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  1. Adam BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Mar;27(3):192-4.
    PMID: 4268922
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy
  2. Azizam NA, Ismail A, Sulong S, Nor NM
    Int J Health Policy Manag, 2019 07 01;8(7):394-402.
    PMID: 31441276 DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2019.17
    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence detailing the cost-effectiveness of psoriasis treatments in the Asian region. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 psoriasis treatments tailored for moderate to severe psoriasis, namely topical and phototherapy (TP), topical and systemic (TS), and topical and biologic (TB) regimens, respectively.

    METHODS: This has been achieved by the participation of a prospective cohort involving a total of 90 moderate to severe psoriasis patients, which has been conducted at 5 public hospitals in Malaysia. The main outcome measures have been evaluated via cost and effectiveness psoriasis area severity index (PASI)-75 and/or body surface area (BSA) <5 and/or dermatology life quality index (DLQI) ≤5), estimated from the societal perspective over a 6-months duration. All costs are based on 2015's recorded Malaysian Ringgit (RM) currency.

    RESULTS: Consequently, TS has been found to be the most cost-effective treatment with the lowest cost/PASI-75/and/or BSA <5 and/or DLQI ≤5, valued at RM9034.56 (US$2582.55). This is followed by TP, which is valued at RM28 080.71 (US$8026.93) and TB, valued at RM54 287.02 (US$15 518.06). Furthermore, one-way sensitivity analysis has highlighted the cost of medication as the most sensitive parameter.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the input from this study is helpful for policy-makers in determining the first line treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis with consideration of the costs and its effectiveness in Malaysia. This will consequently allow hospitals to justify and provide the essential resources for further research and development, as well as the adoption of better treatment options.

    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  3. Rehman K, Aluwi MF, Rullah K, Wai LK, Mohd Amin MC, Zulfakar MH
    Int J Pharm, 2015 Jul 25;490(1-2):131-41.
    PMID: 26003416 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.05.045
    Imiquimod is a chemotherapeutic agent for many skin-associated diseases, but it has also been associated with inflammatory side effects. The aim of this study was to prevent the inflammatory effect of commercial imiquimod (Aldara(®)) by controlled release of imiquimod through a hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture (CA bigel) containing fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent. Imiquimod permeability from Aldara® cream and bigel through mice skin was evaluated, and the drug content residing in the skin via the tape stripping technique was quantified. The fish oil fatty acid content in skin along with its lipophilic environment was also determined. An inflammation study was conducted using animal models, and Aldara(®) cream was found to potentially cause psoriasis-like inflammation, which could be owing to prolonged application and excessive drug permeation. Controlled release of imiquimod along with fish oil through CA bigel may have caused reduced imiquimod inflammation. NMR studies and computerized molecular modeling were also conducted to observe whether the fish oil and imiquimod formed a complex that was responsible for improving imiquimod transport and reducing its side effects. NMR spectra showed dose-dependent chemical shifts and molecular modeling revealed π-σ interaction between EPA and imiquimod, which could help reduce imiquimod inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy
  4. Yap WH, Cheah TY, Yong LC, Chowdhury SR, Ng MH, Kwan Z, et al.
    J Biosci, 2021;46.
    PMID: 34475316
    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by thickening and disorganization of the skin's protective barrier. Although current models replicate some aspects of the disease, development of therapeutic strategies have been hindered by absence of more relevant models. This study aimed to develop and characterize an in vitro psoriatic human skin equivalent (HSE) using human keratinocytes HaCat cell line grown on fibroblasts-derived matrices (FDM). The constructed HSEs were treated with cytokines (IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL22) to allow controlled induction of psoriasis-associated features. Histological stainings showed that FDMHSE composed of a fully differentiated epidermis and fibroblast-populated dermis comparable to native skin and rat tail collagen-HSE. Hyperproliferation (CK16 and Ki67) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) expression were significantly enhanced in the cytokine-induced FDM- and rat tail collagen HSEs compared to non-treated HSE counterparts. The characteristics were in line with those observed in psoriasis punch biopsies. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has shown to suppress these effects, where HSE models treated with both ATRA and cytokines exhibit histological characteristics, hyperproliferation and differentiation markers expression like non-treated control HSEs. Cytokine-induced FDM-HSE, constructed entirely from human cell lines, provides an excellent opportunity for psoriasis research and testing new therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  5. Tang MM, Chang CC, Chan LC, Heng A
    Int J Dermatol, 2013 Mar;52(3):314-22.
    PMID: 23414155 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05340.x
    BACKGROUND:Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic, inflammatory skin disease which affects approximately 2% of the world's population. It has a major impact on the patient's quality of life (QoL), influencing career, social activities, family relationships, and all other aspects of life. Many studies have described the various ways in which psoriasis can affect a patient's life. Very little is known, however, about the impact of psoriasis on the QoL of patients treated in Malaysia and the cost of illness in this region.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the extent to which psoriasis affects the QoL of patients treated in government-run dermatology clinics in Malaysia and to estimate the cost of illness.
    METHODS: A total of 250 psoriasis patients treated at eight dermatology clinics in government-run hospitals in Malaysia were studied. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by dermatologists. Quality of life was evaluated using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Version 2 of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Scores on the SF-12v2 of healthy subjects and of patients with other medical conditions, such as depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease, were also assessed for comparison. The costs of dermatology outpatient consultant fees, medications, investigations, procedures, transportation, over-the-counter medications, and hospitalization were retrospectively estimated using questionnaires.
    RESULTS: The cohort studied had a median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score of 9.9 and a median DLQI score of 10.0. The average SF-12v2 scores were 43.68 (standard deviation [SD] 9.23) and 42.25 (SD 10.7) on the Physical Health Summary and Mental Health Summary, respectively. The impact of disease on QoL was found to be greater in those with more extensive psoriatic lesion involvement, in younger patients, and in those with psoriatic arthropathy. Psoriasis was found to affect QoL in both genders equally. Body mass index had no effect on the severity of psoriasis or QoL. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly lower SF-12v2 score than healthy subjects. Comparisons with data for patients with other chronic medical conditions demonstrated that psoriasis has a negative effect on health-related QoL similar to the impact of other chronic conditions. The estimated cost of illness for psoriasis in the current cohort was ringgit Malaysia (RM) 1307.47 per person per year excluding costs of hospitalization. Patients were noted to spend a large amount of money on over-the-counter products obtained without doctors' prescriptions.
    CONCLUSIONS: The QoL of patients with psoriasis was significantly impaired compared with that of healthy subjects and was comparable with that of patients with other chronic medical illnesses. The estimated cost of illness of psoriasis in the current study was lower than in other countries, mainly because healthcare costs in public hospitals are heavily subsidized by government and because usage of newer but more expensive treatment options is low in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy
  6. Bachelez H, Choon SE, Marrakchi S, Burden AD, Tsai TF, Morita A, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2019 03 07;380(10):981-983.
    PMID: 30855749 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1811317
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  7. Liu F, Wang S, Liu B, Wang Y, Tan W
    Cells, 2020 02 24;9(2).
    PMID: 32102363 DOI: 10.3390/cells9020511
    Psoriasis is a skin disease that is characterized by a high degree of inflammation caused by immune dysfunction. (R)-salbutamol is a bronchodilator for asthma and was reported to alleviate immune system reactions in several diseases. In this study, using imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse psoriasis-like dermatitis model, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of (R)-salbutamol in psoriasis in vivo, and explored the metabolic pathway involved. The results showed that, compared with IMQ group, (R)-salbutamol treatment significantly ameliorated psoriasis, reversed the suppressive effects of IMQ on differentiation, extreme keratinocyte proliferation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed that (R)-salbutamol markedly reduced the plasma levels of IL-17. Cell analysis using flow cytometry showed that (R)-salbutamol decreased the proportion of CD4+ Th17+ T cells (Th17), whereas it increased the percentage of CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleens. (R)-salbutamol also decreased the weight ratio of spleen to body. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomics showed that (R)-salbutamol affected three metabolic pathways, including (i) arachidonic acid metabolism, (ii) sphingolipid metabolism, and (iii) glycerophospholipid metabolism. These results demonstrated that (R)-salbutamol can alleviate IMQ-induced psoriasis through regulating Th17/Tregs cell response and glycerophospholipid metabolism. It may provide a new use of (R)-salbutamol in the management of psoriasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  8. Bachelez H, Choon SE, Marrakchi S, Burden AD, Tsai TF, Morita A, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2021 12 23;385(26):2431-2440.
    PMID: 34936739 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2111563
    BACKGROUND: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare, life-threatening, inflammatory skin disease characterized by widespread eruption of sterile pustules. Interleukin-36 signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Spesolimab, a humanized anti-interleukin-36 receptor monoclonal antibody, is being studied for the treatment of GPP flares.

    METHODS: In a phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned patients with a GPP flare in a 2:1 ratio to receive a single 900-mg intravenous dose of spesolimab or placebo. Patients in both groups could receive an open-label dose of spesolimab on day 8, an open-label dose of spesolimab as a rescue medication after day 8, or both and were followed to week 12. The primary end point was a Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Physician Global Assessment (GPPGA) pustulation subscore of 0 (range, 0 [no visible pustules] to 4 [severe pustulation]) at the end of week 1. The key secondary end point was a GPPGA total score of 0 or 1 (clear or almost clear skin) at the end of week 1; scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating greater disease severity.

    RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were enrolled: 35 were assigned to receive spesolimab and 18 to receive placebo. At baseline, 46% of the patients in the spesolimab group and 39% of those in the placebo group had a GPPGA pustulation subscore of 3, and 37% and 33%, respectively, had a pustulation subscore of 4. At the end of week 1, a total of 19 of 35 patients (54%) in the spesolimab group had a pustulation subscore of 0, as compared with 1 of 18 patients (6%) in the placebo group (difference, 49 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21 to 67; P<0.001). A total of 15 of 35 patients (43%) had a GPPGA total score of 0 or 1, as compared with 2 of 18 patients (11%) in the placebo group (difference, 32 percentage points; 95% CI, 2 to 53; P = 0.02). Drug reactions were reported in 2 patients who received spesolimab, in 1 of them concurrently with a drug-induced hepatic injury. Among patients assigned to the spesolimab group, infections occurred in 6 of 35 (17%) through the first week; among patients who received spesolimab at any time in the trial, infections had occurred in 24 of 51 (47%) at week 12. Antidrug antibodies were detected in 23 of 50 patients (46%) who received at least one dose of spesolimab.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a phase 2 randomized trial involving patients with GPP, the interleukin-36 receptor inhibitor spesolimab resulted in a higher incidence of lesion clearance at 1 week than placebo but was associated with infections and systemic drug reactions. Longer and larger trials are warranted to determine the effect and risks of spesolimab in patients with pustular psoriasis. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; Effisayil 1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03782792.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  9. Ng LC, Lee YY, Lee CK, Wong SM
    Int J Dermatol, 2013 Jan;52(1):102-5.
    PMID: 23278617 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05436.x
    BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is a common and efficacious systemic agent used for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. Nevertheless, its use is associated with the risk of hepatotoxicity. This study was performed to study the association of MTX dose with regards to hepatotoxicity as evidenced by deranged transaminases.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with psoriasis on MTX from 2000 to 2009 at the outpatient dermatology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We analyzed patients' demography, serial laboratory investigations, liver ultrasounds, and liver biopsies of patients on MTX.
    RESULTS: Sixty-six of 710 (9.30%) patients with psoriasis were prescribed MTX throughout the 10-year period. Among them 57.6% developed deranged transaminases, with six requiring MTX withdrawal due to hepatotoxicity. The mean cumulative dose of MTX at the detection of liver enzyme derangement was 552.3 ± 596.1 mg.
    CONCLUSION: A high proportion of patients on MTX had deranged transaminases. However, the number of serious events was low. We concluded from this study that the use of MTX is relatively safe in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Study site: outpatient dermatology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  10. Vergnano M, Mockenhaupt M, Benzian-Olsson N, Paulmann M, Grys K, Mahil SK, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2020 09 03;107(3):539-543.
    PMID: 32758448 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.020
    The identification of disease alleles underlying human autoinflammatory diseases can provide important insights into the mechanisms that maintain neutrophil homeostasis. Here, we focused our attention on generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a potentially life-threatening disorder presenting with cutaneous and systemic neutrophilia. Following the whole-exome sequencing of 19 unrelated affected individuals, we identified a subject harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.2031-2A>C) in MPO. This encodes myeloperoxidase, an essential component of neutrophil azurophil granules. MPO screening in conditions phenotypically related to GPP uncovered further disease alleles in one subject with acral pustular psoriasis (c.2031-2A>C;c.2031-2A>C) and in two individuals with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (c.1705C>T;c.2031-2A>C and c.1552_1565del;c.1552_1565del). A subsequent analysis of UK Biobank data demonstrated that the c.2031-2A>C and c.1705C>T (p.Arg569Trp) disease alleles were also associated with increased neutrophil abundance in the general population (p = 5.1 × 10-6 and p = 3.6 × 10-5, respectively). The same applied to three further deleterious variants that had been genotyped in the cohort, with two alleles (c.995C>T [p.Ala332Val] and c.752T>C [p.Met251Thr]) yielding p values < 10-10. Finally, treatment of healthy neutrophils with an MPO inhibitor (4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide) increased cell viability and delayed apoptosis, highlighting a mechanism whereby MPO mutations affect granulocyte numbers. These findings identify MPO as a genetic determinant of pustular skin disease and neutrophil abundance. Given the recent interest in the development of MPO antagonists for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, our results also suggest that the pro-inflammatory effects of these agents should be closely monitored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy
  11. Choon SE, Lai NM, Mohammad NA, Nanu NM, Tey KE, Chew SF
    Int J Dermatol, 2014 Jun;53(6):676-84.
    PMID: 23967807 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12070
    BACKGROUND: Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe but rare variant of psoriasis. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, comorbidities, and outcome of patients with GPP.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective note review of all patients with adult-onset GPP.
    RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with adult-onset GPP were diagnosed between 1989 and November 2011, with a female to male ratio of 2 : 1. The mean age at onset of GPP was 40.9 years (range: 21-81 years). Acute GPP was the most common variant seen (95 cases), followed by four localized variants of GPP and three with annular pustular psoriasis. Fever and painful skin were present in 89% of patients, arthritis in 34.7%, and leukocytosis in 78.4%. Common triggers were systemic steroids (45 cases), pregnancy (17 cases), and upper respiratory tract infections (16 cases). A positive family history of psoriasis and GPP was present in 29% and 11%, respectively. Comorbidities included obesity (42.9%), hypertension (25.7%), hyperlipidemia (25.7%), and diabetes mellitus (23.7%). The mean duration of admission and pustular flare for acute GPP was 10.3 days (range: 3-44 days) and 16 days (range: 7-60 days), respectively. Fifty-four patients responded to systemic retinoid, 21 to methotrexate, eight to cyclosporine, and one to adalimumab, but recurrences were common.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the poor response of GPP to currently available anti-psoriatic agents, with frequent flare-ups. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
  12. Rapalli VK, Singhvi G, Dubey SK, Gupta G, Chellappan DK, Dua K
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Oct;106:707-713.
    PMID: 29990862 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.136
    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder affecting 2-3% of the world population. It has characteristic features such as increased keratinocyte proliferation and production of inflammatory mediators. The treatment involves various strategies including topical, systemic, phototherapy and biologics. Topical therapies are preferred for mild to moderate psoriasis conditions over the systemic therapies which are ideal in severe disease conditions. The systemic therapies include immunosuppressants, biological agents and recently approved phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors. There are various limitations associated with the existing therapies where the new findings in the pathogenesis of psoriasis are paving a path for newer therapeutics to target at the molecular level. Various small molecules, PDE-4 inhibitors, biologics, and immunomodulator proved efficacious including the new molecules targeting Janus kinases (JAK) inhibitors that are under investigation. Furthermore, the role of genetic and miRNAs in psoriasis is still not completely explored and may further help in improving the treatment efficacy. This review provides an insight into various emerging therapies along with currently approved treatments for psoriasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Psoriasis/drug therapy*
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