METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.
RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.
CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.
Methods: Light-induced damage to the retina was created by exposure of adult albino Sprague-Dawley rats to intense light for 24 hours. A single dose of Cx43MP, Cx43MP-NPs, or saline was injected intravitreally at 2 hours after onset of light damage. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Cx43MP-NPs were intravitreally injected to confirm delivery into the retina. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were performed at 24 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks post cessation of light damage. The retinal and choroidal layers were analyzed in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and immunohistochemistry was performed on harvested tissues using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), leukocyte common antigen (CD45), and Cx43 antibodies.
Results: FITC was visualized 30 minutes after injection in the ganglion cell layer and in the choroid. Cx43MP and Cx43MP-NP treatments improved a-wave and b-wave function of the ERG compared with saline-injected eyes at 1 week and 2 weeks post treatment, and prevented photoreceptor loss by 2 weeks post treatment. Inflammation was also reduced and this was in parallel with downregulation of Cx43 expression.
Conclusions: The slow release of Cx43MP incorporated into NPs is more effective at treating retinal injury than a single dose of native Cx43MP in solution by reducing inflammation and maintaining both retinal structure and function. This NP preparation has clinical relevance as it reduces possible ocular complications associated with repeated intravitreal injections.