Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 295 in total

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  1. Kim JH, Chong CK, Sinniah M, Sinnadurai J, Song HO, Park H
    J Clin Virol, 2015 Apr;65:11-9.
    PMID: 25766980 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.01.018
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that causes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Current immunological diagnostics based on IgM and/or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen are limited for acute dengue infection due to low sensitivity and accuracy.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay showing higher sensitivity and accuracy than previous approaches.
    STUDY DESIGN: Serotype-specific primers and probes were designed through the multiple alignment of NS1 gene. The linearity and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay were determined. The assay was clinically validated with an evaluation panel that was immunologically tested by WHO and Malaysian specimens.
    RESULTS: The LOD of the assay was 3.0 log10 RNA copies for DENV-1, 2.0 for DENV-3, and 1.0 for DENV-2 and DENV-4. The assay showed 95.2% sensitivity (20/21) in an evaluation panel, whereas NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-based immunological assays exhibited 0% and 23.8-47.6% sensitivities, respectively. The assay showed 100% sensitivity both in NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-positive Malaysian specimens (26/26). The assay provided the information of viral loads and serotype with discrimination of heterotypic mixed infection.
    CONCLUSIONS: The assay could be clinically applied to early dengue diagnosis, especially during the first 5 days of illness and approximately 14 days after infection showing an anti-dengue IgM-positive response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  2. Wong FL, Hamidah NH, Hawa AA, Nurul AN, Leong CF, Saw F, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Dec;33(2):107-12.
    PMID: 22299211
    Molecular pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is well established and molecular monitoring for patients with CML has become an important practice in the management of patients on imatinib therapy. In the present study, we report the use of RQ-PCR method for detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene for our CML cases. We performed a two-step RQ-PCR on bone marrow aspirates or peripheral blood of 37 CML patients. Quantitative expression of BCR-ABL fusion gene was carried out relative to the expression of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control to compensate for uneven cell numbers, RNA quality, or variations in reverse transcription efficiencies. Twenty-four of these patients were pre-treated with hydroxyurea or alpha interferon prior to the imatinib therapy. Their BCR-ABL fusion gene levels were monitored for 18 months. All samples processed were evaluable. The PCR amplification efficiency of the ABL gene is 90.5% (0.2158) and the BCR-ABL gene, 93.4% (0.1573).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  3. Poh CL, Tan EL
    Methods Mol Biol, 2011;665:65-77.
    PMID: 21116796 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60761-817-1_5
    Enteroviruses are positive stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Human enteroviruses are transmitted through the fecal-oral route and have been shown to cause mild to life-threatening diseases. Various diagnostic methods have been developed to detect enteroviruses from clinical specimens but many were impeded by requirements for special reagents, lengthy procedures, low sensitivity or cross-reactivity. This chapter describes rapid and highly sensitive methods of enteroviral detection directly from clinical specimens based on a conventional one-step Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a one-step real-time RT-PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  4. Thanh TT, Anh NT, Tham NT, Van HM, Sabanathan S, Qui PT, et al.
    Virol J, 2015 Jun 09;12:85.
    PMID: 26050791 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-015-0316-2
    BACKGROUND: Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease of public health importance across the Asia-Pacific region. The disease is caused by enteroviruses (EVs), in particular enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). In EV-A71-associated HFMD, the infection is sometimes associated with severe manifestations including neurological involvement and fatal outcome. The availability of a robust diagnostic assay to distinguish EV-A71 from other EVs is important for patient management and outbreak response.

    METHODS: We developed and validated an internally controlled one-step single-tube real-time RT-PCR in terms of sensitivity, linearity, precision, and specificity for simultaneous detection of EVs and EV-A71. Subsequently, the assay was then applied on throat and rectal swabs sampled from 434 HFMD patients.

    RESULTS: The assay was evaluated using both plasmid DNA and viral RNA and has shown to be reproducible with a maximum assay variation of 4.41 % and sensitive with a limit of detection less than 10 copies of target template per reaction, while cross-reactivity with other EV serotypes was not observed. When compared against a published VP1 nested RT-PCR using 112 diagnostic throat and rectal swabs from 112 children with a clinical diagnosis of HFMD during 2014, the multiplex assay had a higher sensitivity and 100 % concordance with sequencing results which showed EVs in 77/112 (68.8 %) and EV-A71 in 7/112 (6.3 %). When applied to clinical diagnostics for 322 children, the assay detected EVs in throat swabs of 257/322 (79.8 %) of which EV-A71 was detected in 36/322 (11.2 %) children. The detection rate increased to 93.5 % (301/322) and 13.4 % (43/322) for EVs and EV-A71, respectively, when rectal swabs from 65 throat-negative children were further analyzed.

    CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed and validated a sensitive internally controlled multiplex assay for rapid detection of EVs and EV-A71, which is useful for clinical management and outbreak control of HFMD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  5. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Low ET, Ooi LC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99774.
    PMID: 24927412 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099774
    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  6. Sue MJ, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Tan SW
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:653014.
    PMID: 24971343 DOI: 10.1155/2014/653014
    Polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is an immunodetection method that can quantify PCR product directly after immobilization of biotinylated DNA on a microplate. This method, which detects nucleic acid instead of protein, is a much more sensitive method compared to conventional PCR method, with shorter analytical time and lower detection limit. Its high specificity and sensitivity, together with its semiquantitative ability, give it a huge potential to serve as a powerful detection tool in various industries such as medical, veterinary, and agricultural industries. With the recent advances in PCR-ELISA, it is envisaged that the assay is more widely recognized for its fast and sensitive detection limit which could improve overall diagnostic time and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  7. Wong YP, Chua KH, Thong KL
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Dec;107:133-7.
    PMID: 25307691
    Nosocomial infections are a major public health concern worldwide. Early and accurate identification of nosocomial pathogens which are often multidrug resistant is crucial for prompt treatment. Hence, an alternative real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting-curve analysis (HRMA) was developed for identification of five nosocomial bacteria. This assay targets species-specific regions of each nosocomial bacteria and produced five distinct melt curves with each representing a particular bacterial species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 78.8 ± 0.2 °C for Acinetobacter baumannii, 82.7 ± 0.2 °C for Escherichia coli, 86.3 ± 0.3 °C for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 88.8 ± 0.2 °C for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 74.6 ± 02 °C for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The assay was able to specifically detect the five bacterial species with an overall detection limit of 2 × 10(-2) ng/μL. In conclusion, the HRM assay developed is a simple and rapid method for identification of the selected nosocomial pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  8. Goh SG, Kuan CH, Loo YY, Chang WS, Lye YL, Soopna P, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2012 Oct;91(10):2686-90.
    PMID: 22991558
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat samples at hypermarkets and wet markets. Chicken drumsticks, breasts, and thighs were randomly selected. The most probable number (MPN) PCR method was used to quantify the L. monocytogenes in the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 20% of the samples. Occurrence of L. monocytogenes was highest in breast (42.03%) followed by drumstick (11.27%) and thigh (7.14%). Samples from hypermarkets showed higher occurrence (25.71%) of L. monocytogenes compared with wet markets (14.29%). The density of L. monocytogenes found in samples ranged from <3.0 to 16 MPN•g(-1). The presence of L. monocytogenes in raw chicken meat is unwanted but unpreventable. Thus, further research on the processing method to reduce and eliminate this kind of bacteria in chicken meat before consumption is necessary. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in chicken. Thus, more study is needed to find ways to eliminate this pathogen from poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  9. Zilfalil BA, Hoh BP, Nizam MZ, Liza-Sharmini AT, Teh LK, Ismail R
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2006 Dec;31(6):637-40.
    PMID: 17176369
    Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified so far, within the beta-2 receptor (beta(2) AR) gene. The presence of so many SNPs within the beta(2) AR gene causes a problem, for those studying beta(2) AR pharmacogenetics, in relation to which SNPs to choose. Most of the work has focused on the three common SNPs within the coding block (alleles 16, 27 and 164) and the techniques developed have been for these three functionally important alleles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  10. Bong I, Lim P, Balraj P, Sim Ui Hang E, Zakaria Z
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Jun;23(1):53-9.
    PMID: 17041552 MyJurnal
    Colorectal carcinoma ranks third among ten leading causes of cancer in Malaysia. The colorectal carcinoma tumourigenesis involves the inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, and activation of proto-oncogenes. The p53 is one of the tumour suppressor genes that is involved in the colorectal carcinogenesis. The p53 gene is located on human chromosome 17p13.1 and comprises of 11 exons. Deficiencies in the p53 gene can cause the cancerous cells to spread to distant organs such as liver, lungs, lymph nodes, spine and bone. The most common p53 abnormalities that can lead to the metastasis of colorectal tumours are mutation and deregulation of the gene. In this study, nine colorectal carcinoma samples were used to establish a simple and sensitive strategy in the study on in vivo p53 expression by using realtime LightCycler SYBR Green I technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  11. Farouk AE, Batcha MF, Greiner R, Salleh HM, Salleh MR, Sirajudin AR
    Saudi Med J, 2006 Sep;27(9):1397-400.
    PMID: 16951781
    To develop a molecular technique that is fast and reliable in detecting porcine contamination or ingredients in foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  12. Normaznah Y, Furuta T, Saniah K, Noor Rain A, Kojima S, Mak JW
    PMID: 9444035
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  13. Harada K, Kinoshita A, Shukor NA, Tachida H, Yamazaki T
    Jpn. J. Genet., 1994 Dec;69(6):713-8.
    PMID: 7857675
    Three species of Shorea (S. leprosula, S. acuminata and S. cursitii) were collected from a natural forest reserve of Malaysia and analyzed for genetic variation using the technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The average number of nucleotide substitutions was estimated. The nucleotide diversities within species were very similar and larger than those found in Drosophila melanogaster. The nucleotide divergences between these species are about 1.5 times the nucleotide diversities within the species, indicating that these species diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  14. Romaino SM, Teh LK, Zilfalil BA, Thong CP, Ismail AA, Amir J, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Feb;29(1):47-52.
    PMID: 14748897 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00535.x
    Polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2 AR) gene is an important determinant of the function of this receptor. It affects receptor down-regulation and beta2-agonist responses. It has also been a focus of interest in attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of asthma, hypertension, obesity and cystic fibrosis. Several different techniques have been established to determine beta2 AR genotypes but none of these methods are simple enough to detect simultaneously all the five alleles of our research interest (Arg16/Gly16, -20T/C, Gln27/Glu27, -47T/C and Thr164/Ile164).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  15. Lange B, Khan P, Kalmambetova G, Al-Darraji HA, Alland D, Antonenka U, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2017 05 01;21(5):493-502.
    PMID: 28399963 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.16.0702
    SETTING: Xpert® MTB/RIF is the most widely used molecular assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The number of polymerase chain reaction cycles after which detectable product is generated (cycle threshold value, CT) correlates with the bacillary burden.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between Xpert CT values and smear status through a systematic review and individual-level data meta-analysis.

    DESIGN: Studies on the association between CT values and smear status were included in a descriptive systematic review. Authors of studies including smear, culture and Xpert results were asked for individual-level data, and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated.

    RESULTS: Of 918 citations, 10 were included in the descriptive systematic review. Fifteen data sets from studies potentially relevant for individual-level data meta-analysis provided individual-level data (7511 samples from 4447 patients); 1212 patients had positive Xpert results for at least one respiratory sample (1859 samples overall). ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 (95%CI 0.82-0.87). Cut-off CT values of 27.7 and 31.8 yielded sensitivities of 85% (95%CI 83-87) and 95% (95%CI 94-96) and specificities of 67% (95%CI 66-77) and 35% (95%CI 30-41) for smear-positive samples.

    CONCLUSION: Xpert CT values and smear status were strongly associated. However, diagnostic accuracy at set cut-off CT values of 27.7 or 31.8 would not replace smear microscopy. How CT values compare with smear microscopy in predicting infectiousness remains to be seen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  16. Benacer D, Zain SNM, Lewis JW, Khalid MKNM, Thong KL
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop, 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):239-242.
    PMID: 28562762 DOI: 10.1590/0037-8682-0364-2016
    INTRODUCTION:: This study aimed to develop a duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Leptospira strains.

    METHODS:: Primers were designed to target the rrs (LG1/LG2) and ligB (LP1/LP2) genes to confirm the presence of the Leptospira genus and the pathogenic species, respectively.

    RESULTS:: The assay showed 100% specificity against 17 Leptospira strains with a limit of detection of 23.1pg/µl of leptospiral DNA and sensitivity of 103 leptospires/ml in both spiked urine and water.

    CONCLUSIONS:: Our duplex endpoint PCR assay is suitable for rapid early detection of Leptospira with high sensitivity and specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  17. Chua EW, Maggo S, Kennedy MA
    Methods Mol Biol, 2017;1620:65-74.
    PMID: 28540699 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7060-5_3
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an oft-used preparatory technique in amplifying specific DNA regions for downstream analysis. The size of an amplicon was initially limited by errors in nucleotide polymerization and template deterioration during thermal cycling. A variant of PCR, designated long-range PCR, was devised to counter these drawbacks and enable the amplification of large fragments exceeding a few kb. In this chapter we describe a protocol for long-range PCR, which we have adopted to obtain products of 6.6, 7.2, 13, and 20 kb from human genomic DNA samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  18. Ling LP, Adibah AB, Tan SG, Christianus A, Faridah QZ
    J Genet, 2011 Dec;90(3):e101-4.
    PMID: 22232191
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  19. Manjeri G, Muhamad R, Faridah QZ, Tan SG
    J Genet, 2012 Nov 22;91(3):e92-6.
    PMID: 23257301
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  20. Ng KT, Chook JB, Oong XY, Chan YF, Chan KG, Hanafi NS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 10 10;6:34855.
    PMID: 27721388 DOI: 10.1038/srep34855
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the major aetiology of respiratory tract infections. HRV viral load assays are available but limitations that affect accurate quantification exist. We developed a one-step Taqman assay using oligonucleotides designed based on a comprehensive list of global HRV sequences. The new oligonucleotides targeting the 5'-UTR region showed high PCR efficiency (E = 99.6%, R2 = 0.996), with quantifiable viral load as low as 2 viral copies/μl. Assay evaluation using an External Quality Assessment (EQA) panel yielded a detection rate of 90%. When tested on 315 human enterovirus-positive specimens comprising at least 84 genetically distinct HRV types/serotypes (determined by the VP4/VP2 gene phylogenetic analysis), the assay detected all HRV species and types, as well as other non-polio enteroviruses. A commercial quantification kit, which failed to detect any of the EQA specimens, produced a detection rate of 13.3% (42/315) among the clinical specimens. Using the improved assay, we showed that HRV sheds in the upper respiratory tract for more than a week following acute infection. We also showed that HRV-C had a significantly higher viral load at 2-7 days after the onset of symptoms (p = 0.001). The availability of such assay is important to facilitate disease management, antiviral development, and infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
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