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  1. Chan LY, Balasubramaniam S, Sunder R, Jamalia R, Karunakar TV, Alagaratnam J
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):497-8.
    PMID: 22390110
    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology*
  2. Hoh HB, Kong VY, Jaais F
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):288-9.
    PMID: 10968169
    A patient who was referred to the eye department for routine ocular assessment prior to commencement of antituberculous therapy was found to have periphlebitis in both eyes despite being visually asymptomatic. Fluorescein angiography confirms the presence of vasculitis without any retinal oedema or areas of non-perfusion, which may sometimes accompany the condition. Within 2 months of systemic treatment, the ocular signs regressed without any permanent effect on vision. This case highlights a rare ocular complication associated with systemic tuberculosis which fortunately did not result in loss of vision due to prompt treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  3. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Sidek S, Spasov A, et al.
    Curr. Eye Res., 2018 08;43(8):1032-1040.
    PMID: 29676937 DOI: 10.1080/02713683.2018.1467933
    PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET1), a potent vasoconstrictor. ET1-induced retinal ischemia leads to altered expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms leading to increased formation of nitric oxide (NO) and retinal nitrosative stress. Since magnesium (Mg) is known to improve endothelial functions and reduce oxidative stress and taurine (TAU) possesses potent antioxidant properties, we investigated the protective effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) against ET1-induced nitrosative stress and retinal damage in rats. We also compared the effects of MgAT with that of TAU alone.

    METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.

    RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  4. Mat Nor N, Guo CX, Rupenthal ID, Chen YS, Green CR, Acosta ML
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2018 07 02;59(8):3682-3693.
    PMID: 30029255 DOI: 10.1167/iovs.17-22829
    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effect on inflammation and inflammasome activation of intravitreally delivered connexin43 mimetic peptide (Cx43MP) in saline or incorporated within nanoparticles (NPs) for the treatment of the light-damaged rat eye.

    Methods: Light-induced damage to the retina was created by exposure of adult albino Sprague-Dawley rats to intense light for 24 hours. A single dose of Cx43MP, Cx43MP-NPs, or saline was injected intravitreally at 2 hours after onset of light damage. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Cx43MP-NPs were intravitreally injected to confirm delivery into the retina. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were performed at 24 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks post cessation of light damage. The retinal and choroidal layers were analyzed in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and immunohistochemistry was performed on harvested tissues using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), leukocyte common antigen (CD45), and Cx43 antibodies.

    Results: FITC was visualized 30 minutes after injection in the ganglion cell layer and in the choroid. Cx43MP and Cx43MP-NP treatments improved a-wave and b-wave function of the ERG compared with saline-injected eyes at 1 week and 2 weeks post treatment, and prevented photoreceptor loss by 2 weeks post treatment. Inflammation was also reduced and this was in parallel with downregulation of Cx43 expression.

    Conclusions: The slow release of Cx43MP incorporated into NPs is more effective at treating retinal injury than a single dose of native Cx43MP in solution by reducing inflammation and maintaining both retinal structure and function. This NP preparation has clinical relevance as it reduces possible ocular complications associated with repeated intravitreal injections.

    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  5. Jafri AJA, Arfuzir NNN, Lambuk L, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Agarwal P, et al.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2017 Jan;39:147-154.
    PMID: 27908408 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.005
    Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status. Both the decreased and elevated levels of trace elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) affect NMDA receptor excitability and redox status. Manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) are also part of antioxidant defense mechanisms in retina. Additionally endogenous substances such as taurine also affect NMDA receptor activity and retinal redox status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mg acetyltaurate (MgAT) on the retinal mineral and trace element concentration, oxidative stress, retinal morphology and retinal cell apoptosis in rats after-NMDA exposure. One group of Sprague Dawley rats received intravitreal injection of vehicle while 4 other groups similarly received NMDA (160nmolL(-1)). Among the NMDA injected groups, 3 groups also received MgAT (320nmolL(-1)) as pre-treatment, co-treatment or post-treatment. Seven days after intravitreal injection, rats were sacrificed, eyes were enucleated and retinae were isolated for estimation of mineral (Ca, Na, K, Mg) and trace element (Mn, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) concentration using Inductively Coupled Plasma (DRC ICP-MS) techniques (NexION 300D), retinal oxidative stress using Elisa, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Intravitreal NMDA injection resulted in increased concentration of Ca (4.6 times, p<0.0001), Mg (1.5 times, p<0.01), Na (3 times, p<0.0001) and K (2.3 times, p<0.0001) compared to vehicle injected group. This was accompanied with significant increase of Ca/Mg and Na/K ratios, 3 and 1.27 times respectively, compared to control group. The trace elements such as Cu, Fe and Zn also showed a significant increase amounting to 3.3 (p<0.001), 2.3 (p<0.0001) and 3 (p<0.0001) times respectively compared to control group. Se was increased by 60% (p<0.005). Pre-treatment with MgAT abolished effect of NMDA on minerals and trace elements more effectively than co- and post-treatment. Similar observations were made for retinal oxidative stress, retinal morphology and retinal cell apoptosis. In conclusion, current study demonstrated the protective effect of MgAT against NMDA-induced oxidative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. This effect of MgAT was associated with restoration of retinal concentrations of minerals and trace elements. Further studies are warranted to explore the precise molecular targets of MgAT. Nevertheless, MgAT seems a potential candidate in the management of diseases involving NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  6. Jafri AJA, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Ismail NM
    Amino Acids, 2019 Apr;51(4):641-646.
    PMID: 30656415 DOI: 10.1007/s00726-019-02696-4
    This study aimed to evaluate effect of TAU on NMDA-induced changes in retinal redox status, retinal cell apoptosis and retinal morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats. Taurine was injected intravitreally as pre-, co- or post-treatment with NMDA and 7 days post-treatment retinae were processed for estimation of oxidative stress, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using TUNEL staining. Treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, significantly increased retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels compared to NMDA-treated rats; whereas, the levels of malondialdehyde reduced significantly. Reduction in retinal oxidative stress in TAU pre-treated group was associated with significantly greater fractional thickness of ganglion cell layer within inner retina and retinal cell density in inner retina. TUNEL staining showed significantly reduced apoptotic cell count in TAU pre-treated group compared to NMDA group. It could be concluded that TAU protects against NMDA-induced retinal injury in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  7. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Ismail NM
    Exp Eye Res, 2020 05;194:107996.
    PMID: 32156652 DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2020.107996
    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of ocular conditions like glaucoma. Glaucoma is characterized by apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and loss of visual fields and is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. In glaucomatous eyes, retinal ischemia causes release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and promotes activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) and c-Jun. Magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) has previously been shown to protect against ET-1 induced retinal and optic nerve damage. Current study investigated the mechanisms underlying these effects of MgAT, which so far remain unknown. Sprague dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET-1 with or without pretreatment with MgAT. Seven days post-injection, retinal expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NFKB and c-Jun protein and genes was determined using multiplex assay, Western blot and PCR. Animals were subjected to retrograde labeling of RGCs to determine the extent of RGC survival. RGC survival was also examined using Brn3A staining. Furthermore, visual functions of rats were determined using Morris water maze. It was observed that pre-treatment with MgAT protects against ET-1 induced increase in the retinal expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins and genes. It also protected against ET-1 induced activation of NFKB and c-Jun. These effects of MgAT were associated with greater RGC survival and preservation of visual functions in rats. In conclusion, MgAT prevents ET-1 induced RGC loss and loss of visual functions by suppressing neuroinflammatory reaction in rat retinas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  8. Mat Nor MN, Rupenthal ID, Green CR, Acosta ML
    Neurotherapeutics, 2020 01;17(1):371-387.
    PMID: 31637594 DOI: 10.1007/s13311-019-00786-5
    Increased Connexin43 hemichannel opening is associated with inflammasome pathway activation and inflammation in a range of pathologies including ocular disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, the effect on retinal function and morphology of clinically safe doses of orally delivered tonabersat, a small molecule connexin hemichannel blocker, was investigated in the light-damaged retina animal model of dry AMD and in a spontaneous rat model of DR. Clinical parameters (fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinography) and inflammatory markers (immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 microglial marker, astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Connexin43 protein expression) were assessed. Tonabersat treatment reduced inflammation in the retina in parallel with preservation of retinal photoreceptor function when assessed up to 3 months post light damage in the dry AMD model. In the DR model, clinical signs, including the presence of aneurysms confirmed using Evans blue dye perfusion, were reduced after daily tonabersat treatment for 2 weeks. Inflammation was also reduced and retinal electrical function restored. Tonabersat regulates assembly of the inflammasome (NLRP3) through Connexin43 hemichannel block, with the potential to reduce inflammation, restore vascular integrity and improve anatomical along with some functional outcomes in retinal disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology
  9. Sng CC, Wong WL, Cheung CY, Lee J, Tai ES, Wong TY
    J Hypertens, 2013 Oct;31(10):2036-42.
    PMID: 23787404 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328362c201
    OBJECTIVE(S): To examine the effect of blood pressure (BP) on retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df), a measure of microvascular network complexity and density in a multiethnic cohort.
    METHODS: A population-based study of 3876 Chinese, Malay and Indian participants in Singapore. Retinal Df was measured using a computer-based program from digital retinal photographs. Associations between retinal Df and mean arterial BP (MABP) in the whole cohort and in each racial group were analysed using linear regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between retinal Df and hypertension status.
    RESULTS: The mean retinal Df of the study population was 1.45 (standard deviation 0.03). After adjustment for age, sex, race, diabetes, BMI, cholesterol and creatinine levels, persons with smaller Df had higher MABP (mean difference MABP was 6.18 mmHg comparing lowest to highest Df quartiles, P<0.001). This was similar in Chinese, Malay and Indian persons [mean difference 6.40 (P<0.001), 4.72 (P=0.011) and 6.62 (P<0.001)mmHg, respectively]. Persons with smaller retinal Df were more likely to have uncontrolled treated or untreated hypertension [odds ratio 1.79 (P=0.003) and 2.60 (P=0.003), respectively, comparing lowest to highest Df quartiles] than those with no hypertension; this relationship was not seen comparing persons with controlled treated hypertension with no hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, P=0.972).
    CONCLUSION: Hypertension was associated with a sparser retinal vascular network, which was similar across different racial/ethnic groups and most apparent in those with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension. These data suggest that microvascular remodelling can be quantified by measuring retinal vasculature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Retinal Diseases/pathology*
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