Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 313 in total

  1. Wong RSY
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Apr;43(1):3-8.
    PMID: 33903299
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a novel coronavirus that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation since March 2020. To date, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has exceeded 47 million and more than 1.2 million people have lost their lives to the disease. The disease is spreading at an exponential rate with no signs of slowing down. COVID-19 testing and early diagnosis play a crucial role in not just patient management, but also the prevention of the further spread of the disease. Various diagnostic approaches have been applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article will critically review these diagnostic approaches and compare each with the gold-standard, which is viral RNA detection using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  2. Alwi AR, Mahat NA, Mohd Salleh F, Ishar SM, Kamaluddin MR, Rashid MRA
    J Forensic Sci, 2023 Nov;68(6):2103-2115.
    PMID: 37646344 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.15370
    The onus of proof in criminal cases is beyond any reasonable doubt, and the issue on the lack of complete internal validation data can be manipulated when it comes to justifying the validity and reliability of the X-chromosomal short tandem repeats analysis for court representation. Therefore, this research evaluated the efficiency of the optimized 60% reduced volumes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using the Qiagen Investigator® Argus X-12 QS Kit, as well as the capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample preparation for blood samples on Flinder's Technology Associates (FTA) cards. Good-quality DNA profile (3000-12,000 RFU) from the purified blood sample on FTA card (1.2 mm) were obtained using the optimized PCR (10.0 μL of PCR reaction volume and 21 cycles) and CE (9.0 μL Hi-Di™ Formamide and 0.3 μL DNA Size Standard 550 [BTO] and 27 s injection time) conditions. The analytical and stochastic thresholds were 100 and 200 RFU, respectively. Hence, the internal validation data supported the use of the optimized 60% reduced PCR amplification reaction volume of the Qiagen Investigator® Argus X-12 QS Kit as well as the CE sample preparation for producing reliable DNA profiles that comply with the quality assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories, while optimizing the analytical cost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  3. Teh KJ, Tang HY, Lim LS, Pung HS, Gan SY, Lai NS
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2023 May;27(10):4378-4385.
    PMID: 37259718 DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202305_32443
    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the Gram-negative spirochetes Borrelia spp., particularly Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The disease is transmitted through the bite of the infected black-legged Ixodes tick. Lyme borreliosis extensively occurs in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in the United States. Lyme borreliosis cases are also detected in Asian countries including Korea, Nepal, China, Taiwan, and Japan. However, there is an inadequate understanding of Lyme borreliosis in the Southeast Asian region. Hence, this review aims to provide a brief update on the prevalence of Lyme borreliosis infection in Southeast Asia based on the latest literature on this issue. Lyme borreliosis has been discovered in human serum in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The human serum samples were mainly examined with ELISA test using Borrelia spp. IgG and IgM antigens. Borrelia spp. also has been detected in ticks found on host animals such as Sundamys muelleri and Python in Malaysia, Thailand, and Laos. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect the presence of Borrelia DNAs in the samples. The published studies have demonstrated that Borrelia spp. exists in Southeast Asia and although the incidence is relatively low, it is believed that Lyme disease cases are under-reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  4. Kim JH, Chong CK, Sinniah M, Sinnadurai J, Song HO, Park H
    J Clin Virol, 2015 Apr;65:11-9.
    PMID: 25766980 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.01.018
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that causes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Current immunological diagnostics based on IgM and/or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen are limited for acute dengue infection due to low sensitivity and accuracy.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop a one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay showing higher sensitivity and accuracy than previous approaches.
    STUDY DESIGN: Serotype-specific primers and probes were designed through the multiple alignment of NS1 gene. The linearity and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay were determined. The assay was clinically validated with an evaluation panel that was immunologically tested by WHO and Malaysian specimens.
    RESULTS: The LOD of the assay was 3.0 log10 RNA copies for DENV-1, 2.0 for DENV-3, and 1.0 for DENV-2 and DENV-4. The assay showed 95.2% sensitivity (20/21) in an evaluation panel, whereas NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-based immunological assays exhibited 0% and 23.8-47.6% sensitivities, respectively. The assay showed 100% sensitivity both in NS1 antigen- and anti-dengue IgM-positive Malaysian specimens (26/26). The assay provided the information of viral loads and serotype with discrimination of heterotypic mixed infection.
    CONCLUSIONS: The assay could be clinically applied to early dengue diagnosis, especially during the first 5 days of illness and approximately 14 days after infection showing an anti-dengue IgM-positive response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  5. Wong FL, Hamidah NH, Hawa AA, Nurul AN, Leong CF, Saw F, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Dec;33(2):107-12.
    PMID: 22299211
    Molecular pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is well established and molecular monitoring for patients with CML has become an important practice in the management of patients on imatinib therapy. In the present study, we report the use of RQ-PCR method for detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene for our CML cases. We performed a two-step RQ-PCR on bone marrow aspirates or peripheral blood of 37 CML patients. Quantitative expression of BCR-ABL fusion gene was carried out relative to the expression of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control to compensate for uneven cell numbers, RNA quality, or variations in reverse transcription efficiencies. Twenty-four of these patients were pre-treated with hydroxyurea or alpha interferon prior to the imatinib therapy. Their BCR-ABL fusion gene levels were monitored for 18 months. All samples processed were evaluable. The PCR amplification efficiency of the ABL gene is 90.5% (0.2158) and the BCR-ABL gene, 93.4% (0.1573).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  6. Poh CL, Tan EL
    Methods Mol Biol, 2011;665:65-77.
    PMID: 21116796 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60761-817-1_5
    Enteroviruses are positive stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Human enteroviruses are transmitted through the fecal-oral route and have been shown to cause mild to life-threatening diseases. Various diagnostic methods have been developed to detect enteroviruses from clinical specimens but many were impeded by requirements for special reagents, lengthy procedures, low sensitivity or cross-reactivity. This chapter describes rapid and highly sensitive methods of enteroviral detection directly from clinical specimens based on a conventional one-step Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a one-step real-time RT-PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  7. Thanh TT, Anh NT, Tham NT, Van HM, Sabanathan S, Qui PT, et al.
    Virol J, 2015 Jun 09;12:85.
    PMID: 26050791 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-015-0316-2
    BACKGROUND: Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease of public health importance across the Asia-Pacific region. The disease is caused by enteroviruses (EVs), in particular enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). In EV-A71-associated HFMD, the infection is sometimes associated with severe manifestations including neurological involvement and fatal outcome. The availability of a robust diagnostic assay to distinguish EV-A71 from other EVs is important for patient management and outbreak response.

    METHODS: We developed and validated an internally controlled one-step single-tube real-time RT-PCR in terms of sensitivity, linearity, precision, and specificity for simultaneous detection of EVs and EV-A71. Subsequently, the assay was then applied on throat and rectal swabs sampled from 434 HFMD patients.

    RESULTS: The assay was evaluated using both plasmid DNA and viral RNA and has shown to be reproducible with a maximum assay variation of 4.41 % and sensitive with a limit of detection less than 10 copies of target template per reaction, while cross-reactivity with other EV serotypes was not observed. When compared against a published VP1 nested RT-PCR using 112 diagnostic throat and rectal swabs from 112 children with a clinical diagnosis of HFMD during 2014, the multiplex assay had a higher sensitivity and 100 % concordance with sequencing results which showed EVs in 77/112 (68.8 %) and EV-A71 in 7/112 (6.3 %). When applied to clinical diagnostics for 322 children, the assay detected EVs in throat swabs of 257/322 (79.8 %) of which EV-A71 was detected in 36/322 (11.2 %) children. The detection rate increased to 93.5 % (301/322) and 13.4 % (43/322) for EVs and EV-A71, respectively, when rectal swabs from 65 throat-negative children were further analyzed.

    CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed and validated a sensitive internally controlled multiplex assay for rapid detection of EVs and EV-A71, which is useful for clinical management and outbreak control of HFMD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  8. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Low ET, Ooi LC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99774.
    PMID: 24927412 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099774
    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  9. Sue MJ, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Tan SW
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:653014.
    PMID: 24971343 DOI: 10.1155/2014/653014
    Polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is an immunodetection method that can quantify PCR product directly after immobilization of biotinylated DNA on a microplate. This method, which detects nucleic acid instead of protein, is a much more sensitive method compared to conventional PCR method, with shorter analytical time and lower detection limit. Its high specificity and sensitivity, together with its semiquantitative ability, give it a huge potential to serve as a powerful detection tool in various industries such as medical, veterinary, and agricultural industries. With the recent advances in PCR-ELISA, it is envisaged that the assay is more widely recognized for its fast and sensitive detection limit which could improve overall diagnostic time and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  10. Wong YP, Chua KH, Thong KL
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Dec;107:133-7.
    PMID: 25307691
    Nosocomial infections are a major public health concern worldwide. Early and accurate identification of nosocomial pathogens which are often multidrug resistant is crucial for prompt treatment. Hence, an alternative real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting-curve analysis (HRMA) was developed for identification of five nosocomial bacteria. This assay targets species-specific regions of each nosocomial bacteria and produced five distinct melt curves with each representing a particular bacterial species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 78.8 ± 0.2 °C for Acinetobacter baumannii, 82.7 ± 0.2 °C for Escherichia coli, 86.3 ± 0.3 °C for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 88.8 ± 0.2 °C for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 74.6 ± 02 °C for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The assay was able to specifically detect the five bacterial species with an overall detection limit of 2 × 10(-2) ng/μL. In conclusion, the HRM assay developed is a simple and rapid method for identification of the selected nosocomial pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  11. Goh SG, Kuan CH, Loo YY, Chang WS, Lye YL, Soopna P, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2012 Oct;91(10):2686-90.
    PMID: 22991558
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat samples at hypermarkets and wet markets. Chicken drumsticks, breasts, and thighs were randomly selected. The most probable number (MPN) PCR method was used to quantify the L. monocytogenes in the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 20% of the samples. Occurrence of L. monocytogenes was highest in breast (42.03%) followed by drumstick (11.27%) and thigh (7.14%). Samples from hypermarkets showed higher occurrence (25.71%) of L. monocytogenes compared with wet markets (14.29%). The density of L. monocytogenes found in samples ranged from <3.0 to 16 MPN•g(-1). The presence of L. monocytogenes in raw chicken meat is unwanted but unpreventable. Thus, further research on the processing method to reduce and eliminate this kind of bacteria in chicken meat before consumption is necessary. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests the importance of this pathogen in chicken. Thus, more study is needed to find ways to eliminate this pathogen from poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  12. Zilfalil BA, Hoh BP, Nizam MZ, Liza-Sharmini AT, Teh LK, Ismail R
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2006 Dec;31(6):637-40.
    PMID: 17176369
    Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified so far, within the beta-2 receptor (beta(2) AR) gene. The presence of so many SNPs within the beta(2) AR gene causes a problem, for those studying beta(2) AR pharmacogenetics, in relation to which SNPs to choose. Most of the work has focused on the three common SNPs within the coding block (alleles 16, 27 and 164) and the techniques developed have been for these three functionally important alleles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  13. Normaznah Y, Furuta T, Saniah K, Noor Rain A, Kojima S, Mak JW
    PMID: 9444035
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  14. Harada K, Kinoshita A, Shukor NA, Tachida H, Yamazaki T
    Jpn. J. Genet., 1994 Dec;69(6):713-8.
    PMID: 7857675
    Three species of Shorea (S. leprosula, S. acuminata and S. cursitii) were collected from a natural forest reserve of Malaysia and analyzed for genetic variation using the technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The average number of nucleotide substitutions was estimated. The nucleotide diversities within species were very similar and larger than those found in Drosophila melanogaster. The nucleotide divergences between these species are about 1.5 times the nucleotide diversities within the species, indicating that these species diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  15. Romaino SM, Teh LK, Zilfalil BA, Thong CP, Ismail AA, Amir J, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Feb;29(1):47-52.
    PMID: 14748897 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00535.x
    Polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2 AR) gene is an important determinant of the function of this receptor. It affects receptor down-regulation and beta2-agonist responses. It has also been a focus of interest in attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of asthma, hypertension, obesity and cystic fibrosis. Several different techniques have been established to determine beta2 AR genotypes but none of these methods are simple enough to detect simultaneously all the five alleles of our research interest (Arg16/Gly16, -20T/C, Gln27/Glu27, -47T/C and Thr164/Ile164).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  16. Ling LP, Adibah AB, Tan SG, Christianus A, Faridah QZ
    J Genet, 2011 Dec;90(3):e101-4.
    PMID: 22232191
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  17. Manjeri G, Muhamad R, Faridah QZ, Tan SG
    J Genet, 2012 Nov 22;91(3):e92-6.
    PMID: 23257301
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  18. Pasha F, Alatawi A, Amir M, Faridi U
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2020 Jan;23(8):1086-1095.
    PMID: 32700860 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2020.1086.1095
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of Nipah virus (NiV) was shortly seen in many Asian countries like Malaysia, Bangladesh and India most recently. Nipah virus also synonym as bat born virus is transmitted primarily by fruit bats. The 2 different strains transmitted are Hendra (highly pathogenic) and Cedar (non-pathogenic). The present study was attempt to develop recombinant protein based reagents for molecular diagnosis of Nipah.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The different primer sets were developed using bioinformatics software DNASTAR. The E. coli cells were used for recombinant protein expression.

    RESULTS: The NiV 'G' region primers were designed and amplified for 1 kb fragment and cloned. The NiV 'G' fragments were sub-cloned in pET-28(+) B and pGEX-5x-1. Recombinant protein thus obtained in soluble form in both the cases was essayed using western blot. The result showed the protein expression yield was more in pET-28(+) B with low stability and vice versa for pGEX-5x-1.

    CONCLUSION: The antibodies raised from the protein can be used as diagnostic reagent for detection of NiV. Thus, a new diagnostic technique can be industrialized.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  19. Bong I, Lim P, Balraj P, Sim Ui Hang E, Zakaria Z
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Jun;23(1):53-9.
    PMID: 17041552 MyJurnal
    Colorectal carcinoma ranks third among ten leading causes of cancer in Malaysia. The colorectal carcinoma tumourigenesis involves the inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, and activation of proto-oncogenes. The p53 is one of the tumour suppressor genes that is involved in the colorectal carcinogenesis. The p53 gene is located on human chromosome 17p13.1 and comprises of 11 exons. Deficiencies in the p53 gene can cause the cancerous cells to spread to distant organs such as liver, lungs, lymph nodes, spine and bone. The most common p53 abnormalities that can lead to the metastasis of colorectal tumours are mutation and deregulation of the gene. In this study, nine colorectal carcinoma samples were used to establish a simple and sensitive strategy in the study on in vivo p53 expression by using realtime LightCycler SYBR Green I technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
  20. Lange B, Khan P, Kalmambetova G, Al-Darraji HA, Alland D, Antonenka U, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2017 05 01;21(5):493-502.
    PMID: 28399963 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.16.0702
    SETTING: Xpert® MTB/RIF is the most widely used molecular assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The number of polymerase chain reaction cycles after which detectable product is generated (cycle threshold value, CT) correlates with the bacillary burden.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between Xpert CT values and smear status through a systematic review and individual-level data meta-analysis.

    DESIGN: Studies on the association between CT values and smear status were included in a descriptive systematic review. Authors of studies including smear, culture and Xpert results were asked for individual-level data, and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated.

    RESULTS: Of 918 citations, 10 were included in the descriptive systematic review. Fifteen data sets from studies potentially relevant for individual-level data meta-analysis provided individual-level data (7511 samples from 4447 patients); 1212 patients had positive Xpert results for at least one respiratory sample (1859 samples overall). ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 (95%CI 0.82-0.87). Cut-off CT values of 27.7 and 31.8 yielded sensitivities of 85% (95%CI 83-87) and 95% (95%CI 94-96) and specificities of 67% (95%CI 66-77) and 35% (95%CI 30-41) for smear-positive samples.

    CONCLUSION: Xpert CT values and smear status were strongly associated. However, diagnostic accuracy at set cut-off CT values of 27.7 or 31.8 would not replace smear microscopy. How CT values compare with smear microscopy in predicting infectiousness remains to be seen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*
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