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  1. Thanh T, Chi VT, Abdullah MP, Omar H, Napis S
    Mol Biol (Mosk), 2012 Jan-Feb;46(1):64-70.
    PMID: 22642102
    Isolation of promoter sequences from known gene sequences is a tedious task in genome-related research. An efficient method of obtaining the promoter sequences is necessary in order to successfully use targeted promoters for genetic manipulations. Here, efficiency and usefulness of two PCR-based methods, namely: ligation-mediated PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR, for isolation of promoter sequences of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) gene from green microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus (A. convolutus) were evaluated. The results showed that the amplification efficiency of TAIL-PCR was higher than that of the ligation-mediated PCR method, i.e. the amplified promoter fragments of 1.2 and 0.8 kb in length or promoter sequences of 813 and 606 bp (after eliminating the unreadable sequences). The use of TAIL-PCR described here presents a low cost and efficient strategy for the isolation of promoter sequences of known genes, especially in GC-rich regions, and species with little or no available genome information such as A. convolutus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/isolation & purification*; Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/chemistry
  2. Belton GS, van Reine WF, Huisman JM, Draisma SG, D Gurgel CF
    J Phycol, 2014 Feb;50(1):32-54.
    PMID: 26988007 DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12132
    Although recent molecular studies have indicated the presence of a number of distinct species within the Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex, due to the difficulties presented by high levels of phenotypic plasticity and the large number of synonyms, infra-specific taxa, and names of uncertain affinity, taxonomic proposals are yet to be made. In this study, we aimed to resolve the taxonomy of the complex and provide an example of how historical nomenclature can best be integrated into molecular based taxonomies. We accomplished this by first determining the number of genetic species within our globally sampled data set through a combination of phylogenetic and species-delimitation approaches of partial elongation factor TU and RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Guided by these results, comparative morphological examinations were then undertaken to gauge the extent of phenotypic plasticity within each species, as well as any morphological overlap between them. Our results revealed the presence of 11 distinct species within the complex, five of which showed high levels of phenotypic plasticity and partial overlap with other species. On the basis of observations of a large number of specimens, including type specimens/descriptions, and geographic inferences, we were able to confidently designate names for the lineages. Caulerpa peltata, C. imbricata and C. racemosa vars. laetevirens, occidentalis and turbinata were found to represent environmentally induced forms of a single species, for which the earlier-described C. chemnitzia, previously regarded as a synonym of C. racemosa var. turbinata, is reinstated. C. cylindracea, C. lamourouxii, C. macrodisca, C. nummularia and C. oligophylla are also reinstated and two new species, C. macra stat. nov. and C. megadisca sp. nov., are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase
  3. Townsend AJ, Retkute R, Chinnathambi K, Randall JWP, Foulkes J, Carmo-Silva E, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2018 02;176(2):1233-1246.
    PMID: 29217593 DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.01213
    Photosynthetic acclimation (photoacclimation) is the process whereby leaves alter their morphology and/or biochemistry to optimize photosynthetic efficiency and productivity according to long-term changes in the light environment. The three-dimensional architecture of plant canopies imposes complex light dynamics, but the drivers for photoacclimation in such fluctuating environments are poorly understood. A technique for high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction was combined with ray tracing to simulate a daily time course of radiation profiles for architecturally contrasting field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopies. An empirical model of photoacclimation was adapted to predict the optimal distribution of photosynthesis according to the fluctuating light patterns throughout the canopies. While the photoacclimation model output showed good correlation with field-measured gas-exchange data at the top of the canopy, it predicted a lower optimal light-saturated rate of photosynthesis at the base. Leaf Rubisco and protein contents were consistent with the measured optimal light-saturated rate of photosynthesis. We conclude that, although the photosynthetic capacity of leaves is high enough to exploit brief periods of high light within the canopy (particularly toward the base), the frequency and duration of such sunflecks are too small to make acclimation a viable strategy in terms of carbon gain. This suboptimal acclimation renders a large portion of residual photosynthetic capacity unused and reduces photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency at the canopy level, with further implications for photosynthetic productivity. It is argued that (1) this represents an untapped source of photosynthetic potential and (2) canopy nitrogen could be lowered with no detriment to carbon gain or grain protein content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism
  4. Thanh T, Chi VT, Abdullah MP, Omar H, Noroozi M, Napis S
    Mol Biol Rep, 2011 Nov;38(8):5297-305.
    PMID: 21287365 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-0679-4
    An initial study on gene cloning and characterization of unicellular green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus was carried out to isolate and characterize the full-length cDNA of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) as a first step towards elucidating the structure of A. convolutus RbcS gene. The full-length of A. convolutus RbcS cDNA (AcRbcS) contained 28 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 225 bp of 3' non-coding region, and an open reading frame of 165 amino acids consisting of a chloroplast transit peptide with 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 141 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has high identity to those of other green algae RbcS genes. The AcRbcS contained a few conserved domains including protein kinase C phosphorylation site, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and N-myristoylation sites. The AcRbcS was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and a ~21 kDa of anticipated protein band was observed on SDS-PAGE. From the phylogenetic analysis of RbcS protein sequences, it was found that the RbcS of A. convolutus has closer genetic relationship with green microalgae species compared to those of green seaweed and green macroalgae species. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the AcRbcS is a member of a small multigene family comprising of two to six members in A. convolutus genome. Under different illumination conditions, RT-PCR analysis showed that AcRbcS transcription was reduced in the dark, and drastically recovered in the light condition. Results presented in this paper established a good foundation for further study on the photosynthetic process of A. convolutus and other green algae species where little information is known on Rubisco small subunit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/genetics*; Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism; Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/chemistry
  5. Yee Hung Yeap, Teng Wei Koay, Boon Hoe Lim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2269-2289.
    Engineering the CO2
    -fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to improve photosynthesis
    has long been sought. Rubisco large subunits (RbcL) are highly-conserved but because of certain undefined sequence
    differences, plant Rubisco research cannot fully utilise the robust heterologous Escherichia coli expression system and its
    GroEL folding machinery. Previously, a series of chimeric cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus Rubisco, incorporated
    with sequences from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were expressed in E. coli; differences in RbcL sections
    essential for holoenzyme formation were pinpointed. In this study, the remaining sections, presumably not crucial for
    holoenzyme formation and also the small subunit (RbcS), are substituted to further ascertain the possible destabilising
    effects of multiple section mutations. To that end, combinations of Synechococcus RbcL Sections 1 (residues 1-47), 2
    (residues 48-97), 5 (residues 198-247) and 10 (residues 448-472), and RbcS, were swapped with collinear Chlamydomonas
    sections and expressed in E. coli. Interestingly, only the chimera with Sections 1 and 2 together produces holoenzyme and
    an interaction network of complementing amino acid changes is delineated by crystal structure analysis. Furthermore,
    sequence-based analysis also highlighted possible GroEL binding site differences between the two RbcLs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase
  6. Fadzil NF, Wagiran A, Mohd Salleh F, Abdullah S, Mohd Izham NH
    Genes (Basel), 2018 Aug 12;9(8).
    PMID: 30103564 DOI: 10.3390/genes9080408
    The present study demonstrated High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis combined with DNA barcode (Bar-HRM) as a fast and highly sensitive technique for detecting adulterants in Eurycoma longifolia commercial herbal products. Targeting the DNA barcoding of the chloroplastic region-ribulose biphosphate carboxylase large chain (rbcL) and the nuclear ribosomal region- internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), PCR amplification and HRM analysis using saturated Eva green dye as the source of fluorescence signals, was accomplished by employing a real-time cycler. The results were further validated by sequencing to identify unknown sequence from Genbank database and to generate phylogenetic tree using neighbour joint (NJ) analysis. Both of the DNA markers exhibited a distinguishable melting temperature and shape of the normalised curve between the reference and the adulterants. In the case of species identification, ITS2 was more successful in differentiating between species. Additionally, detection of admixture sample containing small traces of targeted E. longifolia DNA (w/v) can be detected as low as 5% for rbcL and less than 1% for ITS2, proving the sensitivity and versatility of the HRM analysis. In conclusion, the Bar-HRM analysis is a fast and reliable technique that can effectively detect adulterants in herbal products. Therefore, this will be beneficial for regulatory agencies in order to regulate food safety issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase
  7. Thanh T, Chi VT, Omar H, Abdullah MP, Napis S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2676-91.
    PMID: 22489117 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032676
    The availability of highly active homologous promoters is critical in the development of a transformation system and improvement of the transformation efficiency. To facilitate transformation of green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus which is considered as a potential candidate for many biotechnological applications, a highly-expressed native promoter sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (AcRbcS) has been used to drive the expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene in this microalga. Besides the determination of the transcription start site by 5'-RACE, sequence analysis revealed that AcRbcS promoter contained consensus TATA-box and several putative cis-acting elements, including some representative light-regulatory elements (e.g., G-box, Sp1 motif and SORLIP2), which confer light responsiveness in plants, and several potential conserved motifs (e.g., CAGAC-motif, YCCYTGG-motifs and CACCACA-motif), which may be involved in light responsiveness of RbcS gene in green microalgae. Using AcRbcS promoter::gusA translational fusion, it was demonstrated that this promoter could function as a light-regulated promoter in transgenic A. convolutus, which suggested that the isolated AcRbcS promoter was a full and active promoter sequence that contained all cis-elements required for developmental and light-mediated control of gene expression, and this promoter can be used to drive the expression of heterologous genes in A. convolutus. This achievement therefore advances the development of A. convolutus as an alternative expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. This is the first report on development of gene manipulation system for unicellular green alga A. convolutus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/genetics*
  8. Rasineni GK, Loh PC, Lim BH
    Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj, 2017 Feb;1861(2):79-85.
    PMID: 27816753 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.10.027
    BACKGROUND: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the chloroplast enzyme that fixes CO2 in photosynthesis, but the enzyme also fixes O2, which leads to the wasteful photorespiratory pathway. If we better understand the structure-function relationship of the enzyme, we might be able to engineer improvements. When the crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco was solved, four new posttranslational modifications were observed which are not present in other species. The modifications were 4-hydroxylation of the conserved Pro-104 and 151 residues, and S-methylation of the variable Cys-256 and 369 residues, which are Phe-256 and Val-369 in land plants. Because the modifications were only observed in Chlamydomonas Rubisco, they might account for the differences in kinetic properties between the algal and plant enzymes.

    METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis and chloroplast transformation have been used to test the essentiality of these modifications by replacing each of the residues with alanine (Ala). Biochemical analyses were done to determine the specificity factors and kinetic constants.

    RESULTS: Replacing the modified-residues in Chlamydomonas Rubisco affected the enzyme's catalytic activity. Substituting hydroxy-Pro-104 and methyl-Cys-256 with alanine influenced Rubisco catalysis.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study on these posttranslationally-modified residues in Rubisco by genetic engineering. As these forms of modifications/regulation are not available in plants, the modified residues could be a means to modulate Rubisco activity.

    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: With a better understanding of Rubisco structure-function, we can define targets for improving the enzyme.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/genetics
  9. Kok AD, Wan Abdullah WMAN, Tang CN, Low LY, Yuswan MH, Ong-Abdullah J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 06 24;11(1):13226.
    PMID: 34168171 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-92401-x
    Lignosulfonate (LS) is a by-product obtained during sulfite pulping process and is commonly used as a growth enhancer in plant growth. However, the underlying growth promoting mechanism of LS on shoot growth remains largely unknown. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the potential application of eco-friendly ion-chelated LS complex [sodium LS (NaLS) and calcium LS (CaLS)] to enhance recalcitrant indica rice MR 219 shoot growth and to elucidate its underlying growth promoting mechanisms. In this study, the shoot apex of MR 219 rice was grown on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different ion chelated LS complex (NaLS and CaLS) at 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L The NaLS was shown to be a better shoot growth enhancer as compared to CaLS, with optimum concentration of 300 mg/L. Subsequent comparative proteomic analysis revealed an increase of photosynthesis-related proteins [photosystem II (PSII) CP43 reaction center protein, photosystem I (PSI) iron-sulfur center, PSII CP47 reaction center protein, PSII protein D1], ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 3, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase) and stress regulator proteins (peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A4, delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase 1) abundance in NaLS-treated rice as compared to the control (MSO). Consistent with proteins detected, a significant increase in biochemical analyses involved in photosynthetic activities, carbohydrate metabolism and protein biosynthesis such as total chlorophyll, rubisco activity, total sugar and total protein contents were observed in NaLS-treated rice. This implies that NaLS plays a role in empowering photosynthesis activities that led to plant growth enhancement. In addition, the increased in abundance of stress regulator proteins were consistent with low levels of peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity observed in NaLS-treated rice. These results suggest that NaLS plays a role in modulating cellular homeostasis to provide a conducive cellular environment for plant growth. Taken together, NaLS improved shoot growth of recalcitrant MR 219 rice by upregulation of photosynthetic activities and reduction of ROS accumulation leading to better plant growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism
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