Dry matter (DM), total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant activity of 12 purslane accessions were investigated against five levels of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32dSm(-1)). In untreated plants, the DM contents ranged between 8.0-23.4g/pot; total phenolics contents (TPC) between 0.96-9.12mgGAEg(-1)DW; total flavonoid contents (TFC) between 0.15-1.44mgREg(-1)DW; and total carotenoid contents (TCC) between 0.52BCEg(-1)DW. While FRAP activity ranged from 8.64-104.21mgTEg(-1)DW (about 12-fold) and DPPH activity between 2.50-3.30mgmL(-1) IC50 value. Different levels of salinity treatment resulted in 8-35% increases in TPC; about 35% increase in TFC; and 18-35% increases in FRAP activity. Purslane accessions Ac4, Ac5, Ac6 and Ac8 possessed potentials for salinity-induced augmented production of bioactive compounds which in turn can be harnessed for possible human health benefits.
Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), also known as pigweed, fatweed, pusle, and little hogweed, is an annual succulent herb in the family Portulacaceae that is found in most corners of the globe. From the ancient ages purslane has been treated as a major weed of vegetables as well as other crops. However, worldwide researchers and nutritionists have studied this plant as a potential vegetable crop for humans as well as animals. Purslane is a nutritious vegetable with high antioxidant properties and recently has been recognized as the richest source of α-linolenic acid, essential omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and β-carotene. The lack of vegetable sources of ω-3 fatty acids has resulted in a growing level of attention to introduce purslane as a new cultivated vegetable. In the rapid-revolutionizing worldwide atmosphere, the ability to produce improved planting material appropriate to diverse and varying rising conditions is a supreme precedence. Though various published reports on morphological, physiological, nutritional and medicinal aspects of purslane are available, research on the genetic improvement of this promising vegetable crop are scant. Now it is necessary to conduct research for the genetic improvement of this plant. Genetic improvement of purslane is also a real scientific challenge. Scientific modernization of conventional breeding with the advent of advance biotechnological and molecular approaches such as tissue culture, protoplast fusion, genetic transformation, somatic hybridization, marker-assisted selection, qualitative trait locus mapping, genomics, informatics and various statistical representation have opened up new opportunities of revising the relationship between genetic diversity, agronomic performance and response to breeding for varietal improvement. This review is an attempt to amalgamate the assorted scientific information on purslane propagation, cultivation, varietal improvement, nutrient analyses, medicinal uses and to describe prospective research especially for genetic improvement of this crop.
The methanolic extracts of 13 accessions of purslane were analyzed for their total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and total carotenoid contents (TCC) and antioxidant activity of extracts was screened using FRAP assay and DPPH radical scavenging methods. The TPC, TFC, and TCC ranged from 0.96 ± 0.04 to 9.12 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DW, 0.13 ± 0.04 to 1.44 ± 0.08 mg RE/g DW, and 0.52 ± 0.06 to 5.64 ± 0.09 mg (β-carotene equivalent) BCE/g DW, respectively. The DPPH scavenging (IC50) activity varied between 2.52 ± 0.03 mg/mL and 3.29 ± 0.01 mg/mL and FRAP ranged from 7.39 ± 0.08 to 104.2 ± 6.34 μmol TE/g DW. Among all the measured micro- and macrominerals K content was the highest followed by N, Na, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, and Mn. The overall findings proved that ornamental purslane was richer in antioxidant properties, whereas common purslane possesses more mineral contents than ornamental ones.
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671-869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.
The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC(50)) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC(50) and FRAP assays (r(2) > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of varied salinity regimes on the morphological traits (plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, fresh and dry weight) and major mineral composition of 13 selected purslane accessions. Most of the morphological traits measured were reduced at varied salinity levels (0.0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 dS m(-1)), but plant height was found to increase in Ac1 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, and Ac13 was the most affected accession. The highest reductions in the number of leaves and number of flowers were recorded in Ac13 at 32 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. The highest fresh and dry weight reductions were noted in Ac8 and Ac6, respectively, at 32 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas the highest increase in both fresh and dry weight was recorded in Ac9 at 24 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. In contrast, at lower salinity levels, all of the measured mineral levels were found to increase and later decrease with increasing salinity, but the performance of different accessions was different depending on the salinity level. A dendrogram was also constructed by UPGMA based on the morphological traits and mineral compositions, in which the 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters, indicating greater diversity among them. A three-dimensional principal component analysis also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis.
The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers to purslane seed consumption and aerobic training in women with T2D. 196 women with T2D were assigned into; (1) placebo (PL), (2) aerobic training+placebo (AT + PL), 3) purslane seeds (PS), aerobic training+purslane seeds (AT + PS). The training program and purslane seeds consumption (2.5 g lunch and 5 g dinner) were carried out for 16 weeks. The components of purslane seed were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Blood samples were withdrawn via venipuncture to examine blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), creatinine, urea, uric acid, NF-κB, GLP1, GLP1R, TIMP-1, MMP2, MMP9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS expressions. Blood glucose, LDL, cholesterol, TG, creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels in the (P), (AT), and (AT + PS) groups were significantly decreased compared to the pre-experimental levels or the placebo group, while HDL, significantly increased. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB, TIMP-1, MMP2 &9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS in the (P), (AT), (AT + PS) significantly decreased compared to pre-experimental or the placebo group, while level of GLP1 and GLP1-R increased drastically. Findings suggest that purslane seed consumption alongside exercising could improve atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers through synergistically mechanisms in T2D.