anti-infective scaffold by ornamenting 2D single crystalline bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite (Bi-nHA) rods onto segmented polyurethane (SPU). Bi-nHA with high aspect ratio was prepared without any templates. Subsequently, it was introduced into an unprecedented synthesized SPU matrix based on dual soft segments (PCL-b-PDMS) of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, undoped pristine nHA rods were also ornamented into it. The enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segments of PCL-b-PDMS copolymers of SPU. Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is done by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Bi-nHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (155%) in the mechanical properties with excellent antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Various histological sections reveal the signatures of early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks of the critical defects filled with ornamented scaffold compared to SPU scaffold. This implies osteogenic potential and ability to provide an adequate biomimetic microenvironment for mineralization for GBR of the scaffolds. Organ toxicity studies further confirm that no tissue architecture abnormalities were observed in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissue sections. This finding manifests the feasibility of fabricating a mechanically adequate nanofibrous SPU scaffold by a biomimetic strategy and the advantages of Bi-nHA ornamentation in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression with microbial protection (on-demand) for GBR applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology
  3. Khandanlou R, Ahmad MB, Shameli K, Saki E, Kalantari K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(10):18466-83.
    PMID: 25318051 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151018466
    Modified rice straw/Fe3O4/polycaprolactone nanocomposites (ORS/Fe3O4/ PCL-NCs) have been prepared for the first time using a solution casting method. The RS/Fe3O4-NCs were modified with octadecylamine (ODA) as an organic modifier. The prepared NCs were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD results showed that as the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content in comparison with PCL peaks, the Fe3O4-NPs peaks increased from 1.0 to 60.0 wt. %. The TEM and SEM results showed a good dispersion of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL matrix and the spherical shape of the NPs. The TGA analysis indicated thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs increased after incorporation with PCL but the thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NCs decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content. Tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt. % of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs. The antibacterial activities of the ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) by diffusion method using nutrient agar. The results indicated that ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology
  4. Rennukka M, Sipaut CS, Amirul AA
    Biotechnol Prog, 2014 Nov-Dec;30(6):1469-79.
    PMID: 25181613 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1986
    This work aims to shed light in the fabrication of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-44%-4-hydroxybutyrate)[P(3HB-co-44%4HB)]/chitosan-based silver nanocomposite material using different contents of silver nanoparticle (SNP); 1-9 wt%. Two approaches were applied in the fabrication; namely solvent casting and chemical crosslinking via glutaraldehyde (GA). A detailed characterization was conducted in order to yield information regarding the nanocomposite material. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the nature of the three components that exist in the nanocomposite films: P(3HB-co-4HB), chitosan, and SNP. In term of mechanical properties, tensile strength, and elongation at break were significantly improved up to 125% and 22%, respectively with the impregnation of the SNP. The melting temperature of the nanocomposite materials was increased whereas their thermal stability was slightly changed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that incorporation of 9 wt% of SNP caused agglomeration but the surface roughness of the material was significantly improved with the loading. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were completely inhibited by the nanocomposite films with 7 and 9 wt% of SNP, respectively. On the other hand, degradation of the nanocomposite materials outweighed the degradation of the pure copolymer. These bioactive and biodegradable materials stand a good chance to serve the vast need of biomedical applications namely management and care of wound as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology
  5. Vigneswari S, Vijaya S, Majid MI, Sudesh K, Sipaut CS, Azizan MN, et al.
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Apr;36(4):547-56.
    PMID: 19189144 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-009-0525-z
    Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, a local isolate was able to biosynthesis poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer with various 4HB precursors as the sole carbon source. Manipulation of the culture conditions such as cell concentration, phosphate ratio and culture aeration significantly affected the synthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and 4HB composition. P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer with 4HB compositions ranging from 23 to 75 mol% 4HB with various mechanical and thermal properties were successfully produced by varying the medium aeration. The physical and mechanical properties of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, tensile test, and differential scanning calorimetry. The number-average molecular weights (M (n)) of copolymers ranged from 260 x 10(3) to 590 x 10(3)Da, and the polydispersities (M (w)/M (n)) were between 1.8 and 3.0. Increases in the 4HB composition lowered the molecular weight of these copolymers. In addition, the increase in 4HB composition affected the randomness of copolymer, melting temperature (T (m)), glass transition temperature (T (g)), tensile strength, and elongation to break. Enzymatic degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with an extracellular depolymerase from Ochrobactrum sp. DP5 showed that the degradation rate increased proportionally with time as the 4HB fraction increased from 17 to 50 mol% but were much lower with higher 4HB fraction. Degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum exhibited highest degradation rate at 75 mol% 4HB. The biocompatibility of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were evaluated and these copolymers have been shown to support the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology
  6. Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Ismail AF, Aziz M, Akbari M, Hadisi Z, Khoshnava SM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Jun;111:110812.
    PMID: 32279830 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.110812
    Magnesium (Mg) alloys present great potential for the development of orthopedic implants, whereas, their high degradation rate and poor antibacterial performance have restricted orthopedic applications. In this work, PLLA/GO-AgNP (poly-L-lactic acid/graphene oxide- silver nanoparticle) with different concentration of GO-AgNPs were deposited on Mg alloy via electrospinning method for enhancement of corrosion resistance and antibacterial performance. The result revealed that incorporation of GO into PLLA fibrous considerably slowed down the degradation rate of Mg alloy substrate and reduced the H2 release rate from the substrate. Also, co-incorporation of GO and AgNPs into PLLA fibrous resulted in substantial escalate in compressive strength after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Antibacterial activity test exhibited that Mg alloy and neat PLLA fibrous presented minimal inhibition area toward Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In contrast, using PLLA/GO-AgNPs fibrous improved antibacterial performance against both bacteria. Cytocompatibility results indicated that PLLA/GO-AgNPs fibrous with a low amount of GO-AgNPs enhanced cell proliferation and growth while high co-incorporation of GO-AgNPs showed a negative effect on cell proliferation. Taken together, PLLA/1GO-AgNPs fibrous coating shows suitable corrosion resistance, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial function for use in orthopedic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology*
  7. Pachiyappan S, Shanmuganatham Selvanantham D, Kuppa SS, Chandrasekaran S, Samrot AV
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2019 Jun;13(4):416-427.
    PMID: 31171747 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5053
    In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles were synthesised following nanoprecipitation method having different solvents and surfactant (Tween 80) concentrations. In this study, PHB nanoparticles were encapsulated with curcumin and subjected for sustained curcumin delivery. Both the curcumin loaded and unloaded PHB nanoparticles were characterised using FTIR, SEM, and AFM. Sizes of the particles were found to be between 60 and 300 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of the nanoparticles were analysed. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity were also evaluated. The LC50 values of most of the nanoparticles were found to be between 10 and 20 µg/100 µl, anticancer activity of curcumin loaded PHB nanoparticles were further confirmed by AO/PI staining and mitochondrial depolarisation assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology
  8. Raghavendran HR, Mohan S, Genasan K, Murali MR, Naveen SV, Talebian S, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Mar 1;139:68-78.
    PMID: 26700235 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.11.053
    Scaffolds with structural features similar to the extracellular matrix stimulate rapid osteogenic differentiation in favorable microenvironment and with growth factor supplementation. In this study, the osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-l-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/HA and PLLA/Col) scaffolds were tested in vitro with the supplementation of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Cell attachment and topography, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of the human mesenchymal stromal cells were compared between the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA. The levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and mineralization were significantly greater in the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. High expression of fibronectin, intracellular adhesion molecule, cadherin, and collagen 1 (Col1) suggests that PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds had superior osteoinductivity than PLLA/Col. Additionally, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osterix, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP2) expression were higher in PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. In comparison with PLLA/Col, the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds presented a significant upregulation of the genes Runx2, Col 1, Integrin, osteonectin (ON), bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGALP), osteopontin (OPN), and BMP2. The upregulation of these genes was further increased with PDGF-BB supplementation. These results show that PDGF-BB acts synergistically with PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, this combination can be used for the rapid expansion of bone marrow stromal cells into bone-forming cells for tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/pharmacology*
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